Make sure that Verbal Behavior (VB) intensive teaching sessions include lots of opportunities for the child to practice giving verbal responses, instead of relying heavily on the nonverbal operants that hallmark standard Applied ...
Author: Mary Lynch Barbera
Publisher: Jessica Kingsley Publishers
The Verbal Behavior (VB) approach is a form of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA), that is based on B.F. Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior and works particularly well with children with minimal or no speech abilities. In this book Dr. Mary Lynch Barbera draws on her own experiences as a Board Certified Behavior Analyst and also as a parent of a child with autism to explain VB and how to use it. This step-by-step guide provides an abundance of information about how to help children develop better language and speaking skills, and also explains how to teach non-vocal children to use sign language. An entire chapter focuses on ways to reduce problem behavior, and there is also useful information on teaching toileting and other important self-help skills, that would benefit any child. This book will enable parents and professionals unfamiliar with the principles of ABA and VB to get started immediately using the Verbal Behavior approach to teach children with autism and related disorders.
Naturally occurring verbal behavior is often the product of several simultaneously effective stimulus and/or motivative variables, and most such variables typically control more than one form of response. These two forms of multiple ...
Author: B. F. Skinner
Publisher: B. F. Skinner Foundation
In 1934, at the age of 30, B. F. Skinner found himself at a dinner sitting next to Professor Alfred North Whitehead. Never one to lose an opportunity to promote behaviorism, Skinner expounded its main tenets to the distinguished philosopher. Whitehead acknowledged that science might account for most of human behavior but he would not include verbal behavior. He ended the discussion with a challenge: "Let me see you," he said, "account for my behavior as I sit here saying, 'No black scorpion is falling upon this table.'" The next morning Skinner began this book. It took him over twenty years to complete. This book extends the laboratory-based principles of selection by consequences to account for what people say, write, gesture, and think. Skinner argues that verbal behavior requires a separate analysis because it does not operate on the environment directly, but rather through the behavior of other people in a verbal community. He illustrates his thesis with examples from literature, the arts, and sciences, as well as from his own verbal behavior and that of his colleagues and children. Perhaps it is because this theoretical work provides a way to approach that most human of human behavior that Skinner ofter called Verbal Behavior his most important work.
The method required, also, that a formal scale of weighted verbal categories be specified for each dimensiontobe measured. ... After initial validation studies were completed for verbal behavior measures, alarge variety of additional ...
Author: Louis A. Gottschalk
Focusing on language and the assessment of its meaning, this volume concentrates on a method of content analysis developed by the author and Goldine Gleser. Applicable to transcripts of speech or verbal texts, this method uses the grammatical clause as its smallest unit of communication, considers whether or not a verb is transitive and involves an object, or is intransitive and describes a state of being. It derives scores on many scales that have been tested for reliability of scoring and for construct validity with concurrently administered measures, such as rating and self-report scales as well as biochemical and pharmacological criteria. Finally, this volume provides detailed descriptions of the clinical and basic research establishing the validity of these scales, so that a reader can locate studies that have pertinence to any special interest area. A major achievement described in this book is the development of computer software that understands grammar and syntax, can parse natural language, knows most of the words in the Merriam-Webster dictionary, has been taught to identify idioms and slang, and is capable of continuing to learn. The program can score all the scales, report whether the scores obtained from a verbal sample are one to three standard deviations from the norms, and suggest APA DSM-IIIR diagnostic classifications the clinician might consider in assessing the patient.
“ It has been estimated that in face - to - face communication no more than 35 percent of the social meaning is carried in the verbal messages . ” 57 Techniques have been developed to score these extraverbal and nonverbal aspects of ...
It must be clear that verbal behavior in the mynah as we define it involves none of the syntactical , semantic , or phonological emphasis noted in other papers presented at this symposium . Furthermore , at least at this time , there is ...
Author: Kurt Salzinger
Research in Verbal Behavior and Some Neurophysiological Implications focuses on varied approaches to the study of language, including verbal behavior in animals, mimicry, linguistics, and verbal satiation. The selection first offers information on verbal behavior in animals and dolphin's vocal mimicry as a unique ability and a way toward understanding. The book also ponders on the problem of response class in verbal behavior and verbal operant conditioning and awareness. Discussions focus on state of the organism as a determinant of response class, topography of response, common stimulus, and common effect. The publication takes a look at a behavioral basis for the polarity principle in linguistics, acquisition of grammar by children, and interdependencies of the bilingual's two languages. The manuscript also elaborates on verbal satiation and exploration of meaning relations and grammatical indicants of speaking style in normal and aphasic speakers. The selection is highly recommended for readers wanting to study verbal behavior.
B. F. SKINNER'S VERBAL BEHAVIOR : A RETROSPECTIVE APPRECIATION KENNETH MacCORQUODALE THE UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA In his Annual Review chapter on the learn- So it has indeed been , although in a someing literature for 1957 , Kendler ...
Descriptions of verbal behavior or the effects of experimental manipulations on verbal behavior are correlated with chronological age (Irwin, 1960; Templin, 1957). Verbal conditioning is identified closely with clinical psychology and ...
Author: Barbara C. Etzel
Originally published in 1977, these examples of research and scholarly argument were collected in honor of Professor Sidney W. Bijou. In the language of academics, they constitute a Festschrift: a festival of scholarly writing, performed to celebrate the career of a person who produced, and stimulated others to produce, exactly such contributions throughout a long, valuable, and productive professional history. Since 1955, Dr Bijou had worked almost exclusively within the approach variously labelled as the functional analysis of behavior, the experimental analysis of behavior, operant conditioning, or Skinnerian psychology. From his point of view, it seems clear, the first of these labels was the correct one. It was the principle of objective, direct, observable analysis that attracted him.
Through the systematic control of learning variables, such as verbal reinforcement, therapists attempted to modify the client's verbal behavior and thus to bring about changes in, for example, "self-concept." The focus on behavior ...
Author: Anthony M. Graziano
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
The term behavior modification refers to the systematic analysis and change of human behavior and the principal focus is on overt behavior and its relationships to environmental variables. Behavior modification can be applied in many settings, the nature of which helps to define its subsets. Thus, applied in clinical settings, toward clinical goals, it encompasses the subset behavior therapy. In Behavior Therapy with Children, Volume 2, Anthony M. Graziano focuses on behavior therapy--specifically, the behavioral treatment of children's clinical problems. The field of behavior modification encompasses an astonishingly wide and varied spectrum of concepts about and approaches to education, clinical problems, social programming, and rehabilitation efforts. A conceptually and technologically rich medium, it has been nourished by the psychology laboratory, the school, and the psychiatric clinic. It is an area with diffuse boundaries surrounding a highly active center, within which apparently solid landmarks have already been worn away by the dissolving action of corrective self-criticism--immeasurably aided by the catalysts stirred in by the field's many critics. The activity continues, the dynamic field boils, and the medium enriches itself. There appears to be a tendency, particularly among new behavior therapists, to limit their focus too narrowly to the client's systems of overt behavior. In this project, psychological therapy begins with a personal, interactive social situation in which the generally expected human response of interest, sympathy, and support, is the minimum condition. Graziano maintains that these clinical sensitivity skills must be preserved in behavior therapy and enhance its important contribution to advancing the therapeutic endeavor. Anthony M. Graziano is professor emeritus in the Department of Psychology, State University of New York at Buffalo. He has published a number of articles in journals on subjects such as teaching machine programs, behavior therapy with children, diagnostic testing, the history of psychology, and evaluations of the contemporary mental health professions. He has been on the editorial board of Behavior Modification and on the board of directors for the Eastern Psychological Association.
Regardless of one's view about the behavior of the listener, verbal behavior requires special attention because the consequences of verbal behavior are mediated by the actions of others (Vargas, 1998). The way a person speaks is shaped ...
Author: W. David Pierce
Publisher: Psychology Press
Behavior Analysis and Learning, Fourth Edition is an essential textbook covering the basic principles in the field of behavior analysis and learned behaviors, as pioneered by B. F. Skinner. The textbook provides an advanced introduction to operant conditioning from a very consistent Skinnerian perspective. It covers a range of principles from basic respondent conditioning through applied behavior analysis into cultural design. Elaborating on Darwinian components and biological connections with behavior, the book treats the topic from a consistent worldview of selectionism. The functional relations between the organism and the environment are described, and their application in accounting for old behavior and generating new behavior is illustrated. Expanding on concepts of past editions, the fourth edition provides updated coverage of recent literature and the latest findings. There is increased inclusion of biological and neuroscience material, as well as more data correlating behavior with neurological and genetic factors. The material presented in this book provides the reader with the best available foundation in behavior science and is a valuable resource for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in psychology or other behavior-based disciplines. In addition, a website of supplemental resources for instructors and students makes this new edition even more accessible and student-friendly.