Neodymium Based Ziegler Catalysts Fundamental Chemistry

Neodymium Based Ziegler Catalysts   Fundamental Chemistry

1 Introduction 1.1 Ziegler/Natta Catalysts in Diene Polymerization The discovery
of coordinative polymerization [1] is one of the best examples in science which
demonstrates that fundamental research can result in a new and highly
successful ...

Author: Oskar Nuyken

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540348092

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 287

View: 623

Even though Ziegler catalysts have been known for almost half a century, rare earth metals (Ln), particularly neodymium (Nd)-based Ziegler catalyst systems, only came into the focus of industrial and academic research well afterthelargescaleapplicationoftitanium, cobaltandnickelcatalystsystems. Asadirectconsequenceofthelaterecognitionofthetechnologicalpotentialof rareearthmetalZieglercatalysts, thesesystemshaveattractedmuchattention. Considerable progress has been made in this ?eld as a result of intensive workperformed during the last fewyears. Worthmentioning is thestructural identi?cation of a variety of Ln/Al heterobimetallic complexes and the role of alkyl aluminum cocatalysts in molar mass control. Furthermore, a deeper understanding ofthe polymerization mechanism, suchas theliving character of neodymium-catalyzed diene polymerization associated with the reversible transfer of living polymer chains between Nd and Al, was revealed quite - cently. In spite of the vast number of patents and publications mainly issued duringthelastdecade, acomprehensivereviewthatcoversthescienti?caswell as the patent literature has been missing until now. In this volume we try to review the available literature by two independent approaches to Nd and Ln-catalyzed diene polymerizations. In the ?rst part of thevolume, whichisentitled"Neodymium-Based Ziegler/NattaCatalystsand their Application in Diene Polymerization," a polymer chemist's view is given with strong emphasis on Nd-based catalyst systems. Also technological and industrialaspectsofNd-catalyzeddienepolymerizationsareaddressed.Inthe secondpartofthevolume, whichisentitled"Rare-EarthMetalsandAluminum Getting Close in Ziegler-type Organometallics," a more organometallic p- spective isgivenandLn-based catalystsystems areaddressed. Bythesynopsis of these different perspectives, the reader will comprehend the complexity of Ln-based Ziegler catalyst systems and their application to the polymerization of dienes. This volume also gives a description ofthe evolution in Nd-catalyzed po- merization of dienes from the early works to the current state of the art.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Ziegler Catalysts

Ziegler Catalysts

Ziegler–Natta. and. Metallocene. Catalysts: a. Comparison. K. D. Hungenberg",. J
. Kerth,. F. Langhauser,. B. Marczinke,. R. Schlund. BASF AG, Plastics Laboratory
, D-67056 Ludwigshafen During the four decades since the early discovery of ...

Author: Gerhard Fink

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642791369

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 511

View: 459

Forty years after Ziegler's discovery of the "Aufbaureaktion" and low-pressure ethene polymerization, transition metal catalyzed olefin and diolefin polymerization continues to represent one of the most active and exciting areas. Since the 1980s, outstanding scientific innovations and process improvements have revolutionized polyolefin technology and greatly simplified polymerization processes. Well-defined catalyst systems are now at hand and facilitate the understanding of basic reaction mechanisms and correlations between catalyst structures, polymer microstructures, and polymer properties. This book reviews some of the modern approaches in organometallic chemistry, Ziegler-Natta catalysis, polymerization processes, design of novel materials, and the modelling in catalyst and process development.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Ziegler Natta Catalysts Polymerizations

Ziegler Natta Catalysts Polymerizations

The notation “Ziegler–Natta catalyst” has been adopted in this book. The reader
may have noted that the literature contains a variety of other designations for this
catalyst, including Ziegler catalyst, Ziegler-type catalyst, Natta catalyst, ...

Author: John Jr. Boor

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780323143417

Category: Science

Page: 688

View: 151

Ziegler-Natta Catalysts and Polymerizations reviews the general aspects of Ziegler-Natta catalysts and polymerizations of olefins, dienes, and many other types of monomers. Topics covered include the physical state of the polymer during polymerization; modification of Ziegler-Natta catalysts by third components; and termination of polymer chain growth. The oxidation state of catalysts and active centers is also discussed, along with copolymerizations and block polymerizations. This book is comprised of 23 chapters and begins with an overview of Ziegler-Natta catalysts and polymerizations, their historical origins, scientific and commercial importance, and major advances in polymer science. The next chapter focuses on definitions and stereochemistry of Ziegler-Natta catalysts, together with analytical methods used to identify and quantitatively measure their structures. Some of the polymers produced commercially with Ziegler-Natta catalysts are considered. The discussion then turns to mechanisms for initiating and propagating olefins; mechanisms for stereochemical control of conjugated and nonconjugated dienes; and the basic kinetic parameters that characterize Ziegler-Natta polymerizations. This monograph is written especially for chemistry and engineering graduate students and for industrial chemists, engineers, and managers who may become involved in a Ziegler-Natta problem.
Categories: Science

Polyolefins 50 years after Ziegler and Natta I

Polyolefins  50 years after Ziegler and Natta I

Due to the complexity of the solid Ziegler–Natta catalysts, homogeneous systems
based on bis(cyclopentadienyl) group IV compounds, in particular on
hydrocarbonsoluble titanocene complexes, gained increasing interest in the
hope for more ...

Author: Walter Kaminsky

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783642408083

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 257

View: 779

Advances in Polymer Science enjoys a longstanding tradition and good reputation in its community. Each volume is dedicated to a current topic, and each review critically surveys one aspect of that topic, to place it within the context of the volume. The volumes typically summarize the significant developments of the last 5 to 10 years and discuss them critically, presenting selected examples, explaining and illustrating the important principles, and bringing together many important references of primary literature. On that basis, future research directions in the area can be discussed. Advances in Polymer Science volumes thus are important references for every polymer scientist, as well as for other scientists interested in polymer science - as an introduction to a neighboring field, or as a compilation of detailed information for the specialist.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Alkene Polymerization Reactions with Transition Metal Catalysts

Alkene Polymerization Reactions with Transition Metal Catalysts

Kinetics of Ziegler–Natta Polymerization. Kodansha: Tokyo, 1972. [3] Chien,
J.C.W., ed. Coordination Polymerization. A Memorial to Karl Ziegler. Academic
Press: New York, 1975. [4] Boor, J., Ziegler-Natta Catalysts and Polymerizations.

Author: Yury Kissin

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080557996

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 495

View: 177

During the past 30 years, the field of alkene polymerization over transition metal catalysts underwent several major changes: 1. The list of commercial heterogeneous Ziegler-Natta catalysts for the synthesis of polyethylene and stereoregular polyolefins was completely renewed affording an unprecedented degree of control over the polymer structure. 2. Research devoted to metallocene and other soluble transition-metal catalysis has vastly expanded and has shifted toward complexes of transition metals with multidentate ligands. 3. Recent developments in gel permeation chromatography, temperature-rising fractionation, and crystallization fractionation provided the first reliable information about differences between various active centers in transition-metal catalysts. 4. A rapid development of high-resolution 13C NMR spectroscopy resulted in greatly expanded understanding of the chemical and steric features of polyolefins and alkene copolymers. These developments require a new review of all aspects of alkene polymerization reactions with transition-metal catalysts. The first chapter in the book is an introductory text for researchers who are entering the field. It describes the basic principles of polymerization reactions with transition-metal catalysts, the types of catalysts, and commercially manufactured polyolefins. The next chapter addresses the principal issue of alkene polymerization catalysis: the existence of catalyst systems with single and multiple types of active centers. The subsequent chapters are devoted to chemistry and stereochemistry of elemental reaction steps, structures of catalyst precursors and reactions leading to the formation of active centers, kinetics of polymerization reactions, and their mechanisms. The book describes the latest commercial polymerization catalysts for the synthesis of polyethylenes and polypropylene The book provides a detailed description of the multi-center nature of commercial Ziegler-Natta catalysts. The book devotes specialized chapters to the most important aspects of transition metal polymerization catalysts: the reactions leading to the formation of active centers, the chemistry and stereochemistry of elemental polymerization steps, reaction kinetics, and the polymerization mechanism. The book contains an introductory chapter for researchers who are entering the field of polymerization catalysis. It describes the basic principles of polymerization reactions with transition-metal catalysts and the types of commercially manufactured polyolefins and copolymers The book contains over 2000 references, the most recent up to end of 2006.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Handbook of Transition Metal Polymerization Catalysts

Handbook of Transition Metal Polymerization Catalysts

With this so-called Ziegler–Natta catalyst, linear polyethylene (PE) was produced
at low pressure (<2MPa) and low temperature (60–110°C), compared with the
already existing process of free-radical ethylene polymerization at high pressure
 ...

Author: Ray Hoff

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470504420

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 640

View: 481

A one-stop resource for understanding and applying polymerization catalysts An edited volume featuring contributions from leading researchers, the Handbook of Transition Metal Polymerization Catalysts covers the design and synthesis of catalysts, and their applications in synthesis of polymers. Dealing with those polymerization catalysts that afford commercially acceptable yields of polymer with respect to catalyst mass and promising newer catalysts, this practical reference provides polymer and organic chemists with a comprehensive overview of the known methods for developing and applying these important catalysts. With both recent advances and historically important catalysts, the subjects covered in this text include: Metal alkyls and other compounds that function as co-catalysts with a large number of catalysts The varieties of porous silica either necessary or valuable in certain catalyst formulations Catalyst scale-up and commercialization Copper catalysts for olefin polymerization Morphology control Along with the above topics, the Handbook of Transition Metal Polymerization Catalysts provides tables of valuable data to assist in reproducing a synthesis or applying the knowledge to a new problem. Polymerization reactivities, polymer properties, monomer and solvent purity requirements, molecular weights, distribution, and reactivity ratios are also covered. The Handbook of Transition Metal Polymerization Catalysts offers an excellent one-stop resource for understanding and applying polymerization catalysts.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Gas Phase Olefin Copolymerization with Ziegler Natta Catalysts

Gas Phase Olefin Copolymerization with Ziegler Natta Catalysts

R . Galvan , Ph . D . Thesis , Modeling of Heterogeneous Ziegler - Natta ( Co )
polymerization of alpha - Olefins , Univ . of Minnesota ( 1986 ) . 18 . Y . V . Kissin ,
Isospecific Polymerization of Olefins with Heterogeneous Ziegler - Natta
Catalysts ...

Author: Christopher Ming-Poh Chen

Publisher:

ISBN: WISC:89092597368

Category:

Page: 654

View: 523

Categories:

Advances in Organometallic Chemistry

Advances in Organometallic Chemistry

When Ziegler catalysis was first discovered, it was fascinating to see ethylene, a
monomer normally difficult to activate, being ... In technical processes it is
necessary to deactivate the catalyst after polymerization, remove the diluent, and
then ...

Author:

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 008058019X

Category: Science

Page: 353

View: 306

Advances in Organometallic Chemistry
Categories: Science

Tailor Made Polymers

Tailor Made Polymers

2.1 Ziegler–Natta Catalysts in Polyolefin Synthesis John C. Chadwick, Thomas
Garoff, andJohn R. Severn 2.1.1 Introduction The continual evolution of the
ubiquitous Ziegler catalysts, in either the Ziegler polyethylene (PE) or Ziegler-
Natta ...

Author: John R. Severn

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9783527621675

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 374

View: 656

This first comprehensive handbook on this exciting field provides readers with a clear understanding of the current state of the art, ingenious solutions and opportunities. Researchers from academia and industry present such emerging topics as multi-component systems and computational chemistry, as well as the latest developments in competing and complementary technologies. The result is a well-balanced and up-to-date overview.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysis

Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysis

Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Relations Between
Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysis, ... Germany ABSTRACT -
Zirconocene or titanocene compounds and methylaluminocane as soluble
Ziegler catalysts not ...

Author:

Publisher: VSP

ISBN: 9067640735

Category: Science

Page: 1

View: 931

This Proceedings contains plenary lectures and selected poster communications spanning the entire field of catalysis --- from catalysis by protons to catalysis by multinuclear clusters and ultra-disperse particles. It includes discussion of the recent results of fundamental research conducted at the juncture between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. New ideas, based on modern physical and quantum-chemical methods, and concerning the mechanism of formation and functioning of active sites of catalysts are suggested. It is shown how the cyclic change of atomic distribution in the active site occurs during catalytic transformations. In addition, the Proceedings report new data on methods of ''assembling'' molecularly organized catalytic systems and on the mechanisms of their action. The various problems such as the effect of strong metal--support interaction, migration of atoms in active sites, and design of catalytic properties of substances are also widely discussed. Similarities and differences in mechanisms of action of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts are considered, using as examples CO hydrogenation, hydrogenolysis of saturated hydrocarbons, selective hydrogenation and oxidation of olefins, metathesis and polymerization of olefins, hydrosilylation and hydroformylation of olefins, etc.
Categories: Science

Polyolefins 50 years after Ziegler and Natta II

Polyolefins  50 years after Ziegler and Natta II

Polyolefins by Metallocenes and Other Single-Site Catalysts Walter Kaminsky.
Preface. Fifty years after the Nobel Prize was awarded to Karl Ziegler and Giulio
Natta in 1963, the polymerization of olefins by metallorganic catalysts has grown
to ...

Author: Walter Kaminsky

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783642408052

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 366

View: 620

Advances in Polymer Science enjoys a longstanding tradition and good reputation in its community. Each volume is dedicated to a current topic, and each review critically surveys one aspect of that topic, to place it within the context of the volume. The volumes typically summarize the significant developments of the last 5 to 10 years and discuss them critically, presenting selected examples, explaining and illustrating the important principles, and bringing together many important references of primary literature. On that basis, future research directions in the area can be discussed. Advances in Polymer Science volumes thus are important references for every polymer scientist, as well as for other scientists interested in polymer science - as an introduction to a neighboring field, or as a compilation of detailed information for the specialist.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Non radical Polymerisation

Non radical Polymerisation

Kinetics of Polymerization Initiated by Ziegler—Natta and Related Catalysts W.
COOPER 1. Introduction The origins of the discovery that ethylene was
polymerized by catalysts containing transition metals go back to the early 1940s [
1], and in ...

Author: C. H. Bamford

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780444412522

Category: Science

Page: 674

View: 222

Teil 3
Categories: Science

Basic Principles in Applied Catalysis

Basic Principles in Applied Catalysis

Catalysts based on titanium or zirconium halogenides or hydrides in connection
with aluminium organic compounds (Ziegler catalysts). 2. Catalysts based on
chromium supported by silica or alumina without a coactivator (Phillips catalysts).
3.

Author: Manfred Baerns

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540402616

Category: Science

Page: 557

View: 901

Written by a team of internationally recognized experts, this book addresses the most important types of catalytic reactions and catalysts as used in industrial practice. Both applied aspects and the essential scientific principles are described. The main topics can be summarized as follows: heterogeneous, homogeneous and biocatalysis, catalyst preparation and characterization, catalytic reaction engineering and kinetics, catalyst deactivation and industrial perspective.
Categories: Science

Applied Homogeneous Catalysis

Applied Homogeneous Catalysis

The Purposeful Assembly of Macromolecules Applied Homogeneous Catalysis,
First Edition. Arno Behr ... 24.1 Polyethylene and Ziegler Catalysts In 1933, the
research group at Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI), in Great Britain, developed
a ...

Author: Arno Behr

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9783527326419

Category: Science

Page: 688

View: 807

Adopting a didactic approach at an advanced, masters level, this concise textbook provides an array of questions & answers and features numerous industrial case studies and examples, with references for further, more detailed reading and to the latest peer-reviewed articles at the end of each chapter. A significant feature is the book’s treatment of more recently developed catalytic processes and their applications in the pharmaceutical and fi ne chemical industries, with an indication of their present and future commercial impact. Written by a dedicated lecturer with a wealth of experience in industry, this is an invaluable tool for practicing chemical engineers and chemists who need to advance their education in this vibrant and expanding field.
Categories: Science

Homogeneous Catalysts

Homogeneous Catalysts

Ziegler–Natta. Catalysts. 2.1.1. Introduction. In order to put the state of the art
regarding the activation and deactivation of homogeneous catalysts for olefin
polymerization into perspective, it is instructive to first consider Ziegler–Natta
catalysts, ...

Author: John C. Chadwick

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9783527636006

Category: Science

Page: 418

View: 266

This first book to illuminate this important aspect of chemical synthesis improves the lifetime of catalysts, thus reducing material and saving energy, costs and waste. The international panel of expert authors describes the studies that have been conducted concerning the way homogeneous catalysts decompose, and the differences between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. The result is a ready reference for organic, catalytic, polymer and complex chemists, as well as those working in industry and with/on organometallics.
Categories: Science

Oraganic Name Reactions Reagents and Molecular Rearrangements

Oraganic Name Reactions Reagents and Molecular Rearrangements

Ziegler - Natta Catalysts The term ' Ziegler ' s catalysts ' is used for a combination
of organometallics which consist of a complex of triethyl aluminium ÉtzAl and a
transition metal chloride , TiCly . when these are made to mix in a hydrocarbon ...

Author:

Publisher: Krishna Prakashan Media

ISBN: 8187224258

Category:

Page:

View: 291

Categories:

Transition Metal Catalyzed Polymerizations

Transition Metal Catalyzed Polymerizations

A DYNAMICAL MODEL FOR ESTIMATION OF MOLECULAR WEIGHT OF
POLYMERS PRODUCED ON ZIEGLER - NATTA CATALYSTS P . Courtine
Département de Génie Chimique , Université de Technologie de Compiègne B .
P . 233 ...

Author: Roderic P. Quirk

Publisher: CUP Archive

ISBN: 0521332893

Category: Science

Page: 868

View: 482

This volume contains the proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Transition Metal Catalyzed Polymerizations held in 1986. The papers provide a broad-based perspective covering recent scientific and technological advances in Ziegler-Natta and metathesis polymerization, including olefin, diene, and acetylene polymerization, and copolymerization. The emphasis on reaction kinetics of polymerizations in different reagent and catalyst environments makes this volume of interest to both academic and industrial researchers.
Categories: Science

Coordination polymerization

Coordination polymerization

Homogeneous Complex Catalysts of Olefin Polymerization F.S. DYACHKOVSKII
Institute of Chemical Physics USSR Academy of Sciences After Ziegler's
discovery of transition metal polymerization catalysts, a great number of
analogous ...

Author: James C.W. Chien

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780323153928

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 366

View: 117

Coordination Polymerization contains the proceedings of a symposium sponsored by the American Chemical Society and held at the University of California-Los Angeles on April 3, 1974. The papers explore developments in coordination polymerization and cover topics ranging from stereoselection and stereoelection in α-olefin polymerization to heterogeneous Ziegler-Natta polymerization; transition metal alkyl polymerization catalysts; chain transfer in Ziegler-type polymerization of ethylene; and stereospecific polymerization of diolefins by h3-allylic coordination complexes. This book is comprised of 13 chapters and begins with a discussion on Karl Ziegler's major contributions to the chemistry of free radicals, organo-alkali metal compounds, many-membered rings, and organotransition metallic compounds. The next two chapters focus on the origin of steric control in the polymerization of α-olefins, with emphasis on steroselection and stereoelection as well as the influence of the chirality of the transition metal on the stereoregularity of the resulting polymer. The problem of counting active sites is then addressed, and results obtained with various methods are compared. The mechanisms of initiation, propagation, termination, and transfers in polymerizations by (π-C5H5)2 TiCl2 catalysts are also considered, along with polymerizations by allyl, benzyl, trimethylsilmethyl, and other derivatives of Ti and Zr. The last three chapters examine the kinetics of Ziegler-Natta polymerization; the Langmuir adsorption mechanism; supported Ziegler-Natta catalysts; factors that affect the stereoregularity of polymerization of propylene by supported catalysts; and polymerizations of diolefins to equibinary polymers by h3-allylic coordination complexes. This monograph will be of interest to chemists as well as polymer scientists and engineers.
Categories: Biography & Autobiography

Chemistry and Technology of Lubricants

Chemistry and Technology of Lubricants

2.2.2 Ziegler catalysed oligomerisation Ziegler catalysts studied for the
oligomerisation of X-olefins have tended to be based on modified first generation
catalysts, i.e. triethylaluminium/titanium tetrachloride. The ratio of aluminium to
titanium ...

Author: R. M. Mortier

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781461532729

Category: Science

Page: 302

View: 592

The use oflubricants began in ancient times and has developed into a major international business through the need to lubricate machines of increasing complexity. The impetus for lubricant development has arisen from need, so lubricatingpractice has preceded an understanding ofthe scientific principles. This is not surprising as the scientific basis of the technology is, by nature, highly complex and interdisciplinary. However, we believe that the under standing of lubricant phenomena will continue to be developed at a mol ecular level to meet future challenges. These challenges will include the control of emissions from internal combustion engines, the reduction of friction and wear in machinery, and continuing improvements to lubricant performanceand life-time. More recently, there has been an increased understanding of the chemical aspects of lubrication, which has complemented the knowledge and under standing gained through studies dealing with physics and engineering. This book aims to bring together this chemical information and present it in a practical way. It is written by chemists who are authorities in the various specialisations within the lubricating industry, and is intended to be of interest to chemists who may already be working in the lubricating industry or in academia, and who are seeking a chemist's view of lubrication. It will also be of benefit to engineers and technologists familiar with the industry who require a more fundamental understanding oflubricants.
Categories: Science

Alkenes Advances in Research and Application 2013 Edition

Alkenes   Advances in Research and Application  2013 Edition

systems for polymerization and co-polymerization of olefins known as Ziegler-
Natta systems consist on the one hand, as catalyst, of compounds of ... A
characteristic of all Ziegler-Natta catalysts is that they all yield straight chain
polymers.

Author:

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 9781481672450

Category: Science

Page: 634

View: 786

Alkenes—Advances in Research and Application: 2013 Edition is a ScholarlyBrief™ that delivers timely, authoritative, comprehensive, and specialized information about ZZZAdditional Research in a concise format. The editors have built Alkenes—Advances in Research and Application: 2013 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about ZZZAdditional Research in this book to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Alkenes—Advances in Research and Application: 2013 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.
Categories: Science