Transposable Elements and Genome Evolution

Transposable Elements and Genome Evolution

We used a modeling approach to investigate how the rate of self-fertilization influences the population dynamics of transposable elements. Contrasting effects of the breeding system were observed under selection based on transposon ...

Author: J. F. McDonald

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401141567

Category: Science

Page: 299

View: 413

Once considered merely `selfish' or `parasitic' DNA, transposable elements are today recognized as being of major biological significance. Not only are these elements a major source of mutation, they have contributed both directly and indirectly to the evolution of genome structure and function. On October 8-10, 1999, 100 molecular biologists and evolutionists representing 11 countries met on the campus of The University of Georgia in Athens for the inaugural Georgia Genetics Symposium. The topics of presentations ranged from how the elements themselves have evolved to the impact transposable elements have had on the evolution of their host genomes. The papers in this volume therefore represent state-of-the-art thinking, by leading world experts in the field, on the evolutionary significance of transposable elements.
Categories: Science

Transposable Elements

Transposable Elements

4 The family of Mul)R/Mu transposable elements ............................... 197 4.1 Early genetic studies .......................................................... 198 4.2 The structure of Mutator elements .

Author: Esra Galun

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401735827

Category: Nature

Page: 335

View: 769

OY (])PONEOYLI TOIA YTA IIOAAOI OKOEOJII Many fail to grasp what they have seen, and cannot judge what they have learned, ErKYPEOYLI OYL1E MA®ONTEE ITINOEKOYIT although they tell themselves they know. EQYTOJII L1E L10KEOYLI Heraclitus of Ephesus, 500 BC " ... everyone that is not speckled and C~T~v: N,;~, 'T,ji~ ,~~~N ,tuN '= spotted among the goats and brown among the sheep, that shall be counted ~~N N,n =,~, c~w=== c,m stolen with me." Genesis Chapter 30 From Heraclitus of Ephesus and later philosophers, we can deduce that observation of natural phenomena, even when keen and accurate, will not result in meaningful knowledge unless combined with analysis of the mind; just as analysis of the mind without acquaintance with natural phenomena will not suffice to grasp the perceivable world. Only familiarity with phenomena combined with mental analysis will lead to additional knowledge. The citation from Genesis, Chapter 30, is part of an unusual story. It tells how Jacob received, as payment for his service to Laban, the bulk of Laban's herds. By agreement, Jacob was to receive "only" the newborn speckled and spotted goats and the newborn brown sheep that differed completely from their parents. Did Jacob know that there was instability (transposable elements?) in the pigmentation of Laban's herd? It is reasonable to assume that Jacob combined his keen observation with analysis of his mind in order to predict the outcome: most of the newborns were indeed speckled, spotted or brown.
Categories: Nature

Transposable Elements in Plants

Transposable Elements in Plants

the maize genome , and could be explained by the models proposed for excision of plant transposable elements . In two revertants , however , some terminal sequences of the Ds1 element were found to have been left behind at the excision ...

Author: Andrew Kalinski

Publisher: DIANE Publishing

ISBN: 0788119893

Category: Plant molecular genetics

Page: 194

View: 776

The following terms were used in this search: plant/s, transposable element/s, and mobile element/s. Includes the following information for the sponsored projects: title, investigators, performing organization, location of performing organization, objectives, and approach. The bibliography includes 129 citations from 1984 through 1991, and 162 citations 1992 through Sep. 1994. Some citations have abstracts.
Categories: Plant molecular genetics

Transposable Elements

Transposable Elements

Liao LW, Rosenzweig B, Hirsh D (1983) Analysis of a transposable element in Caenorhabditis elegans. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 80: 3585–3589 Lidholm DA, Lohe AR, Hart! DL (1993) The transposable element mariner mediates germline ...

Author: Heinz Saedler

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642797958

Category: Science

Page: 234

View: 400

Most genes are lined up on chromosomes like pearls on a string. However, a certain class of genes differ by being highly mobile; and the mecha they are termed transposons. Their properties of transposition will be described in this book. nism is the rule, irregularities like a spot on a Where uniformity plain-coloured surface strike the eye. Thus the phenomenon of has long been a source of fascina variegation among organisms In plants, variegation is most easily recognised as irregulari tion. in pigment patterns on leaves, flowers and seeds, but other ties as leaf or flower form might also show characteristics such In 1588, such a variegation pattern was described in variegation. kernels of Zea mays by Jacob Theodor of Bergzabern, a village is so detailed that if south of Strasbourg. The report by Theodor one counts the different kernel phenotypes described it be is looking at a Mendelian segrega comes clear that the author had tion. It goes without saying that Latin-American Indians already bred such variegated material much earlier, but no descriptions have yet been uncovered. Meanwhile, genetically heritable variegation patterns have been described at many different loci in more than 34 different plant species.
Categories: Science

Plant Transposable Elements

Plant Transposable Elements

Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:8524—8529 Cantu D, Vanzetti LS, Sumner A, Dubcovsky M, Matvienko M, Distelfeld A, Michelmore RW, Dubcovsky J (2010) Small RNAs, DNA methylation and transposable elements in wheat.

Author: Marie-Angèle Grandbastien

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642318429

Category: Science

Page: 330

View: 847

Transposable elements are short lengths of DNA with the capacity to move between different points within a genome. This process can affect the function of genes at or near the insertion site. The present book gives an overview of the impact of transposable elements on plant genomes and explains how to recognize and study transposable elements, e.g. by using state-of-the-art strategies like “new generation sequencing.” Moreover, the impact of transposable elements on plant genome structure and function is reviewed in detail, and also illustrated in examples and case studies. The book is intended both for readers familiar with the field and for newcomers. With large-scale sequencing becoming increasingly available, more and more people will come across transposable element sequences in their data, and this volume will hopefully help to convince them that they are not just “junk DNA.”
Categories: Science

Transposable Elements and Evolution

Transposable Elements and Evolution

However, the relatively few examples of introns of this type lead us to conclude that transposable elements were not the original introns and that most introns did not arise from transposable elements. Rather, transposable elements ...

Author: J. F. McDonald

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401120289

Category: Medical

Page: 347

View: 410

In the summer of 1992 a distinguished group of molecular, population and evolutionary geneticists assembled on the campus of the University of Georgia in Athens, USA to discuss the relevance of their research to the role played by transposable elements (TEs) in evolution. The meeting consisted of a series of informal discussions of issues brought up in papers written by the participants and distributed among them prior to the meeting. These papers and the transcripts of the ensuing discussions are presented in this volume.
Categories: Medical

Plant Transposable Elements

Plant Transposable Elements

THE RECURRENS PHENOTYPES Transposable elements inserted in genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis usually conf$£u'r'egate's gr "recurrens" phenotype. The unstable mutant pallida (pal") has ivory flowers with randomly distributed ...

Author: O. Nelson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781468455502

Category: Medical

Page: 404

View: 444

Transposon tagging can work. Even though most of our understand ing about the factors that contribute to a successful tagging experiment has been accumulated from a limited number of experiments using different transposable elements in different genetic backgrounds, it is still possible to draw some conclusions regarding the best experimental strategies for gene tagging. In our experience, Spm has proved to be a good element for transposon tagging. The frequency of recovering mutable alleles in duced by Spm is not significantly different from that for Ac-Ds or for Mu 6 (summarized in Ref. 22) and varies from about 10- to 10=zr:-8pm has the unique advantage, however, in that all of the members of thiSfumily that have been examined thus far are homologous to each other at the DNA level. Therefore, by combining molecular analysis with genetic segre gation, it is possible to identify and isolate alleles that are due to insertions of either autonomous or nonautonomous Spm elements. There are definite steps one can take to increase the chances of de tecting a transposition into the gene of interest. The most important step is to select a genetic background in which the desired phenotype will be easy to screen. If the phenotype is not likely to be mutable, then tester lines should be constructed so as to contain flanking markers that can aid in subsequent segregation analyses.
Categories: Medical

Evolution and Impact of Transposable Elements

Evolution and Impact of Transposable Elements

Genotypic effects, maternal effects and grand-maternal effects of immobilized derivatives of the transposable element mariner. Genetics 140: 183– 192. Lohe, A.R., E.N. Moriyama, D.-A. Lidholm & D.L. Hartl, 1995. Horizontal transmission ...

Author: Pierre Capy

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401148986

Category: Science

Page: 309

View: 948

During the last 50 years, the perception oftransposable elements (TEs) has changed considerably from selfish DNA to sequences that may contribute significantly to genome function and evolution. The recent increased interest in TEs is based on the realization that they are a major genetic component (at least 10--20%) of all organisms and a major contributor to the mutation process. It is currently estimated that 70--80% of spontaneous mutations are the result of TE-mediated insertions, deletions, or chromosomal rearrangements. Thus, it seems at least plausible that TEs may playa significant role in the adaptation and evolution of natural populations and species. The ubiquity of TEs suggests that they are an old component of genomes which have been vertically transmitted through generations over evolutionary time. However, detailed analyses carried out over the last 20 years have revealed several unusual features of TE evolution: (i) TEs can be horizontally transferred between species; (ii) TE evolutionary rates can be dramatically increased by specific inactivation processes, such as the RIP (Repeat Induced Point mutation) mechanism in fungi; (iii) TEs can influence the regulation of other TEs by insertion or deletion; (iv) different classes of TEs in even distantly related species can be remarkably similar in both structure and function.
Categories: Science

Maydica

Maydica

About evolutionary role of transposable elements In conclusion we can generalize that changed frequencies of WER in LFWER ... by changes in state of the components of the Bg-rbg system of transposable elements controlling this trait.

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: STANFORD:36105029404527

Category: Corn

Page: 434

View: 427

Journal devoted to maize and allied species.
Categories: Corn

Entomology Abstracts

Entomology Abstracts

... Rates of Osvaldo Transposon bari - 1 , Wake Up of Transposable Elements Following Drosophila simulans Worldwide ... Tsessebe , Topi and Tiang : three distinct Tc1 - like transposable elements in the malaria vector Transposon Tiang ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015045832055

Category: Entomology

Page: 952

View: 654

Categories: Entomology