Urban Evolutionary Biology fills an important knowledge gap on wild organismal evolution in the urban environment, whilst offering a novel exploration of the fast-growing new field of evolutionary research.
Author: Marta Szulkin
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
Urban Evolutionary Biology fills an important knowledge gap on wild organismal evolution in the urban environment, whilst offering a novel exploration of the fast-growing new field of evolutionary research. The growing rate of urbanization and the maturation of urban study systems worldwide means interest in the urban environment as an agent of evolutionary change is rapidly increasing. We are presently witnessing the emergence of a new field of research in evolutionary biology. Despite its rapid global expansion, the urban environment has until now been a largely neglected study site among evolutionary biologists. With its conspicuously altered ecological dynamics, it stands in stark contrast to the natural environments traditionally used as cornerstones for evolutionary ecology research. Urbanization can offer a great range of new opportunities to test for rapid evolutionary processes as a consequence of human activity, both because of replicate contexts for hypothesis testing, but also because cities are characterized by an array of easily quantifiable environmental axes of variation and thus testable agents of selection. Thanks to a wide possible breadth of inference (in terms of taxa) that may be studied, and a great variety of analytical methods, urban evolution has the potential to stand at a fascinating multi-disciplinary crossroad, enriching the field of evolutionary biology with emergent yet incredibly potent new research themes where the urban habitat is key. Urban Evolutionary Biology is an advanced textbook suitable for graduate level students as well as professional researchers studying the genetics, evolutionary biology, and ecology of urban environments. It is also highly relevant to urban ecologists and urban wildlife practitioners.
This book contains an overview of research on the interaction of biological and sociological processes.
Author: Rosemary Hopcroft
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Evolution, biology, and society is a catch-all phrase encompassing any scholarly work that utilizes evolutionary theory and/or biological or behavioral genetic methods in the study of the human social group, and The Oxford Handbook of Evolution, Biology, and Society contains an much needed overview of research in the area by sociologists and other social scientists. The examined topics cover a wide variety of issues, including the origins of social solidarity; religious beliefs; sex differences; gender inequality; determinants of human happiness; the nature of social stratification and inequality and its effects; identity, status, and other group processes; race, ethnicity, and race discrimination; fertility and family processes; crime and deviance; and cultural and social change. The scholars whose work is presented in this volume come from a variety of disciplines in addition to sociology, including psychology, political science, and criminology. Yet, as the essays in this volume demonstrate, the potential of theory and methods from biology for illuminating social phenomena is clear, and sociologists stand to gain from learning more about them and using them in their own work. The theory focuses on evolution by natural selection, the primary paradigm of the biological sciences, while the methods include the statistical analyses sociologists are familiar with, as well as other methods that they may not be familiar with, such as behavioral genetic methods, methods for including genetic factors in statistical analyses, gene-wide association studies, candidate gene studies, and methods for testing levels of hormones and other biochemicals in blood and saliva and including these factors in analyses. This work will be of interest to any sociologist with an interest in exploring the interaction of biological and sociological processes. As an introduction to the field it is useful for teaching upper-level or graduate students in sociology or a related social science.
With much of the rest covered by human-shaped farms, pasture, and plantations, where can nature still go? To the cities -- is Menno Schilthuizen's answer in this remarkable book.
Author: Menno Schilthuizen
Publisher: Hachette UK
See your city through fresh eyes We are marching towards a future in which three-quarters of humans live in cities, and a large portion of the planet's landmass is urbanized. With much of the rest covered by human-shaped farms, pasture, and plantations, where can nature still go? To the cities -- is Menno Schilthuizen's answer in this remarkable book. And with more and more wildlife carving out new niches among humans, evolution takes a surprising turn. Urban animals evolve to become more cheeky and resourceful, city pigeons develop detox-plumage, and weeds growing from cracks in the pavement get a new type of seeds. City blackbirds are even on their way of becoming an entirely new species, which we could name Turdus urbanicus. Thanks to evolutionary adaptation taking place at unprecedented speeds, plants and animals are coming up with new ways of living in the seemingly hostile environments of asphalt and steel that we humans have created. We are on the verge of a new chapter in the history of life, Schilthuizen says -- a chapter in which much old biodiversity is, sadly, disappearing, but also one in which a new and exciting set of life forms is being born. Menno Schilthuizen shows us that evolution in cities can happen far more rapidly, and strangely, than Darwin had dared dream.
They have submitted a new book Urban Evolutionary Biology – the first academic
volume on evolutionary biology in the urban space, to Oxford University Press.
Tan Chun Liang is a Research Fellow, Department of Architecture, School of ...
Author: Ian Douglas
This second edition covers recent developments around the world with contributors from 33 different countries. It widens the handbook’s scope by including ecological design; consideration of cultural dimensions of the use and conservation of urban nature; the roles of government and civil society; and the continuing issues of equity and fairness in access to urban greenspaces. New features include an emphasis on the biophilic design of homes and workplaces, demonstrating the value of nature, in order to counter the still prevalent attitude among many developers that nature is a constraint rather than a value. The volume explores great practical achievements have occurred since the first edition, with many governments increasingly recognising and legislating on urban nature and green infrastructure matters, since cities play a major role in adapting to change, particularly to climate crisis. New topics such as the ecological role of light at night and human microbiota in the urban ecosystem are introduced. Additional attention is given to food production in cities, particularly the multiple roles of urban agriculture and household gardens in different contexts from wealthy communities to the poorest informal settlements in deprived communities. The emphasis is on demonstrating what can be achieved, and what is already being done. The book will help scholars and graduate students by providing an invaluable and up-to-date guide to current urban ecological thinking across the range of disciplines, such as geography, ecology, environmental science/studies, planning, urban studies, that converge in the study of towns and cities and urban design and living. It will also assist practitioners and civil society members in discovering the ways different specialists and thinkers approach urban nature.
The subsequent period of population stagnation and decline , of intermittent
famines and plagues , during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries , was
nevertheless one of urban growth . As urban female excess began to appear in
Author: Martha Beatriz Lopez-Forment De Los CobosPublish On: 2003
A Historical and Conservation Perspective Martha Beatriz Lopez-Forment De Los
Cobos. Urban Ramirez J. , A. G. Gallardo Uzueta , M. Palmeros Rodriguez and G.
Velazquez Chavez . ( 1998 ) . Los Mamiferos marinos de la Bahia de La Paz .
Organicism , evolution and urban form : on the problems of borrowing from other
disciplines Peter J . Larkham , School of Planning , University ... one way or
another , used concepts derived from biology , particularly from evolutionary biology .
Urban Evolution: Studies in the Mathematical Ecology of Cities. ... Lotka–Volterra
differential equations used to model numerical change in biological populations,
whilst “evolutionary' changes involve relatively sudden shifts in the parameters ...
It is surprising how little reference is made to anthropogenic migration and
naturalisation in authoritative works such as Mayr ' s ' Animal species and
evolution ? ( 1963 ) and even in Parson ' s ' The evolutionary biology of
colonising species ...
Author: Herbert Sukopp
Publisher: Balogh Scientific Books
Category: Arbres dans les villes - Allemagne
Lectures presented at Sessions 6-49 and 6-149 of the XIVth International Botanical Congress on 25th July and 26th July 1987 with some of the lectures from Session 6-52 and some invited papers.
Urban ecology is essentially 'historical research' also for the following reason:
ecology has developed in history as an 'actualistic' science, to distinguish itself
precisely as such from evolutionary biology (Reiter 1885, cf. Trepl 1987).
... evolutionary biology ; biogeography land use planning ; urban transportation
planning community ecology ; mammalogy ; biogeography biogeography ,
systematics , and evolution of wasps worldwide hydrobiology ; aquatic ecology ;
This Directory is a searchable, comprehensive database of specialists, their affiliations, and areas of expertise. It lists scientists conducting research aimed at solving a broad array of scientific and practical problems concerned with managing and conserving water and wildland resources, as well as those experts actually managing these resources. The Directory has more than 2,000 listings of faculty and staff from the University of California and California State University systems, and experts from state and federal agencies all of whom are involved with water-related/wildland-related research and resource management in California.
Evolution and speciation : Essays in honor of M . J . D . White , pp . ... the spatial
ordering of chromosomes in eukaryotes and the implication of the order for
genome evolution and phenotypic ... Industrial melanism and the urban
Author: Douglas J. Futuyma
Publisher: Sinauer Associates, Incorporated
Covers the genetic, developmental, and ecological mechanisms of evolutionary change, the major features of evolutionary history as revealed by phylogenetic and paleontological studies, and material on adaptation, molecular evolution, co-evolution, and human evolution.
... Louis Block Professor of Biological Sciences , Professor in the Committee on
Mathematical Biology , in the Committee on Conceptional Foundations of
Science and in the College , and Chairman of the Committee on Evolutionary Biology .
Findings from the field of evolutionary biology are yielding dramatic insights for health scientists, especially those involved in the fight against infectious diseases. This book is the first in-depth presentation of these insights.
Author: Paul W. Ewald
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Findings from the field of evolutionary biology are yielding dramatic insights for health scientists, especially those involved in the fight against infectious diseases. This book is the first in-depth presentation of these insights. In detailing why the pathogens that cause malaria, smallpox, tuberculosis, and AIDS have their special kinds of deadliness, the book shows how efforts to control virtually all diseases would benefit from a more thorough application of evolutionary principles. When viewed from a Darwinian perspective, a pathogen is not simply a disease-causing agent, it is a self-replicating organism driven by evolutionary pressures to pass on as many copies of itself as possible. In this context, so-called "cultural vectors"--those aspects of human behavior and the human environment that allow spread of disease from immobilized people--become more important than ever. Interventions to control diseases don't simply hinder their spread but can cause pathogens and the diseases they engender to evolve into more benign forms. In fact, the union of health science with evolutionary biology offers an entirely new dimension to policy making, as the possibility of determining the future course of many diseases becomes a reality. By presenting the first detailed explanation of an evolutionary perspective on infectious disease, the author has achieved a genuine milestone in the synthesis of health science, epidemiology, and evolutionary biology. Written in a clear, accessible style, it is intended for a wide readership among professionals in these fields and general readers interested in science and health.
Contemporary expressions of gender differences , on the other hand , rejected
Maoist ideas of gender equality through explicit appeals to biology . Although , I
argue it is not a western , evolutionary biology , but rather a locally embedded ,
This must be favored by changes in human social habits , such as the great
expansion of urban populations and migrations that increase contacts among
many individuals . Population growth and evolving social organization increase ...
( Rothman , 2006 interview ) Drawing parallels with evolutionary biology ,
Kunstler ( 2001 ) argued that “ even the casual observer can see that Las Vegas
is approaching its tipping point as a viable urban system ( ... ) Its components
Author: Cara Aitchison
Category: Leisure industry
Contains chapters that reflect multi- and interdisciplinary analyses of the ways in which leisure, sport, tourism and the cultural sector play key roles in the regeneration of urban environments. As such, the chapters apply the disciplines of sociology, geography and economics to policy-making and planning in urban studies.
A Social Hangout or an Appetizing Food Source : Glaucous gull ( Larus
hyperboreus ) Abundance at the Barrow Landfill Rebecca Nemec and Henry
Horn , Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology , Princeton University ,
Nora Rojek ...
Author: American Anthropological AssociationPublish On: 2008
... Asst Prof ) Urban anthropology , race / ethnicity , social movements and
activism , youth , immigration ; Latin America ... Prof ) Human biology , biocultural
perspectives on health and human development , medical anthropology , evolutionary ...