The Whys and How of Ultrafast X ray Science

The Whys and How of Ultrafast X ray Science

The invention of ultrafast optical lasers with pulse durations comparable to vibrational periods in solids and motions of molecules undergoing structural changes has provided a look at the dynamics that govern important processes in nature.

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ISBN: OCLC:940481429

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The invention of ultrafast optical lasers with pulse durations comparable to vibrational periods in solids and motions of molecules undergoing structural changes has provided a look at the dynamics that govern important processes in nature. X-rays, on the other hand, with wave-lengths comparable to the distances between atoms, have been the key tool for the study of the average structure of liquids and solids at atomic resolution. With recent developments in ultrafast x-ray sources, the combination of appropriate temporal resolution and spatial resolution is opening new scientific opportunities for direct observation of atomic-scale dynamics. The Sub-Picosecond Pulse Source at SLAC is just such a source. The science and technology of ultrafast x-ray studies will be discussed in this context, as will the extension of these studies to opportunities afforded by the Linear Coherent Light Source x-ray free-electron laser.
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Kyoto Summer Institute

Kyoto Summer Institute

We propose to develop a true user facility for ultrafast x-ray science at the Advanced Light Source. This facility will be unique in the world, and will fill a critical need for the growing ultrafast x-ray research community.

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ISBN: OCLC:637593829

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Ultrafast X ray Science at the Advanced Light Source

Ultrafast X ray Science at the Advanced Light Source

In this paper, we review recent work in ultrafast x-ray science at the ALS including time-resolved diffraction measurements and efforts to develop dedicated beamlines for femtosecond x-ray experiments.

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ISBN: OCLC:68491955

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Page: 5

View: 779

Our scientific understanding of the static or time-averaged structure of condensed matter on the atomic scale has been dramatically advanced by direct structural measurements using x-ray techniques and modern synchrotron sources. Of course the structure of condensed matter is not static, and to understanding the behavior of condensed matter at the most fundamental level requires structural measurements on the time scale on which atoms move. The evolution of condensed-matter structure, via the making and breaking of chemical bonds and the rearrangement of atoms, occurs on the fundamental time scale of a vibrational period, (almost equal to)100 fs. Atomic motion and structural dynamics on this time scale ultimately determine the course of phase transitions in solids, the kinetic pathways of chemical reactions, and even the efficiency and function of biological processes. The integration of x-ray measurement techniques, a high-brightness femtosecond x-ray source, femtosecond lasers, and stroboscopic pump-probe techniques will provide the unique capability to address fundamental scientific questions in solid-state physics, chemistry, AMO physics, and biology involving structural dynamics. In this paper, we review recent work in ultrafast x-ray science at the ALS including time-resolved diffraction measurements and efforts to develop dedicated beamlines for femtosecond x-ray experiments.
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Ultrafast X Ray Science

Ultrafast X Ray Science

Focusing on the interaction with atoms, molecules and nanoparticles the work describes the basic principles behind novel intense radiation sources and covers nanocrystallography and time-resolved applications as well.

Author: Artem Rudenko

Publisher:

ISBN: 3110542617

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Page: 250

View: 996

Recent advances of intense short-pulse X-ray sources have created the new field of ultrafast X-ray science, which promises scientific breakthroughs in Physics, Material Sciences and Chemistry. Focusing on the interaction with atoms, molecules and nanoparticles the work describes the basic principles behind novel intense radiation sources and covers nanocrystallography and time-resolved applications as well.
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A Recirculating Linac based Facility for Ultrafast X ray Science

A Recirculating Linac based Facility for Ultrafast X ray Science

An injector linac accelerates the beam to 120 MeV, and is followed by four passes through a 600-720 MeV recirculating linac. We outline the major technical components of the proposed facility.

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ISBN: OCLC:68491722

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Page: 5

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We present an updated design for a proposed source of ultra-fast synchrotron radiation pulses based on a recirculating superconducting linac, in particular the incorporation of EUV and soft x-ray production. The project has been named LUX - Linac-based Ultrafast X-ray facility. The source produces intense x-ray pulses with duration of 10-100 fs at a 10 kHz repetition rate, with synchronization of 10 s fs, optimized for the study of ultra-fast dynamics. The photon range covers the EUV to hard x-ray spectrum by use of seeded harmonic generation in undulators, and a specialized technique for ultra-short-pulse photon production in the 1-10 keV range. High-brightness rf photocathodes produce electron bunches which are optimized either for coherent emission in free-electron lasers, or to provide a large x/y emittance ration and small vertical emittance which allows for manipulation to produce short-pulse hard x-rays. An injector linac accelerates the beam to 120 MeV, and is followed by four passes through a 600-720 MeV recirculating linac. We outline the major technical components of the proposed facility.
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Ultrafast X ray Science at the Sub Picosecond Pulse Source

Ultrafast X ray Science at the Sub Picosecond Pulse Source

The ultrafast, high brightness x-ray free electron laser (XFEL) sources of the future have the potential to revolutionize the study of time dependent phenomena in the natural sciences.

Author: Kelly J. Gaffney

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:316308896

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Page: 18

View: 875

The ultrafast, high brightness x-ray free electron laser (XFEL) sources of the future have the potential to revolutionize the study of time dependent phenomena in the natural sciences. These linear accelerator (linac) sources will generate femtosecond (fs) x-ray pulses with peak flux comparable to conventional lasers, and far exceeding all other x-ray sources. The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) has pioneered the development of linac science and technology for decades, and since 2000 SLAC and the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) have focused on the development of linac based ultrafast electron and x-ray sources. This development effort has led to the creation of a new x-ray source, called the Sub-Picosecond Pulse Source (SPPS), which became operational in 2003 [1]. The SPPS represents the first step toward the world's first hard x-ray free electron laser (XFEL), the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), due to begin operation at SLAC in 2009. The SPPS relies on the same linac-based acceleration and electron bunch compression schemes that will be used at the LCLS to generate ultrashort, ultrahigh peak brightness electron bunches [2]. This involves creating an energy chirp on the electron bunch during acceleration and subsequent compression of the bunch in a series of energy-dispersive magnetic chicanes to create 80 fs electron pulses. The SPPS has provided an excellent opportunity to demonstrate the viability of these electron bunch compression schemes and to pursue goals relevant to the utilization and validation of XFEL light sources.
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A Dedicated Synchrotron Light Source for Ultrafast X ray Science

A Dedicated Synchrotron Light Source for Ultrafast X ray Science

We describe a proposed femtosecond synchrotron radiation x-ray source based on a flat-beam RF gun and a recirculating superconducting linac that provides beam to an array of undulators and bend magnets. X-ray pulse durations of

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ISBN: OCLC:68462407

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Page: 5

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We describe a proposed femtosecond synchrotron radiation x-ray source based on a flat-beam RF gun and a recirculating superconducting linac that provides beam to an array of undulators and bend magnets. X-ray pulse durations of
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Ultrafast X Ray Coherent Control

Ultrafast X Ray Coherent Control

This main purpose of this grant was to develop the nascent eld of ultrafast x-ray science using accelerator-based sources, and originally developed from an idea that a laser could modulate the di racting properties of a x-ray di racting ...

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ISBN: OCLC:953406029

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View: 430

This main purpose of this grant was to develop the nascent eld of ultrafast x-ray science using accelerator-based sources, and originally developed from an idea that a laser could modulate the di racting properties of a x-ray di racting crystal on a fast enough time scale to switch out in time a shorter slice from the already short x-ray pulses from a synchrotron. The research was carried out primarily at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) sector 7 at Argonne National Laboratory and the Sub-Picosecond Pulse Source (SPPS) at SLAC; in anticipation of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free electron laser that became operational in 2009 at SLAC (all National User Facilities operated by BES). The research centered on the generation, control and measurement of atomic-scale dynamics in atomic, molecular optical and condensed matter systems with temporal and spatial resolution . It helped develop the ultrafast physics, techniques and scienti c case for using the unprecedented characteristics of the LCLS. The project has been very successful with results have been disseminated widely and in top journals, have been well cited in the eld, and have laid the foundation for many experiments being performed on the LCLS, the world's rst hard x-ray free electron laser.
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A Recirculating Linac Based Synchrotron Light Source for Ultrafast X ray Science

A Recirculating Linac Based Synchrotron Light Source for Ultrafast X ray Science

LBNL is pursuing a multi-divisional initiative that has this year further developed design studies and the scientific program for a facility dedicated to the production of x-ray pulses with ultra-short time duration.

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ISBN: OCLC:68483712

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Page: 5

View: 766

LBNL is pursuing a multi-divisional initiative that has this year further developed design studies and the scientific program for a facility dedicated to the production of x-ray pulses with ultra-short time duration. Our proposed x-ray facility [1] has the short x-ray pulse length ((almost equal to);60 fs FWHM) necessary to study very fast dynamics, high flux (approximately 1011 photons/sec/0.1 percentBW) to study weakly scattering systems, and tuneability over 1-10 keV photon energy. The photon production section of the machine accomodates seven 2m long undulators and six 2T field dipole magnets. The x-ray pulse repetition rate of 10 kHz is matched to studies of dynamical processes (initiated by ultra-short laser pulses) that typicaly have a long recovery time or are not generally cyclic or reversible and need time to allow relaxation, replacement, or flow of the sample. The technique for producing ultra-short x-ray pulses uses relatively long electron bunches to minimise high-peak-current collective effects, and the ultimate x-ray duration is achieved by a combination of bunch manipulation and optical compression.
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X Ray Free Electron Lasers

X Ray Free Electron Lasers

This book introduces the principles and properties of currently operating and future XFELs, before outlining applications in materials science, chemistry and biology.

Author: Uwe Bergmann

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 9781788012027

Category: Science

Page: 463

View: 556

The ultra-bright femtosecond X-ray pulses provided by X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) open up opportunities to study the structure and dynamics of a wide variety of systems beyond what is possible with synchrotron sources. This book introduces the principles and properties of currently operating and future XFELs, before outlining applications in materials science, chemistry and biology. Edited by pioneers in this exciting field, and featuring contributions from leading researchers, this book is ideal for researchers working with XFELs, synchrotron radiation, ultrafast and femtosecond crystallography and femtosecond spectroscopy.
Categories: Science

LUX a Recirculating Linac based Facility for Ultrafast X ray Science

LUX   a Recirculating Linac based Facility for Ultrafast X ray Science

We present recent developments in design concepts for LUX - a source of ultra-short synchrotron radiation pulses based on a recirculating superconducting linac.

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ISBN: OCLC:68495091

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Page: 5

View: 385

We present recent developments in design concepts for LUX - a source of ultra-short synchrotron radiation pulses based on a recirculating superconducting linac. The source produces high-flux x-ray pulses with duration of 100 fs or less at a 10 kHz repetition rate, optimized for the study of ultra-fast dynamics across many fields of science [1]. Cascaded harmonic generation in free-electron lasers (FEL's) produces coherent radiation in the VUV-soft x-ray regime, and a specialized technique is used to compress spontaneous emission for ultra-short-pulse photon production in the 1-10 keV range. High-brightness electron bunches of 2-3 mm-mrad emittance at 1 nC charge in 30 ps duration are produced in an rf photocathode gun and compressed to 3 ps duration following an injector linac, and recirculated three times through a 1 GeV main linac. In each return path, independently tunable harmonic cascades are inserted to produce seeded FEL radiation in selected photon energy ranges from approximately 20 eV with a single stage of harmonic generation, to 1 keV with a four-stage cascade. The lattice is designed to minimize emittance growth from effects such as coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR), and resistive wall wakefields. Timing jitter between pump lasers and x-ray pulses is minimized by use of a stable optical master oscillator, distributing timing signals over actively stabilized fiber-optic, phase-locking all lasers to the master oscillator, and generating all rf signals from the master oscillator. We describe technical developments including techniques for minimizing power dissipation in a high repetition rate rf photocathode gun, beam dynamics in two injector configurations, independently tunable beamlines for VUV and soft x-ray production by cascaded harmonic generation, a fast kicker design, timing systems for providing synchronization between experimental pump lasers and the x-ray pulse, and beamline design for maintaining nm-scale density modulation.
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Nonlinear Optics Quantum Optics and Ultrafast Phenomena with X Rays

Nonlinear Optics  Quantum Optics  and Ultrafast Phenomena with X Rays

Nonlinear Optics, Quantum Optics, and Ultrafast Phenomena with X-Rays is an introduction to cutting-edge science that is beginning to emerge on state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation facilities and will come to flourish with the x-ray free ...

Author: Bernhard Adams

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461503873

Category: Science

Page: 330

View: 651

Nonlinear Optics, Quantum Optics, and Ultrafast Phenomena with X-Rays is an introduction to cutting-edge science that is beginning to emerge on state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation facilities and will come to flourish with the x-ray free-electron lasers currently being planned. It is intended for the use by scientists at synchrotron radiation facilities working with the combination of x-rays and lasers and those preparing for the science at x-ray free-electron lasers. In the past decade synchrotron radiation sources have experienced a tremendous increase in their brilliance and other figures of merit. This progress, driven strongly by the scientific applications, is still going on and may actually be accelerating with the advent of x-ray free-electron lasers. As a result, a confluence of x-ray and laser physics is taking place, due to the increasing importance of laser concepts, such as coherence and nonlinear optics to the x-ray community and the importance of x-ray optics to the laser-generation of ultrashort pulses of x-rays.
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Ultrafast Science Opportunities with Electron Microscopy

Ultrafast Science Opportunities with Electron Microscopy

This document describes a similar future transformation. In Transmission Electron Microscopy, ultrafast relativistic (MeV energy) electron pulses can achieve unsurpassed spatial and temporal resolution.

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ISBN: OCLC:951616833

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Page: 20

View: 922

X-rays and electrons are two of the most fundamental probes of matter. When the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the world's first x-ray free electron laser, began operation in 2009, it transformed ultrafast science with the ability to generate laser-like x-ray pulses from the manipulation of relativistic electron beams. This document describes a similar future transformation. In Transmission Electron Microscopy, ultrafast relativistic (MeV energy) electron pulses can achieve unsurpassed spatial and temporal resolution. Ultrafast temporal resolution will be the next frontier in electron microscopy and can ideally complement ultrafast x-ray science done with free electron lasers. This document describes the Grand Challenge science opportunities in chemistry, material science, physics and biology that arise from an MeV ultrafast electron diffraction & microscopy facility, especially when coupled with linac-based intense THz and X-ray pump capabilities.
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Controlling X rays With Light

Controlling X rays With Light

An intense field is required to achieve this rapid response. Here an intense optical control pulse isobserved to efficiently modulate photoelectric absorption for x-rays and to create an ultrafast transparency window.

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ISBN: OCLC:727264268

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Page: 31

View: 389

Ultrafast x-ray science is an exciting frontier that promises the visualization of electronic, atomic and molecular dynamics on atomic time and length scales. A largelyunexplored area of ultrafast x-ray science is the use of light to control how x-rays interact with matter. In order to extend control concepts established for long wavelengthprobes to the x-ray regime, the optical control field must drive a coherent electronic response on a timescale comparable to femtosecond core-hole lifetimes. An intense field is required to achieve this rapid response. Here an intense optical control pulse isobserved to efficiently modulate photoelectric absorption for x-rays and to create an ultrafast transparency window. We demonstrate an application of x-ray transparencyrelevant to ultrafast x-ray sources: an all-photonic temporal cross-correlation measurement of a femtosecond x-ray pulse. The ability to control x-ray/matterinteractions with light will create new opportunities at current and next-generation x-ray light sources.
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Physics of and Science with X Ray Free Electron Lasers

Physics of and Science with X Ray Free Electron Lasers

This book presents material from the Enrico Fermi summer school: Physics of and Science with X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers, held at the Enrico Fermi International School of Physics in Varenna, Italy, from 26 June - 1 July 2017.

Author: J. Hastings

Publisher: IOS Press

ISBN: 9781643681337

Category: Science

Page: 272

View: 864

Many X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers (X-FELs) have been designed, built and commissioned since the first lasing of the Linac Coherent Light Source in the hard and soft X-ray regions, and great progress has been made in improving their performance and extending their capabilities. Meanwhile, experimental techniques to exploit the unique properties of X-FELs to explore atomic and molecular systems of interest to physics, chemistry, biology and the material sciences have also been developed. As a result, our knowledge of atomic and molecular science has been greatly extended. Nevertheless, there is still much to be accomplished, and the potential for discovery with X-FELs is still largely unexplored. The next generation of scientists will need to be well versed in both particle beams/FEL physics and X-ray photon science. This book presents material from the Enrico Fermi summer school: Physics of and Science with X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers, held at the Enrico Fermi International School of Physics in Varenna, Italy, from 26 June - 1 July 2017. The lectures presented at the school were aimed at introducing graduate students and young scientists to this fast growing and exciting scientific area, and subjects covered include basic accelerator and FEL physics, as well as an introduction to the main research topics in X-FEL-based biology, atomic molecular optical science, material sciences, high-energy density physics and chemistry. Bridging the gap between accelerator/FEL physicists and scientists from other disciplines, the book will be of interest to all those working in the field.
Categories: Science

Lectures on Ultrafast Intense Laser Science 1

Lectures on Ultrafast Intense Laser Science 1

This book features tutorial-like chapters on ultrafast intense laser science by world-leading scientists who are active in the rapidly developing interdisciplinary research field.

Author: Kaoru Yamanouchi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540959440

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 314

View: 438

This book features tutorial-like chapters on ultrafast intense laser science by world-leading scientists who are active in the rapidly developing interdisciplinary research field. It is written to give a comprehensive survey of all the essential aspects of ultrafast intense laser science. The volume covers theories of atoms and molecules in intense laser fields, high intensity physics scaled to long wavelength, pulse shaping techniques, non-linear optics in the XUV region, ultrafast X-ray spectroscopy, quantum emission and applications, filamentation, and ultraintense-laser matter interaction.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

X Ray Lasers 2018

X Ray Lasers 2018

The book highlights advances in a wide range of fields including laser and discharge-pumped plasma X-ray lasers, the injection and seeding of X-ray amplifiers, high-order harmonic generation and ultrafast phenomena, X-ray free electron ...

Author: Michaela Kozlová

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030354534

Category: Science

Page: 199

View: 746

These proceedings gather a selection of invited and contributed papers presented during the 16th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers (ICXRL 2018), held in Prague, Czech Republic, from 7 to 12 October 2018. The conference is part of an ongoing series dedicated to recent developments in the science and technology of X-ray lasers and other coherent X-ray sources, with an additional focus on supporting technologies, instrumentation and applications. The book highlights advances in a wide range of fields including laser and discharge-pumped plasma X-ray lasers, the injection and seeding of X-ray amplifiers, high-order harmonic generation and ultrafast phenomena, X-ray free electron lasers, novel schemes for (in)coherent XUV, X-ray and γ-ray generation, XUV and X-ray imaging, optics and metrology, X-rays and γ-rays for fundamental science, the practical implementation of X-ray lasers, XFELs and super-intense lasers, and the applications and industrial uses of X-ray lasers.
Categories: Science

X Ray Free Electron Laser

X Ray Free Electron Laser

This paper also outlines the near term upgrade (LCLS-II) and motivating science opportunities for ultrafast X-rays in the 0.25–5 keV range at repetition ...

Author: Kiyoshi Ueda

Publisher: MDPI

ISBN: 9783038428794

Category: Mathematics

Page: 456

View: 194

This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "X-Ray Free-Electron Laser" that was published in Applied Sciences
Categories: Mathematics

X Ray Free Electron Lasers

X Ray Free Electron Lasers

15.5 The “from Local to Global” Approach: Ultrafast X-ray Spectroscopy and ... in optical laser sciences, X-ray laser science allows the coupling of X-ray ...

Author: Uwe Bergman

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 9781849731003

Category: Science

Page: 463

View: 280

Edited by pioneers in this exciting field, and featuring contributions from leading researchers, this book discusses the principles and applications of XFELs.
Categories: Science