Wind Climate in Cities

Wind Climate in Cities

The knowledge of the wind climate in urban areas is the basis for the application. If design or management decisions involving urban climates are to be made, they should be founded on a good understanding of the flow processes and the ...

Author: Jack E. Cermak

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401736862

Category: Science

Page: 772

View: 133

If one surveys the development of wind engineering, one comes to the conclusion that the challenge of urban climatology is one of the most important remaining tasks for the wind engineers. But what distinguishes wind engineering in urban areas from conventional wind engineering? Principally, the fact that the effects studied are usually unique to a particular situation, requiring consideration of the surroundings of the buildings. In the past, modelling criteria have been developed that make it possible to solve environmental problems with great confidence, and studies validated the models: at least in a neutrally stratified atmosphere. The approach adopted in the book is that of applied fluid mechanics, since this forms the basis for the evaluation of the urban wind field. Variables for air quality or loads are problem specific, or even random, and methods for studying them are based on risk analysis, which is also presented. Criteria are developed for a systematic approach to urban wind engineering problems, including parameter studies. The five sections of the book are: Fundamentals of urban boundary layer and dispersion; Forces on complex structures in built-up areas; Air pollution in cities; Numerical solution techniques; and Posters. A subject index is included.
Categories: Science

Climate Change and Cities

Climate Change and Cities

Second Assessment Report of the Urban Climate Change Research Network Cynthia Rosenzweig, William D. Solecki, ... Cities can also experience faster or slower wind speeds compared to their adjacent suburbs and countryside.

Author: Cynthia Rosenzweig

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781316944561

Category: Science

Page:

View: 743

The Urban Climate Change Research Network's Second Assessment Report on Climate Change in Cities (ARC3.2) is the second in a series of global, science-based reports to examine climate risk, adaptation, and mitigation efforts in cities. The book explicitly seeks to explore the implications of changing climatic conditions on critical urban physical and social infrastructure sectors and intersectoral concerns. The primary purpose of ARC3.2 is to inform the development and implementation of effective urban climate change policies, leveraging ongoing and planned investments for populations in cities of developing, emerging, and developed countries. This volume, like its predecessor, will be invaluable for a range of audiences involved with climate change and cities: mayors, city officials and policymakers; urban planners; policymakers charged with developing climate change mitigation and adaptation programs; and a broad spectrum of researchers and advanced students in the environmental sciences.
Categories: Science

Wind Energy Meteorology

Wind Energy Meteorology

(Eds.) Wind Climate in Cities. Kluwer, Dordrecht. 41–66 pp. (1995). Atkinson B.W.: Numerical modelling of urban heat-island intensity. Bound.-Lay. Meteorol. 109, 285–310 (2003). Baas P., Bosveld F.C., Klein Baltink H., Holtslag A.A.M.: ...

Author: Stefan Emeis

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319728599

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 255

View: 519

This book offers an introduction to the meteorological boundary conditions for power generation from wind – both onshore and offshore, and provides meteorological information for the planning and running of this important renewable energy source. It includes the derivation of wind laws and wind-profile descriptions, especially those above the logarithmic surface layer, and discusses winds over complex terrains and nocturnal low-level jets. This updated and expanded second edition features new chapters devoted to the efficiency of large wind parks and their wakes and to offshore wind energy.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Urban Climate Science for Planning Healthy Cities

Urban Climate Science for Planning Healthy Cities

The heat island countermeasure map outlines heat island countermeasure policies on a map based on the current state of heat islands such as urban wind flow and temperature distribution, ground cover, artificial exhaust heat and urban ...

Author: Chao Ren

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030875985

Category:

Page:

View: 500

Categories:

Ventilating Cities

Ventilating Cities

This book discusses how to evaluate the urban wind environment, including ventilation performance and thermal comfort.

Author: Shinsuke Kato

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400727717

Category: Political Science

Page: 198

View: 370

The majority of the world’s population live in environments with artificially weakened wind as buildings in urban areas form wind-breaks and reduce wind speeds. Anthropogenic heat is also generated and during the summer dense urban areas suffer from the urban heat island effect, a known urban climate problem. This book discusses how to evaluate the urban wind environment, including ventilation performance and thermal comfort. This book is organized in two parts; Wind Environment and the Urban Environment and Criteria for Assessing Breeze Environments. It includes chapters on sea breeze in urban areas; thermal adaptation and the effect of wind on thermal comfort; health risk of exposures; pollutant transport in dense urban areas; legal regulations for urban ventilation and new criteria for assessing the local wind environment. Keywords: urban wind environments, urban heat island, urban climate, land use change, thermal comfort, risk assessment, urban air pollution, urban ventilation
Categories: Political Science

Cooling the Cities

Cooling the Cities

Likewise the way in which heat may be dispersed through re-radiation and air cooling is less effective in cities than in ... Moreover, discomfort and inconvenience to the urban population due to high temperatures, wind tunnel effects in ...

Author: Matheos Santamouris

Publisher: Presses des MINES

ISBN: 9782911762543

Category: Air conditioning

Page: 263

View: 924

The power consumption due to air-conditioning of buildings becomes particularly significant in an urban environment because the temperature of the air of dense urban districts is higher than in the suburbs. This phenomenon, as well as the increase in the standards of living and other factors namely heatwaves, contribute to the growth of the traditionally low demand for artificial air-conditioning in Europe. Case studies make it possible to measure the heat island effect (the accumulation of heat in cities), to characterize the additional electricity consumption of the buildings in an urban environment, and to give an overall picture of the practices, techniques and materials which can help to cool the cities. Priority is given to the practices which avoid the need for artificial air-conditioning by taking into account the environment, the use of vegetation and " cool " materials for the construction of pavements and buildings. For the remaining needs for air-conditioning, the present systems of air-conditioning can also become more energy efficient. Case studies conducted in Seville made it possible to measure the dispersion of the needs for air-conditioning around their average value for the various zones of the city. One of the case studies evaluates the benefit associated with the systematic plantation of trees and other plants in Athens. Another case study relates to Paris and estimates the importance of centralized solutions for air-conditioning in an urban environment. This book results from a study launched by the European Commission and is written by authors from three European countries very concerned by heatwaves and their effects downtown : Greece (Athens), Spain (Seville) and France (Paris). All of them are professors or researchers in very high level laboratories (Group Building Environmental Studies in Athens University, Energy Laboratory in Ecole des Mines de Paris and in Seville University).
Categories: Air conditioning

Ventilating Cities

Ventilating Cities

Build Environ 39:297–305 Tacken M (1989) A comfortable wind climate for outdoor relaxation in urban areas. Build Environ 24(4):321–324 Tanimoto J, Kimura K, Sato T (1996) Experimental study on outdoor rest facilities using passive ...

Author: Shinsuke Kato

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400727700

Category: Political Science

Page: 198

View: 333

The majority of the world’s population live in environments with artificially weakened wind as buildings in urban areas form wind-breaks and reduce wind speeds. Anthropogenic heat is also generated and during the summer dense urban areas suffer from the urban heat island effect, a known urban climate problem. This book discusses how to evaluate the urban wind environment, including ventilation performance and thermal comfort. This book is organized in two parts; Wind Environment and the Urban Environment and Criteria for Assessing Breeze Environments. It includes chapters on sea breeze in urban areas; thermal adaptation and the effect of wind on thermal comfort; health risk of exposures; pollutant transport in dense urban areas; legal regulations for urban ventilation and new criteria for assessing the local wind environment. Keywords: urban wind environments, urban heat island, urban climate, land use change, thermal comfort, risk assessment, urban air pollution, urban ventilation
Categories: Political Science

Extreme Weather and Climate

Extreme Weather and Climate

Annual average wind speeds across the United States. water temperature along the Pacific Coast in summer is nearly ... Windy large cities are Boston (12.5 mi/hr), La Guardia Airport in New York City (12.2 mi/hr), and Oklahoma City (12.3 ...

Author: C. Donald Ahrens

Publisher: Cengage Learning

ISBN: 9781111780241

Category: Nature

Page: 528

View: 850

EXTREME WEATHER & CLIMATE is a unique textbook solution for the fast-growing market of non-majors science courses focused on extreme weather. With strong foundational coverage of the science of meteorology, EXTREME WEATHER & CLIMATE introduces the causes and impacts of extreme weather events and conditions. Students learn the science of meteorology in context of important and often familiar weather events such as Hurricane Katrina and they'll explore how forecast changes in climate may influence frequency and/or intensity of future extreme weather events. An exciting array of photos and illustrations brings the intensity of weather and its sometimes devastating impact to every chapter. Written by a respected and unique author team, this book blends coverage found in Don Ahrens market-leading texts with insights and technology support contributed by co-author Perry Samson. Professor Samson has developed an Extreme Weather course at the University of Michigan that is the fastest-growing science course at the university. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
Categories: Nature

Geography of Climate Change

Geography of Climate Change

The urban climate. New York: Academic. Masson, V. 2000. ... Cities as agents of global ange. International Journal of Climatology 27:1849–57. ... In Wind climate in cities, ed. J. E. Cermak, A. G. Davenport, E. J. Plate, ...

Author: Richard John Aspinall

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781135756758

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 271

Climate change is one of the inescapable themes of current times. Climate change confronts society in issues as diverse as domestic and international political debate and negotiation, discussion in the media and public opinion, land management choices and decisions, and concerns about environmental, social and economic priorities now and for the future. Climate change also spans spatial, temporal and organisational scales, and has strong links with nature-society relationships, environmental dynamics, and vulnerability. Understanding the full range of possible consequences of climate change is essential for informed decision making and debate. This book provides a collection of chapters that span environmental, social and economic aspects of climate change. Together the chapters provide a diverse and contrasting series that highlights the need to analyze, review and debate climate change and its possible impacts and consequences from multiple perspectives. The book also is intended to promote discussion and debate of a more integrated, inclusive and open approach to climate change and demonstrates the value of geography in addressing climate change issues. This book was originally published as a special issue of Annals of the Association of American Geographers.
Categories: Science

The Climate of Cities

The Climate of Cities

Author: James T. Peterson

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015004485440

Category: Urban climatology

Page: 48

View: 819

Categories: Urban climatology