This invaluable work traces the role of the Einsatzgruppen of the Security Police and SD, the core group of Himmler’s murder units involved in the “Final Solution of the Jewish Question,” during and immediately after the German ...
Author: Jürgen Matthäus
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
This invaluable work traces the role of the Einsatzgruppen of the Security Police and SD, the core group of Himmler’s murder units involved in the “Final Solution of the Jewish Question,” during and immediately after the German campaign in Poland in 1939. In addition to relevant Einsatzgruppen reports, the book includes key documents from other sources, especially eyewitness accounts from victims or onlookers. Such accounts provide an alternative, often much more realistic, perspective on the nature and consequences of the actions previously known only through documentation generated by the perpetrators. With carefully selected primary sources contextualized by the authors’ clear narrative, this work fills an important gap in our understanding of a crucial period in the evolution of policies directed against Jews, Poles, and others deemed dangerous or inferior by the Third Reich. Supplemented by maps and photographs, this book will be an essential reference and research tool.
6, 1939), 1679. Doc. 864-PS, IMT, vol. 26, 378–83. Doc. 65 (Sept. 29, 1939), in
Jürgen Matthäus et al., eds., War, Pacification, and Mass Murder, 1939: The
Einsatzgruppen in Poland (Lanham, MD, 2014), 123–24. Entry (Sept. 28, 1939),
Author: Robert Gellately
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
"What paths did true believers take to Nazism? Why did they join what was initially a small, extremist, and often violent movement on the fringes of German politics? When the party began its election campaigning after 1925, why did people vote for it only grudgingly, though in the Great Depression years, make it the largest in the country? Even then, many millions withheld their support, as they would, if covertly, in the Third Reich. Were the recruits simply converted by hearing a spell-binding Hitler speech? Or did they find their own way to National Socialism? How was this all-embracing theory applied in the Third Reich after 1933 and into the catastrophic war years? To what extent did people internalize or consume the doctrine of National Socialism, or reject it? In the first half of the book I examine how ordinary people became Nazis, or at least supported the party and voted for it in elections down to 1933. We need to remember, that Hitler squeaked into power with the help of those in positions of power who wanted to get rid of democracy, "forever." Into the Third Reich I trace how the regime applied its teachings to major domestic and foreign political events, racial persecution, and cultural developments, including in art and architecture, and how people reacted or behaved in that context. This story begins with a focus on Hitler. Like millions of others after Germany's lost war, he was psychologically adrift, searching for answers, and some kind of political salvation. How did he find the tiny fringe group, the German Workers' Party (DAP), that he and a few others transformed in 1920 into the imposing-sounding National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP), or Nazi Party? Insofar as Hitler had fixed ideas at the end of the Great War in 1918, high on the list was nationalism, in spite of the aspersions cast against it by mutinous sailors and rebellious soldiers tired of the fighting. Some aspects of what became his doctrine or ideology, stemmed from the cluster of ideas, resentments, and passions widely shared in Germany at that time. His views and those of his comrades also reflected the fact that Germany was already a nation with a great deal of egalitarianism baked into its political culture. Almost without exception, the Nazis emphasized all kinds of socialist attitudes, to be sure a socialism "cleansed" of international Marxism and communism. Indeed, when he looked back from 1941, Hitler said of the NSDAP in the 1920s, that "ninety percent of it was made up by left-wing people." He also thought it was "decisive" that he had recognized early in his career that solving the social question was essential, and he insisted that he hated the closed world in which he grew up, where social origins determined a person's chances in life"--
Author: Joanna DrzewienieckiPublish On: 2019-11-30
War, Pacification, and Mass Murder, 1939: The Einsatzgruppen in Poland.
Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield. Mazzeo, Tilar J. 2016. Irena's Children: The
Extraordinary Story of the Woman Who Saved 2,500 Children from the Warsaw
Author: Joanna Drzewieniecki
Publisher: Hamilton Books
More than seventy-five years have passed since the Holocaust and the terrors visited by German Nazis on occupied Europe. Yet this history continues to be the subject of research, debate, and controversy. One particularly delicate issue is the question of whether non-Jews did all they could to help Jews during the war. In this book, Jarosław Piekałkiewicz examines this issue in detail as it relates to Poland—the country that experienced the harshest German occupation and was slated for permanent incorporation into the German Reich. He examines all the different factors influencing the capacity and willingness of Poles to save Jews and documents the efforts made to save them despite these impediments. Unlike other books on the subject, Piekałkiewicz chooses to start with a chapter on the thousand-year-long history of Jews in Poland. This allows readers to understand why one-third of the world’s Jews lived in Poland before WWII and to learn about their rich and diverse culture. Equally clear are the dark clouds that gathered before the war in the form of fascism and antisemitism expanding in Poland and elsewhere in Europe. Piekałkiewicz is a political scientist who participated in the Polish Resistance as a teenager along with other members of his family. This combination of academic rigor and personal experience gives readers a more realistic understanding than usually available of resistance under German occupation and amid the Holocaust. He provides a detailed understanding of German occupation of Poland and the operations of the Polish Underground and goes on to describe efforts by Poles from many walks of life to save Jews. The text is interspersed with his vivid personal testimonies of surviving and fighting in occupied Poland. At the same time, the author does not shrink from revealing the dark side of the German occupation: fear, envy, greed, demoralization, and collaboration with the Germans to betray Jews, the Poles who hid them, resistance members, and even personal enemies. This book provides readers with the basic elements to understand Polish-Jewish relations during WWII as well as what is probably the last testimony that will ever be published of a former resistance fighter.
Cf. Jürgen Matthäus, Jochen Böhler, and Klaus-Michael Mallmann, War, Pacification, and Mass Murder, 1939: The Einsatzgruppen in Poland (Lanham,
MD, 2014). Alenfeld, Warum seid, 133–56; Hecht, Als unsichtbare Mauern
Author: Konrad H. Jarausch
Publisher: Princeton University Press
The gripping stories of ordinary Germans who lived through World War II, the Holocaust, and Cold War partition—but also recovery, reunification, and rehabilitation Broken Lives is a gripping account of the twentieth century as seen through the eyes of ordinary Germans who came of age under Hitler and whose lives were scarred and sometimes destroyed by what they saw and did. Drawing on six dozen memoirs by the generation of Germans born in the 1920s, Konrad Jarausch chronicles the unforgettable stories of people who not only lived through the Third Reich, World War II, the Holocaust, and Cold War partition, but also participated in Germany's astonishing postwar recovery, reunification, and rehabilitation. Written decades after the events, these testimonies, many of them unpublished, look back on the mistakes of young people caught up in the Nazi movement. In many, early enthusiasm turns to deep disillusionment as the price of complicity with a brutal dictatorship--fighting at the front, aerial bombardment at home, murder in the concentration camps—becomes clear. Bringing together the voices of men and women, perpetrators and victims, Broken Lives reveals the intimate human details of historical events and offers new insights about persistent questions. Why did so many Germans support Hitler through years of wartime sacrifice and Nazi inhumanity? How did they finally distance themselves from this racist dictatorship and come to embrace human rights? Jarausch argues that this generation's focus on its own suffering, often maligned by historians, ultimately led to a more critical understanding of national identity—one that helped transform Germany from a military aggressor into a pillar of European democracy. The result is a powerful account of the everyday experiences and troubling memories of average Germans who journeyed into, through, and out of the abyss of a dark century.
Matthäus and Böhler, War, Pacification, and Mass Murder, 1939: The
Einsatzgruppen in Poland, p. 6. Martin Winstone, The Dark Heart of Hitler's
Europe: Nazi Rule in Poland under the General Government (London: I. B. Tauris
, 2015), p. 69.
Author: Waitman Wade Beorn
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Waitman Wade Beorn's The Holocaust in Eastern Europe provides a comprehensive history of the Holocaust in the region that was the central location of the event itself while including material often overlooked in general Holocaust history texts. First introducing Jewish life as it was lived before the Nazis in Eastern Europe, the book chronologically surveys the development of Nazi policies in the area over the period from 1939 to 1945. This book provides an overview of both the German imagination and obsession with the East and its impact on the Nazi genocidal project there. It also covers the important period of Soviet occupation and its effects on the unfolding of the Holocaust in Eastern Europe. This text also treats in detail other themes such as ghettoization, the Final Solution, rescue, collaboration, resistance, and many others. Throughout, Beorn includes detailed examples of the similarities and differences of the nature of the Holocaust in various regions, in the words of perpetrators, witnesses, collaborators, and victims/survivors. Beorn also illustrates the complex nature of the Holocaust by discussing the difficult subjects of collaboration, sexual violence, the use of slave labour, treatment of Soviet POWs, profiteering and others within a larger narrative framework. He also explores key topics like Jewish resistance, Jewish councils, memory, and explanations for perpetration, collaboration, and rescue. The book includes images and maps to orient the reader to the topic area. This important book explains the brutality and complexity of the Holocaust in the East for all students of the Holocaust and 20th-century Eastern European history.
I openly admit that the planned pacification programme will cost the lives of
thousands of Poles , especially of those from Poland ' s intellectual elite . ...
Alongside the mass murder of the Polish elite groups , in summer and autumn 1939 Hitler ordered a further programme of ... of its weakest inhabitants ' ; in 1935
he is said to have told the German doctors ' leader , Gerhard Wagner , that in the
case of war ...
Author: Peter Longerich
Publisher: Tempus Pub Limited
The definitive study of Hitler's role in the greatest act of genocide of the twentieth century. The Holocaust differs from other genocides in recent history for one main reason: there is no other example in which a minority was annihilated systematically and as completely as possible on the orders of a head of state and through the apparatus of government. To reconstruct Hitler's central role in the Final Solution represents a particular challenge. Hitler treated the murder of the Jews as a matter of the utmost secrecy and was careful wherever possible not to leave behind any written orders. Wherever his instructions on this matter are recorded he has used codified language. He kept away from the implementation of the orders and feigned ignorance, even to his closest friends and colleagues. Under these conditions, the surviving source material can only be described as fragmentary. The aim of the book is to offer documentary proof of Hitler's central role in the murder of the European Jews. In order to achieve this aim, various documents and fragments of documents have been pieced together and the codified language of the dictator deciphered.
... the decidedly anti-Polish, and not anti-Jewish, animus of the killing program of
the SS in those early months of the war. ... In targeting the leading classes of
Polish society for elimination and in carrying out the task through mass shootings,
SS ... by shooting all Jews regardless of age or sex, its policy of using mass murder to pacify conquered territory was applied in ... Poles in 1939 served as a
kind of dress rehearsal for the initial wave of murder that later engulfed Soviet
Jewry during ...
Author: Alexander B. Rossino
Usually given short shrift in most histories of World War II, Hitler's invasion of Poland was more than a series of opening salvos; it was a testing ground for German brutalities to come. This is a comprehensive study of the campaign, including insights into its ideological underpinnings.
The Czechoslovak President has declared that in order to reach a final pacification , he would place the fate of the Czech people and their country ... The
loot which Herr Hitler obtained from this second murder was considerable . ...
Hitherto the great mass of ordinary , decent - minded folk had believed in the
policy of ...
Soviet collaborators were being executed and that Lithuanian Jews were being
confined to ghettoes , but mass execution ... Those who weren't murdered were
deported or kept under slave conditions . ... They allowed , however , many small
tokens of freedom to remain in order to pacify the Lithuanians while they
Exploring the genocidal events of the period from 1912 to 1938 this title focuses particularly on the Balkans, the Great War and the emergence of the Stalin and Hitler States, and seeks to integrate them into a single, coherent history.
Author: Mark Levene
Publisher: Oxford University Press
From the years leading up to the First World War to the aftermath of the Second, Europe experienced an era of genocide. As well as the Holocaust, this period also witnessed the Armenian genocide in 1915, mass killings in Bolshevik and Stalinist Russia, and a host of further ethnic cleansings in Anatolia, the Balkans, and Eastern Europe. Crisis of Genocide seeks to integrate these genocidal events into a single, coherent history. Volume II:Annihilation covers the period from 1939 to 1953, particularly focussing on the Second World War, and its aftermath, the Holocaust and it's lasting impact, and the latter part of the Stalinist regime.
Author: Rada Ochrony Pomników Walki i Męczeństwa (Poland)Publish On: 1963
There were also pure extermination camps designed only for the immediate murder of new arrivals . ... Camps and mass tombs of Soviel prisoners of war
Grosse Lager und Massengräber sowjetischer Kriegsgelangener Большие
лагеры и массовые ногилы ... их территориального объема ) PACYFIKACJE PACIFICATIONS TERRORISTES TERRORISTIC PACIFICATIONS
Author: Rada Ochrony Pomników Walki i Męczeństwa (Poland)
Album of photographs taken in Warsaw and other parts of Poland.
But the most decisive factor in the Polish attitude to the Soviet - German war and
the partisan warfare was their patriotism and hatred of the German invader . ...
Arrests , executions and deportation assumed mass proportions . Arrests were
made and murders committed daily , in summary as well as in special , well -
planned actions . ... Ukraine was overrun by German and Ukrainian pacification
groups ; entire Polish villages were burnt to the ground , Poles were killed by the
A murderer kills one or two men ; war is a chain murder or a mass murder . ... 358
, 000 , 000 , the number of deaths by murder in a century amounts to millions ( 5
million between 1820 and 1939 ) . ... we speak of riots , insurrections , revolts and
revolutions ; externally , of interventions , punitive expeditions , pacification .
The First World War did not end in Central Europe in November 1918.
Author: Jochen Böhler
Publisher: Greater War
The First World War did not end in Central Europe in November 1918. The armistices marked the creation of the Second Polish Republic and the first shot of the Central European Civil War which raged from 1918 to 1921. The fallen German, Russian, and Austrian Empires left in their wake lands with peoples of mixed nationalities and ethnicities. These lands soon became battle grounds and the ethno-political violence that ensued forced those living within them to decide on their national identity. Civil War in Central Europe seeks to challenge previous notions that such conflicts which occurred between the First and Second World Wars were isolated incidents and argues that they should be considered as part of a European war; a war which transformed Poland into a nation.
Pacification of a village G years , the population in. 22 crimes in this period was
the mass murder of the Jewish population . Among the scores of such executions
, there are records of those particularly cruel , above all the burning of people ...
Of course , there was no need for Hahn to personally take part in the killing of the
thousands of Poles and Jews slain on his orders — the actual butchery was done
by his ... 32 Immediately after the war , the Central Commision for the.
Author: Władysław Bartoszewski
Category: Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945)
Records "the losses suffered by the people of Warsaw ... from the occupation of the capital in October 1939 to the outbreak of the Rising in August 1944." -- p. 9.
In the whole occupation period the Nazis also murdered more than 700 Poles
and Jews of the local population , either as ... day 3 other villages in Kraśnik
District were raided and their inhabitants murdered , as part of the same pacification action : Lążek ... In September 1939 , directly after the capture of the
city , the Nazi authorities carried out several mass executions ... About 30 , 000
bodies of prisoners who died in this camp were found in mass graves discovered
after the war in the ...
Defenceless villages were bombed from the air : this was called “ pacification . ...
People hanging on to the values of 1939 might have questioned the decency of
carrying out mass murder at Hiroshima and Nagasaki . But they could ... Bombing
ceased to be associated with barbarism — it was never declared a war crime .
This volume, from a team of international contributors, shows who these foreign recruits were, where they came from, what their wartime experiences were, and what happened to them after 1945.
Author: Jochen Böhler
Publisher: Oxford University Press
This is the first systematic pan-European study of the hundreds of thousands of non-Germans who fought - either voluntarily or under different kinds of pressures - for the Waffen-SS (or auxiliary police formations operating in the occupied East). Building on the findings of regional studies by other scholars - many of them included in this volume - The Waffen-SS aims to arrive at a fuller picture of those non-German citizens (from Eastern as well as Western Europe) who served under the SS flag. Where did the non-Germans in the SS come from (socially, geographically, and culturally)? What motivated them? What do we know about the practicalities of international collaboration in war and genocide, in terms of everyday life, language, and ideological training? Did a common transnational identity emerge as a result of shared ideological convictions or experiences of extreme violence? In order to address these questions (and others), The Waffen-SS adopts an approach that does justice to the complexity of the subject, adding a more nuanced, empirically sound understanding of collaboration in Europe during World War II, while also seeking to push the methodological boundaries of the historiographical genre of perpetrator studies by adopting a transnational approach.