Solar Energy Conversion and Photoenergy Systems: Thermal Systems and Desalination Plants theme in five volumes is a component of Encyclopedia of Energy Sciences, Engineering and Technology Resources in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias. The Theme on Solar Energy Conversion and Photoenergy Systems: Thermal Systems and Desalination Plants with contributions from distinguished experts in the field, discusses solar energy, renewable energy, thermal systems, and desalination systems, some of which are already in commercial and practical applications and others are under research and testing level. The volumes provide an analysis and discussion about the reasons behind the current efforts of our society, considering both developed and developing countries, to accelerate the exploitation of the huge solar energy potential in our normal daily lives. The five volumes also provide some basic information about the solar energy potential, history and the amazing trip of a photon from its creation in the Sun until its arrival to the Earth. These five volumes are aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College Students Educators, Professional Practitioners, Research Personnel and Policy Analysts, Managers, and Decision Makers, NGOs and GOs.