Where appropriate, I have incorporated lessons regarding the political
foundations of conflicts over sacred sites in order to complement my focus on the
religious foundations of these conflicts. Estimating the importance of a sacred site
Author: Ron E. Hassner
Publisher: Cornell University Press
Category: Political Science
Sacred sites offer believers the possibility of communing with the divine and achieving deeper insight into their faith. Yet their spiritual and cultural importance can lead to competition as religious groups seek to exclude rivals from practicing potentially sacrilegious rituals in the hallowed space and wish to assert their own claims. Holy places thus create the potential for military, theological, or political clashes, not only between competing religious groups but also between religious groups and secular actors. In War on Sacred Grounds, Ron E. Hassner investigates the causes and properties of conflicts over sites that are both venerated and contested; he also proposes potential means for managing these disputes. Hassner illustrates a complex and poorly understood political dilemma with accounts of the failures to reach settlement at Temple Mount/Haram el-Sharif, leading to the clashes of 2000, and the competing claims of Hindus and Muslims at Ayodhya, which resulted in the destruction of the mosque there in 1992. He also addresses more successful compromises in Jerusalem in 1967 and Mecca in 1979. Sacred sites, he contends, are particularly prone to conflict because they provide valuable resources for both religious and political actors yet cannot be divided. The management of conflicts over sacred sites requires cooperation, Hassner suggests, between political leaders interested in promoting conflict resolution and religious leaders who can shape the meaning and value that sacred places hold for believers. Because a reconfiguration of sacred space requires a confluence of political will, religious authority, and a window of opportunity, it is relatively rare. Drawing on the study of religion and the study of politics in equal measure, Hassner's account offers insight into the often-violent dynamics that come into play at the places where religion and politics collide.
The event continues to serve as a rallying point for Muslim extremists even today.
REFERENCES Benjamin, Daniel, and Steven Simon. The Age of Sacred Terror.
New York: Random House, 2002. Hassner, Ron E. War on Sacred Grounds.
Author: Frank Shanty
Category: Political Science
This two-volume set examines modern nation-state legislative, diplomatic, military, and non-military attempts to combat terrorism within and outside state borders. The articles which comprise this comprehensive reference work address counterterrorism efforts employed by the international community prior to and following the events of September 11, 2001. • An evaluation of the evolution and effectiveness of select nation-state counterterrorism policies post-1945 • An examination of major issues and lessons-learned relative to the "Global War on Terrorism" • Discussion of historical and contemporary global counterterrorism strategies and potential future counterterrorism challenges
Hashmi, Sohail H. Just Wars, Holy Wars, and Jihads: Christian, Jewish, and
Muslim Encounters and Exchanges. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.
Hassner, Ron E. War on Sacred Grounds. Ithaca, NY. Cornell University Press,
Author: Mark Juergensmeyer
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
"This book explores the dark attraction between religion and warfare and explains why religion needs war and war needs religion. Virtually every religious tradition leaves behind it a bloody trail of stories, legends and images of war, and most wars call upon the divine for blessings in battle. This book probes the connection between religion and warfare-- the remarkably similar alternative realities that are created in the human imagination by both religious ideas and images of war in response to crises both personal and social. Based on the author's thirty years of field work interviewing activists involved in religious-related terrorist movements around the world, this book explains why desperate social conflict and personal fears lead to extremes of both religion and war, and why invariably God is thought to be engaged in battle"--
War on Sacred Grounds. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Hayes, CarletonJ.
H. 1931. “Jacobin Nationalism.” In The Historical Evolution of Modern
Nationalism, edited by Carleton J. H. Hayes. New York: Russell and Russell.
Hefer, Haim ...
Author: Uri Ben-Eliezer
Publisher: University of California Press
Category: Social Science
Violence and war have raged between Zionists and Palestinians for over a century, ever since Zionists, trying to establish a nation-state in Palestine, were forced to confront the fact that the country was already populated. Covering every conflict in Israel’s history, War over Peace reveals that Israeli nationalism was born ethnic and militaristic and has embraced these characteristics to this day. In his sweeping and original synthesis, Uri Ben-Eliezer shows that this militaristic nationalism systematically drives Israel to solve its national problems by military means, based on the idea that the homeland is sacred and the territory is indivisible. When Israelis opposed to this ideology brought about change during a period that led to the Oslo Accords in the 1990s, cultural and political forces, reinforced by religious and messianic elements, prevented the implementation of the agreements, which brought violence back in the form of new wars. War over Peace is essential reading for anyone who wants to understand the role of ethnic nationalism and militarism in Israel as well as throughout the world.
... but he being acquitted charges them in turn with a violation of the sacred
enclosure of Jupiter and Alcinous ( 84 ) ; they ... not suppose that they were
violating any law , especially if , as Arnold thinks , they were tenants of the sacred grounds ...
At the time of firing the salutes despite all the hideous memories connected the
whole of the English royal artillery with it , as a sort of sacred ground - - sacred
were assembled on the high open ground to the service of justice ; consecrated
The temple to which it was to have been restored was in ruins , and the sacred ground trodden by Mahomedans . Looking at the effusion from the Oriental side ,
it was altogether a failure and an abortion . * Among Europeans , worldly men ...
Author: United States. Congress. House. Committee on Military AffairsPublish On: 1924
Yorktown has less than 110 white inhabitants , according to the last census . A
map , made by the War Department order , by the student officers at Fort Monroe ,
shows the intrenclıments to be those of the Revolutionary War . If all these sacred
Author: United States. Congress. House. Committee on Military Affairs
Only a short while ago - on a visit to your city of Greensboro , when my friend , Mr
. J . M . Morehead here , invited me to visit this sacred ground - we rose early in
the morning with the birds and about sunrise approached this consecrated battle
(Hassner, War on Sacred Grounds, 4) While the sentiment of cooperation
between religion and politics is right, this vision ... decades of occupation, the
intervening wars, the intifada, the mounting religious extremism globally—
certainly among ...
Author: Elazar Barkan
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Category: Political Science
This anthology explores the dynamics of shared religious sites in Turkey, the Balkans, Palestine/Israel, Cyprus, and Algeria, indicating where local and national stakeholders maneuver between competition and cooperation, coexistence and conflict. Contributors probe the notion of coexistence and the logic that underlies centuries of "sharing," exploring when and why sharing gets interrupted—or not—by conflict, and the policy consequences. These essays map the choreographies of shared sacred spaces within the framework of state-society relations, juxtaposing a site's political and religious features and exploring whether sharing or contestation is primarily religious or politically motivated. Although religion and politics are intertwined phenomena, the contributors to this volume understand the category of "religion" and the "political" as devices meant to distinguish between the theological and confessional aspects of religion and the political goals of groups. Their comparative approach better represents the transition in some cases of sites into places of hatred and violence, while in other instances they remain noncontroversial. The essays clearly delineate the religious and political factors that contribute to the context and causality of conflict at these sites and draw on history and anthropology to shed light on the often rapid switch from relative tolerance to distress to peace and calm.
America's Last Indian War Catherine Feher-Elston. has developed on the mesas .
These individuals consistently refuse to recognize the authority of the United
States government in Hopi affairs ; they oppose energy development and tribal ...
Author: Catherine Feher-Elston
Publisher: Northland Pub
The struggle between the Navajo and Hopi tribes, with the federal government as referee, is more than a fight for land; it is, more critically, a fight for cultural survival. The dispute is ripping apart the lives - economic, spiritual, and physical - of the individuals who live on the land in question. It is a quarrel with no obvious or simple solution, an argument that deals both in abstract principles and real human suffering. What are the implications of this government-sponsored resettlement? A precedent has been set for allocating public lands to accommodate the growth of traditional indigenous populations. This book details the roots of the conflict, its complex elements, and its players, providing a perspective that reflects the heart of this problem.
And to them , Custer , it seemed , was less a desecrator of sacred grounds (
which sacred grounds neither Sitting Bull nor Crazy Horse had chosen to defend
) than simply a warrior . And as a warrior they honored him . The Oglala war chief
Author: Jonathan Scofield
Category: Little Bighorn, Battle of the, Mont., 1876
Color illustration on front cover of four superimposed vignettes: depiction of the Battle of the Little Big Horn; red-haired woman wearing a purple blouse and green skirt; head portrait of blond-haired man; man on horseback wearing hat, fringed jacket and blue pants leading a troop of cavalry.
Although the war between China and Japan dealt a heavy blow to the wool trade
in the late 1930s , those Xiaochuan Kongs who controlled the narrow gorge were
able to expand into other profitable businesses , especially long - distance ...
Author: Thomas A. Wilson
Publisher: Harvard Univ Council on East Asian
The authors analyze the social, cultural, and political meaning attached to the cult of Confucius; its history; the legends, images, and rituals associated with it; the power of the descendants of Confucius; the main temple in the birthplace of Confucius; and the contemporary fate of temples to Confucius.
12 With all the traffic from the thousands of men and guns the sacred ground was
quickly turned into a mere shadow of its former self . The next day , July 2 , one
soldier wrote of the scene , “ a beautiful cemetery it was , but now is trodden
Author: Michael Sanders
Publisher: Bamp;t Database Management/Cip
Wounded soldiers fight off hungry hogs on the Wheatfield at Gettysburg. After participating in Sherman's famous March to the Sea, a soldier witnesses a murder in a dream months before it happens. During the Battle of Antietam the position of a gun saves Lee and Longstreet and changes the course of history. These stories and more are featured in this second installment of tales of the unusual, bizarre, and peculiar from America's greatest conflict.
War is fighting , and fighting the remotest connection in the tastes of the here
means bloodshed and butohery . ... The largest door money bloody battle fields
may be sacred grounds . ever paid , we believe , was in Boston not The people
In his recent study of religiously significant places that have involved violence, War on Sacred Grounds, Ron Hassner suggests that one of the distinct features
of what he calls sacred places is their indivisibility: “Sacred spaces are unique in
Author: Jacob N. Kinnard
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Jacob Kinnard offers an in-depth examination of the complex dynamics of religiously charged places. Focusing on several important shared and contested pilgrimage places-Ground Zero and Devils Tower in the United States, Ayodhya and Bodhgaya in India, Karbala in Iraq-he poses a number of crucial questions. What and who has made these sites important, and why? How are they shared, and how and why are they contested? What is at stake in their contestation? How are the particular identities of place and space established? How are individual and collective identity intertwined with space and place? Challenging long-accepted, clean divisions of the religious world, Kinnard explores specific instances of the vibrant messiness of religious practice, the multivocality of religious objects, the fluid and hybrid dynamics of religious places, and the shifting and tangled identities of religious actors. He contends that sacred space is a constructed idea: places are not sacred in and of themselves, but are sacred because we make them sacred. As such, they are in perpetual motion, transforming themselves from moment to moment and generation to generation. Places in Motion moves comfortably across and between a variety of historical and cultural settings as well as academic disciplines, providing a deft and sensitive approach to the topic of sacred places, with awareness of political, economic, and social realities as these exist in relation to questions of identity. It is a lively and much needed critical advance in analytical reflections on sacred space and pilgrimage.
... manner denounced the Athenians as joint criminals with the Phocians and
exclaimed , “ turn them out of the sacred grounds ... Thus the train is laid for
another Amphictyonic war — and within six or seven years after that fatal war ,
which had ...
The World War II Letters of Mayor Edward Jeffries and Friends Edward Jeffries,
Dominic J. Capeci, Jr. very big . Mine was about ... It was , we surmised , a
warning to unbelievers to stay out of the sacred grounds . Led by one who had
Author: Edward Jeffries
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Edward J. Jeffries Jr., was elected mayor of Detroit in 1937 and for a decade led the city through a period of race riots, union turmoil, and unprecedented growth. Jeffries's circle of friends was made up primarily of newspaper reporters who shared his interests and lifestyle. Devoted to family, they nevertheless worked long hours, smoked heavily, drank moderately, and gambled often in their running card games of gin and poker. After Pearl Harbor, Jeffries watched his closest friends, most twelve to fourteen years his junior, enlist in the armed forces. Voracious letter writers, over the next four years they shared with one another their innermost hopes and fears. They told stories about Gen. George S. Patton, the surrender of Japan, of commanding African American soldiers during the Normandy invasion, and the battles on the home front in the heart of Detroit, the "Arsenal of Democracy." These letters present a candid portrait of the intellectual and political leadership of Detroit -- and America. These men were confident in their values, aware of their responsibilities, and logical in their actions as they helped forge the weapons that turned back the fascist threat to democracy. Their letters also reveal a level and kind of male camaraderie seemingly lost in the depersonalized, technocratic society of the postwar era. As such, this work provides a more complete understanding of how Americans reacted to -- and were changed by -- the "Good War."
50 LINDEMAN , Jack , editor The Conflict of Convictions , American Writers
Report the Civil War . 1968 Philadelphia 20 ... 00 LINENTHAL , Edward Tabor Sacred Ground , Americans and Their Battlefields . Foreword by Robert M . Utley
Played around campfires after the epic conflicts of the Civil War . A jaunty march
for victory in battle . ... I ' m truly shocked to learn that commercialism has been
allowed to intrude upon such sacred ground . Before we enter the grounds where