Under the Sea: Archaeology and Palaeolandscapes of the Continental Shelf

Author: Geoffrey N. Bailey,Jan Harff,Dimitris Sakellariou

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319531603

Category: Science

Page: 436

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This book focuses on issues of method and interpretation in studies of submerged landscapes, concentrating on illustrations and case studies from around Europe with additional examples from other parts of the world. Such landscapes were once exposed as dry land during the low sea levels that prevailed during the glacial periods that occupied most of the past million years and provided extensive new territories for human exploitation. Their study today involves underwater investigation, using techniques and strategies which are clearly set out in these chapters. The underwater landscape provides a rich source of information about the archaeology of human settlement and long-term changes in environment, climate and sea-level. This book highlights how such information can be revealed and interpreted. The examples presented here and the focus on techniques make this book of worldwide relevance. Chapters describe examples of underwater archaeological investigation as well as collaboration with offshore industries and legal, management and training issues relating to underwater cultural heritage. Such studies point to the significance of this drowned landscape, and readers are invited to consider its human impact in terms of past settlement and population dispersal through palaeolandscape reconstruction and interpretation in relation to broader themes in human prehistory. This volume is based on work from COST Action SPLASHCOS, a four-year multi-disciplinary and multi-national research program supported by COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) and has something to benefit all those with an interest in the sea floor of the continental shelf and the archaeological and social impact of sea-level change, including archaeologists, marine scientists, geographers, cultural-heritage managers, commercial and governmental organisations, policy makers and interested members of the public.
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Coastline Changes of the Baltic Sea from South to East

Past and Future Projection

Author: Jan Harff,Kazimierz Furmańczyk,Hans von Storch

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319498940

Category: Science

Page: 388

View: 9223

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This book discusses sea-level and coastline changes. These topics are becoming increasingly important for populations living along the edge of the world’s oceans and seas, especially in areas where eustatic sea-level rise is superimposed on isostatic subsidence and storm-induced coastal erosion. This is the case at the southern and eastern Baltic Sea coast: in the south, glacio-isostatic subsidence enhances the effect of climate-induced sea-level rise and strong storm effects are causing a continuous retreat of the coast. On the eastern coast glacio-isostatic uplift compensates for eustatic sea-level rise, but storm-induced waves are responsible for permanent morphodynamic changes to the coastline. There is an increasing need for protection concepts for defense but also for the economic use of the different types of coastal zones. The elaboration of these management concepts can be facilitated through models that generate future projections of coastal developments in the light of modern climate change. This anthology comprises the results of the research project “Coastline Changes of the southern Baltic Sea – Past and future projection (CoPaF)” funded by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, which was run by a team of Estonian, German, Lithuanian, and Polish geoscientists and coastal engineers from 2010 to 2013 and overlapped with and complemented the work of COST Action SPLASHCOS supported by COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology). As the southern and eastern Baltic serves as a natural laboratory for the investigation of coastal processes, the project’s findings contribute not only to the solution of regional problems in Baltic coastal research and engineering, but also to worldwide interests in description, modelling and parameterization of coastal processes and morphodynamics.
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3D Recording and Interpretation for Maritime Archaeology

Author: John K. McCarthy,Jonathan Benjamin (BA in Anthropology and PhD in Archaeology.),Trevor Winton,Wendy van Duivenvoorde

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3030036359

Category: Archaeology

Page: 237

View: 3541

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This open access peer-reviewed volume was inspired by the UNESCO UNITWIN Network for Underwater Archaeology International Workshop held at Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia in November 2016. Content is based on, but not limited to, the work presented at the workshop which was dedicated to 3D recording and interpretation for maritime archaeology. The volume consists of contributions from leading international experts as well as up-and-coming early career researchers from around the globe. The content of the book includes recording and analysis of maritime archaeology through emerging technologies, including both practical and theoretical contributions. Topics include photogrammetric recording, laser scanning, marine geophysical 3D survey techniques, virtual reality, 3D modelling and reconstruction, data integration and Geographic Information Systems. The principal incentive for this publication is the ongoing rapid shift in the methodologies of maritime archaeology within recent years and a marked increase in the use of 3D and digital approaches. This convergence of digital technologies such as underwater photography and photogrammetry, 3D sonar, 3D virtual reality, and 3D printing has highlighted a pressing need for these new methodologies to be considered together, both in terms of defining the state-of-the-art and for consideration of future directions. As a scholarly publication, the audience for the book includes students and researchers, as well as professionals working in various aspects of archaeology, heritage management, education, museums, and public policy. It will be of special interest to those working in the field of coastal cultural resource management and underwater archaeology but will also be of broader interest to anyone interested in archaeology and to those in other disciplines who are now engaging with 3D recording and visualization.
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Sea-level Change in Mesolithic Southern Scandinavia

Long- and Short-term Effects on Society and the Environment

Author: Peter Moe Astrup

Publisher: ISD LLC

ISBN: 8793423365

Category: History

Page: 207

View: 9943

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The seabed in southern Scandinavia contains numerous traces of a submerged landscape that is thought to be the remnant of a once important habitat for Mesolithic hunter-gatherers. Large parts of this landscape were gradually flooded by rising seas between 9500 and 4000 BC and perceptions of the Maglemose culture (9500-6400 BC) have, consequently, been based almost exclusively on former inland settlements. As a result, Early and Late Mesolithic societies have been understood as almost diametrically opposed with regards to their reliance upon marine resources and their degree of sedentism. The main objective of the book is to investigate two questions that are directly related to our current understanding of the populations of the now submerged areas: 1) Do we have a representative picture of the spread of Early Mesolithic sites in southern Scandinavia, or does the weighting towards inland sites reflect the fact that coastal sites have not been identified below present-day sea-level? 2) How did sea-level changes impact Mesolithic populations at different temporal and spatial scales, and how were these experienced from 8000-4000 BC? The book presents an extensive and up-to-date review of various types of evidence from the Boreal period such as faunal remains, fishing instruments, d13C values in bones, settlement positions and available marine resources. These are used to discuss the extent to which marine resources were utilised in the Maglemose culture. Another central component of this book is a series of new coastline models made to determine the Mesolithic sea-level changes / coastline positions. The eight new coastline models are created to facilitate new evaluations of possible relationships between sea-level changes and cultural changes. On the basis of the new coastline models the book also presents the preliminary results of 47 diver investigations conducted with the aim of identifying potential coastal settlements from the Maglemose culture.
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Mapping Doggerland

The Mesolithic Landscapes of the Southern North Sea

Author: Vincent L. Gaffney,Kenneth Thomson,Simon Fitch

Publisher: Archaeopress

ISBN: 9781905739141

Category: History

Page: 131

View: 8900

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Oxbow says: Mapping Doggerland documents the methodology and results of an innovative project to investigate a large area of the Southern North Sea, submerged during the last Glacial Maximum between 10,000 and 7500 bp. The North Sea Palaeolandscape Project mapped more than 23,000 sq km of the North Sea basin, once a dryland inhabited by Mesolithic populations, and its methodology and results are presented in this publication. The project made use of marine survey data and 3D seismic reflection data, but also carried out geomorphological investigations, examined borehole sediments for environmental reconstruction and developed spatial and visualisation techniques for processing and interpreting data. The study is important on a number of different levels: for the information it can provide on the Mesolithic period in Britain; for what it can tell us about a 'lost' area of the North Sea; and for developing a methodology for investigating such environments.
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La Ocupación Cazadora-Recolectora Durante la Transición Pleistoceno-Holoceno en el Oeste de Rio Grande Do Sul - Brasil: Geoarqueología de Los Sitios en la Formación Sedimentaria Touro Passo

Author: Viviane Pouey Vidal

Publisher: Archaeopress Archaeology

ISBN: 9781784919139

Category: Excavations (Archaeology)

Page: 260

View: 6579

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This book presents the results obtained during geoarchaeological studies carried out in the locality of Touro Passo, municipality of Uruguaiana, Brazil. There, the Paleoindian sites studied by the team of the PRONAPA-National Archaeological Research Program in the 1960s and 1970s were relocated and others with excellent study potential have been recognized. The archaeological sites are located in the alluvial plains of the Uruguay River and the Touro Passo Stream and correspond to the late Pleistocene-early Holocene transition. The geoarchaeological approach allowed the understanding of the stratigraphic sequence and the processes of formation and post-depositional disturbance of the archaeological sites in a fluvial environment. Archaeological excavations, soundings, stratigraphic profile surveys, sequence correlations and numerical dates were carried out. The dispersion of artifacts on the surface and cave erosion was recorded, and a lithic taphonomy study was carried out. Four Paleoindian sites located in the Touro Passo Formation were analyzed: Barranca Grande, RS-I-66: Milton Almeida, RS-I-69: Laranjito and Casualidade. The new chronologies obtained for the initial period of human occupation in the region represent a scientific advance for the study of hunter-gatherer occupations during the Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene in the triple border of Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay. - Este libro presenta los resultados obtenidos durante los estudios geoarqueológicos realizados en la localidad Touro Passo, municipio de Uruguaiana, Brasil. Alli se reubicaron los sitios paleoindios estudiados por el equipo del PRONAPA-Programa Nacional de Investigaciones Arqueológicas en las décadas de 1960 y 1970 y han sido reconocidos otros con excelente potencial de estudio. Los sitios arqueológicos están situados en las planicies aluviales del Río Uruguay y del Arroyo Touro Passo y corresponden a la transición Pleistoceno tardío-Holoceno temprano. El enfoque geoarqueológico permitió la comprensión de la secuencia estratigráfica y los procesos de formación y perturbación postdepositacional de los sitios arqueológicos en ambiente fluvial. Fueron realizadas excavaciones arqueológicas, sondeos, relevamiento de perfiles-estratigráficos, correlaciones de secuencias y fechados numéricos. Se registró la dispersión de los artefactos en superficie y en las cárvavas de erosión, y se realizó, un estudio de tafonomía lítica. Se analizaron 4 sitios paleoindios situados en la Formación Touro Passo: Barranca Grande, RS-I-66: Milton Almeida, RS-I-69: Laranjito y Casualidade. Las nuevas cronologías obtenidas para el período inicial de ocupación humana en la región, representan un avance científico para el estudio de las ocupaciones cazadoras-recolectoras durante el Pleistoceno tardío-Holoceno temprano en la triple frontera Brasil, Argentina y Uruguay.
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