Tissue Mechanics

Tissue Mechanics

The objective of this text is to describe the nature of the composite components of a tissue, the cellular processes that produce these constituents, the assembly of the constituents into a hierarchical structure, and the behavior of the ...

Author: Stephen C. Cowin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387499857

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 682

View: 279

The structures of living tissues are continually changing due to growth and response to the tissue environment, including the mechanical environment. Tissue Mechanics is an in-depth look at the mechanics of tissues. Tissue Mechanics describes the nature of the composite components of a tissue, the cellular processes that produce these constituents, the assembly of the constituents into a hierarchical structure, and the behavior of the tissue’s composite structure in the adaptation to its mechanical environment. Organized as a textbook for the student needing to acquire the core competencies, Tissue Mechanics will meet the demands of advanced undergraduate or graduate coursework in Biomedical Engineering, as well as, Chemical, Civil, and Mechanical Engineering. Key features: Detailed Illustrations Example problems, including problems at the end of sections A separate solutions manual available for course instructors A website (http://tissue-mechanics.com/) that has been established to provide supplemental material for the book, including downloadable additional chapters on specific tissues, downloadable PowerPoint presentations of all the book's chapters, and additional exercises and examples for the existing chapters. About the Authors: Stephen C. Cowin is a City University of New York Distinguished Professor, Departments of Biomedical and Mechanical Engineering, City College of the City University of New York and also an Adjunct Professor of Orthopaedics, at the Mt. Sinai School of Medicine in New York, New York. In 1985 he received the Society of Tulane Engineers and Lee H. Johnson Award for Teaching Excellence and a recipient of the European Society of Biomechanics Research Award in 1994. In 1999 he received the H. R. Lissner medal of the ASME for contributions to biomedical engineering. In 2004 he was elected to the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) and he also received the Maurice A. Biot medal of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). Stephen B. Doty is a Senior Scientist at Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York and Adjunct Professor, School of Dental and Oral Surgery, Columbia University, New York, NY. He has over 100 publications in the field of anatomy, developmental biology, and the physiology of skeletal and connective tissues. His honors include several commendations for participation in the Russian/NASA spaceflights, the Spacelab Life Science NASA spaceflights, and numerous Shuttle missions that studied the influence of spaceflight on skeletal physiology. He presently is on the scientific advisory board of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, Houston, Texas.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Skeletal Tissue Mechanics

Skeletal Tissue Mechanics

It is now time to bring these two aspects of skeletal tissue mechanics together: to
learn how strong bones are relative to the loads they must bear, and how the
mechanical properties of bones depend on their structure. Keywords Stress •
Strain ...

Author: R. Bruce Martin

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781493930029

Category: Medical

Page: 501

View: 480

This textbook describes the biomechanics of bone, cartilage, tendons and ligaments. It is rigorous in its approach to the mechanical properties of the skeleton yet it does not neglect the biological properties of skeletal tissue or require mathematics beyond calculus. Time is taken to introduce basic mechanical and biological concepts, and the approaches used for some of the engineering analyses are purposefully limited. The book is an effective bridge between engineering, veterinary, biological and medical disciplines and will be welcomed by students and researchers in biomechanics, orthopedics, physical anthropology, zoology and veterinary science. This book also: Maximizes reader insights into the mechanical properties of bone, fatigue and fracture resistance of bone and mechanical adaptability of the skeleton Illustrates synovial joint mechanics and mechanical properties of ligaments and tendons in an easy-to-understand way Provides exercises at the end of each chapter
Categories: Medical

Cardiovascular Soft Tissue Mechanics

Cardiovascular Soft Tissue Mechanics

This special volume of the Journal of Elasticity represents the first in a new p- gram dedicated to the occasional publication of collections of invited, reviewed papers of topical interest.

Author: Stephen C. Cowin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780306483899

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 246

View: 520

This special volume of the Journal of Elasticity represents the first in a new p- gram dedicated to the occasional publication of collections of invited, reviewed papers of topical interest. The purpose of this program is to spotlight the dev- opments and applications in the mechanics of materials within specific areas that can enhance growth and provide insight for the advancement of the field as well as promote fundamental understanding and basic discovery. Soft Tissue Mechanics is an area of biomechanics that draws heavily upon f- damental ideas and material models from nonlinear elasticity and viscoelasticity. A major goal of this research is to understand those mechanics properties of heart, artery, collagen and skeletal muscle tissue that can be used for the diagnosis of health problems and the improvement of human life. This volume illustrates how experiment, modeling and computation is currently employed in this emerging field. May 2001 ROGER FOSDICK Editor-in-Chief Journal of Elasticity 61: ix–xii, 2000. ix Preface There are two primary areas for the application of elasticity in the biomechanics of tissues: hard tissue mechanics (e.g., bone, teeth, horns, etc.) and soft tissue - chanics (e.g., skin, tendons, arteries, etc.). The distinguishing feature between these tissue types is the amount of physiological “normal” deformation they experience. While “hard” tissues only experience small deformations, soft tissues typically experience large deformations. From a biomechanics viewpoint soft tissues fall within the realm of finite elasticity.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

IUTAM Symposium on Cellular Molecular and Tissue Mechanics

IUTAM Symposium on Cellular  Molecular and Tissue Mechanics

Recent studies have shown that mechanical and chemical factors modulate cell
function which has profound implications on tissue growth and remodeling. As
such, creating engineered tissue replacement options requires a detailed ...

Author: Krishna Garikipati

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9048133483

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 285

View: 962

The invited papers in this book reflect the current understanding of the role mechanics play in the biological system at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels. Topics range from tissue engineering and mechanics to mechanics of cells and biomolecules.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Biological Tissue Mechanics with Fibres Modelled as One dimensional Cosserat Continua Applications to Cardiac Tissue

Biological Tissue Mechanics with Fibres Modelled as One dimensional Cosserat Continua  Applications to Cardiac Tissue

Highlights: Cosserat-fibre continuum-based transversely isotropic material law for biological soft tissue. Investigation of the impact of higher-order stress and strain contributions in modelling of heart muscle tissue.

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:1052031239

Category:

Page:

View: 284

Highlights: Cosserat-fibre continuum-based transversely isotropic material law for biological soft tissue. Investigation of the impact of higher-order stress and strain contributions in modelling of heart muscle tissue. Demonstration of the improved robustness of the Cosserat-fibre approach as compared with a classical continuum formulation when applied to highly heterogeneous and non-uniform material anisotropy distributions. Computational modelling of the rat left ventricle during passive filling. Abstract: Classically, the elastic behaviour of cardiac tissue mechanics is modelled using anisotropic strain energy functions capturing the averaged behaviour of its fibrous micro-structure. The strain energy function can be derived via representation theorems for anisotropic functions where a suitable non-linear strain tensor, e.g. the Green strain tensor, describes locally the current state of strain (Holzapfel and Ogden, 2009; Zheng, 1994 ). These approaches are usually of phenomenological nature and do not elucidate on the complex heterogeneous material composition of cardiac tissue (Rosenberg and Cimrman, 2003). In this research the fibrous characteristics of the myocardium are modelled by one-dimensional Cosserat continua. This additionally allows for the inclusion of non-local effects due to the heterogeneous material composition at smaller scales. Specifically, the non-local material response is linked to higher-order deformation modes associated with twisting and bending of an assembly of muscle fibres arising from hierarchical multi-scale features within a representative volume element (RVE). In this sense, a scaling parameter characteristic for the tissue's underlying micro-structure, becomes a material parameter of the formulation. As the anisotropic material composition of the myocardium throughout the heart is highly non-uniform, the ability to implicitly account for scale-dependent torsion and bending effects in the constitutive law gives this approach an advanced material description over classical formulations. The assumed hyperelastic material behaviour of myocardial tissue is represented by a non-linear strain energy function which includes contributions linked to the Cosserat -fibre continuum and complementary terms which refer to the extra-cellular matrix. Utilising the Element-free Galerkin method, simulations of specimen shear cubes and the left ventricle undergoing passive filling are introduced to investigate ventricular tissue mechanics.
Categories:

Multiscale Soft Tissue Mechanics and Mechanobiology

Multiscale Soft Tissue Mechanics and Mechanobiology

This volume covers aspects of multiscale modeling of the mechanics and mechanobiology of soft biological tissues.

Author: Gerhard A. Holzapfel

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9402415122

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 305

View: 626

This volume covers aspects of multiscale modeling of the mechanics and mechanobiology of soft biological tissues. The individual contributions focus on the constitutive modeling from the micro to the macro level in addition to computational modeling and simulation. It consists of peer-reviewed papers written by leading international authorities and will serve as a major state-of-the-art source of reference for the next few years. It includes both review articles and original articles. Previously published in the Journal of Elasticity, Volume 129, Issue 1-2, December 2017.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Tissue Mechanics Control T Cell Activation and Metabolism Through YAP

Tissue Mechanics Control T Cell Activation and Metabolism Through YAP

T cells encounter forces at the tissue scale as they traverse through a variety of microenvironmental mechanical contexts, including sites of infection, inflammation, and cancer.

Author: Kevin Meng

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:1105141791

Category:

Page:

View: 594

T cells encounter forces at the tissue scale as they traverse through a variety of microenvironmental mechanical contexts, including sites of infection, inflammation, and cancer. The transcriptional coactivator Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a well-known sensor of tissue mechanics that is dominantly regulated by the stiffness of extracellular matrix. Understanding microenvironmental mechanosensing has offered revolutionary leaps in the fields of cellular development, organ size regulation, stem cell differentiation, cancer metastasis, and programmed cell death. The role of YAP has been well established in cancer metastasis and recent works have implicated YAP in immunity, but there have been no links yet between YAP and mechanics in immune cells, and environmental mechanosensing has never been demonstrated for T cells. To shed light on T cell pathophysiology in disease-associated tissues, this dissertation sought to determine how mechanical signals translate to regulation of the T cell effector and metabolic program through YAP. We describe a conditional knockout mouse model to analyze the effects of YAP on T cell activation and metabolism. We discover YAP to be an unexpected suppressor of T cell activation and metabolic reprogramming and demonstrate that this inhibition extends to in vivo T cell responses to infection and autoimmunity. We report a mechanism of YAP-mediated suppression of T cell proliferation and metabolism. Finally, we address a long-standing question of how T cells respond to tissue mechanics using biomimetic matrices and identify YAP as a key player in T cell mechanotransduction. In summary, this dissertation reveals a new paradigm whereby tissue mechanics fine-tunes adaptive immune responses in health and disease. Our work sets a foundation for the exciting therapeutic potential of either inhibiting YAP to promote T cell response while simultaneously impairing tumor growth, or conversely inducing YAP activity to relieve T cell-dependent autoimmune disease and blood cancers. Altogether, we highlight the importance of future ventures toward understanding how T cells respond to their mechanical microenvironment.
Categories:

Mechanics of Biological Tissue

Mechanics of Biological Tissue

The mechanics of biological tissues is a multidisciplinary and rapidly expanding area of research. This book points to important directions combining mechanical sciences with the new developments in biology.

Author: Gerhard A. Holzapfel

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540311843

Category: Science

Page: 522

View: 573

Professor Jiji's broad teaching experience lead him to select the topics for this book to provide a firm foundation for convection heat transfer with emphasis on fundamentals, physical phenomena, and mathematical modelling of a wide range of engineering applications. Reflecting recent developments, this textbook is the first to include an introduction to the challenging topic of microchannels. The strong pedagogic potential of "Heat Convection" is enhanced by the following ancillary materials: Power Point lectures, Problem Solutions, Homework Facilitator, and Summary of Sections and Chapters.
Categories: Science

Cardiovascular Solid Mechanics

Cardiovascular Solid Mechanics

Tissue regulation , that is the balance between production and removal of
constituents , will be discussed in Chapter 9 . ... orientation at low This section
provides motivation and direction for much of our study of soft tissue mechanics .

Author: Jay D. Humphrey

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387951687

Category: Medical

Page: 757

View: 809

This text presents a general introduction to soft tissue biomechanics. One of its primary goals is to introduce basic analytical, experimental and computational methods. In doing so, it enables readers to gain a relatively complete understanding of the biomechanics of the heart and vasculature.
Categories: Medical

Mechanics of Biological Systems and Materials Volume 2

Mechanics of Biological Systems and Materials  Volume 2

Caitlin Martin and Wei Sun Tissue Mechanics Laboratory Biomedical
Engineering and Mechanical Engineering University of Connecticut, Storrs, USA
ABSTRACT Bio-prosthetic heart valves (BHV) have complex geometry, and their
normal ...

Author: Tom Proulx

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461402190

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 224

View: 515

Mechanics of Biological Systems and Materials represents one of eight volumes of technical papers presented at the Society for Experimental Mechanics Annual Conference & Exposition on Experimental and Applied Mechanics, held at Uncasville, Connecticut, June 13-16, 2011. The full set of proceedings also includes volumes on Dynamic Behavior of Materials, Mechanics of Time-Dependent Materials and Processes in Conventional and Multifunctional Materials, MEMS and Nanotechnology; Optical Measurements, Modeling and, Metrology; Experimental and Applied Mechanics, Thermomechanics and Infra-Red Imaging, and Engineering Applications of Residual Stress.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Handbook of Imaging in Biological Mechanics

Handbook of Imaging in Biological Mechanics

241 18.1.2 Measuring Tissue Deformations In Vivo. ... of tissues within complex
systems of the body requires the noninvasive measurement of finite
displacements and strains in conjunction with computational models of tissue
mechanics.

Author: Corey P. Neu

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781466588141

Category: Medical

Page: 579

View: 684

Emerging imaging techniques have opened new fronts to investigate tissues, cells, and proteins. Transformative technologies such as microCT scans, super-resolution microscopy, fluorescence-based tools, and other methods now allow us to study the mechanics of cancer, dissect the origins of cellular force regulation, and examine biological specimens
Categories: Medical

Bioengineering in Cell and Tissue Research

Bioengineering in Cell and Tissue Research

2005)) Unlike more traditional passive materials, cells are active “materials”
whose mechanical properties evolve in ... of living tissues stimulated new
approaches to describe tissue mechanics, new approaches for describing the
mechanics of ...

Author: Gerhard M. Artmann

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540754091

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 693

View: 393

Cutting edge research in cell and tissue research abounds in this review of the latest technological developments in the area. The chapters are written by excellent scientists on advanced, frontier technology and address scientific questions that require considerable engineering brainpower. The aim is to provide students and scientists working in academia and industry new information on bioengineering in cell and tissue research to enhance their understanding and innovation.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Theoretical Experimental and Numerical Contributions to the Mechanics of Fluids and Solids

Theoretical  Experimental and Numerical Contributions to the Mechanics of Fluids and Solids

Resnick et al. [10] have identified a shear stress responsive element in a number
of different genes in the endothelial cells of arteries. This line of inquiry links gene
expression with stress and strain. The need for tissue mechanics ...

Author: Paul Mansour Naghdi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 376435139X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 847

View: 474

ZAMP special issue, Vol. 46 This is a comprehensive and up-to-date collection of papers on the mechanics of fluids and solids by leading researchers. It encompasses theoretical, experimental and numerical work on a variety of topics, including nonlinear elasticity, plastici- ty, dynamics, water waves, and turbulence. The collection is published in celebration of Professor Paul M. Naghdi's lifelong contributions to the field of mechanics. It will be of interest to graduate students and researchers in all branches of continuum mechanics.
Categories: Mathematics

Biomechanics in Ergonomics

Biomechanics in Ergonomics

CHAPTER TWO Tissue mechanics of ligaments and tendons SAVIO L.-Y. WOO ,
MARIA APRELEVA AND JÜRGEN HÖHER INTRODUCTION The motion of the
musculoskeletal system is stabilised and guided by ligaments and tendons ...

Author: Shrawan Kumar

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0203016262

Category: Medical

Page: 385

View: 438

Two important goals of ergonomics are the comfort, and the health and safety of workers. In many ways these are mutually compatible, for where health and safety is jeopardized, the discomfort results. Most work-related injuries can be viewed as biochemical damage to a tissue or organ; ultimately all injuries are sustained by tissues. Writte
Categories: Medical

III European Conference on Computational Mechanics

III European Conference on Computational Mechanics

These continuum models view soft tissues as a solid (fibrous matrix) in which
mobile fluid (water) and ... can be used in PHEXPT simulations of complex soft
tissue mechanics where finite deformations are coupled to fluid and species
transport ...

Author: C. A. Mota Soares

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402053702

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 788

View: 697

III European Conference on Computational Mechanics: Solids, Structures and Coupled Problem in Engineering Computational Mechanics in Solid, Structures and Coupled Problems in Engineering is today a mature science with applications to major industrial projects. This book contains the edited version of the Abstracts of Plenary and Keynote Lectures and Papers, and a companion CD-ROM with the full-length papers, presented at the III European Conference on Computational Mechanics: Solids, Structures and Coupled Problems in Engineering (ECCM-2006), held in the National Laboratory of Civil Engineering, Lisbon, Portugal 5th - 8th June 2006. The book reflects the state-of-art of Computation Mechanics in Solids, Structures and Coupled Problems in Engineering and it includes contributions by the world most active researchers in this field.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Mechanics of Biological Systems and Materials Volume 4

Mechanics of Biological Systems and Materials  Volume 4

Jennifer M. Kreuz, Kendra N. Erskine, Alicia A. Blancas, and K. Jane Grande-
Allen Abstract The hierarchical structure and organization of collagen plays an
integral role in the mechanical behavior of heart valve tissues, but with few
exceptions ...

Author: François Barthelat

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783319007779

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 189

View: 884

Mechanics of Biological Systems and Materials, Volume 4: Proceedings of the 2013 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics, the fourth volume of eight from the Conference, brings together contributions to this important area of research and engineering. The collection presents early findings and case studies on a wide range of areas, including: Structure-Function & Design of Soft Biological Tissues Soft Tissue Biomechanics: Nanoscale to Physiological Control Bone Mechanics Biomimetic Materials Residual Stresses in Biological Materials Cells Cellulose Materials
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Stretch shorten Cycle Work Enhancement and Connective Tissue Mechanical Properties of the Rat Soleus During Variable Recruitment In Situ

Stretch shorten Cycle Work Enhancement and Connective Tissue Mechanical Properties of the Rat Soleus During Variable Recruitment In Situ

appear that the enhancement of shortening work may be due not to elastic
energy storage associated with connective tissue , but to an alteration in the
mechanics of force production at the level of the sarcomere . This enhancement
of cross ...

Author: Ryan Joseph Monti

Publisher:

ISBN: UCLA:L0081972366

Category:

Page: 178

View: 720

Categories:

Biomedical Aspects of Manual Wheelchair Propulsion

Biomedical Aspects of Manual Wheelchair Propulsion

Apart from the impaired supply of oxygen , however , it adds an extra risk factor to
tissue damage due to a deficit of nutrients and ... Tissue mechanics approach In
this project the influence of sustained mechanical loading on muscle tissue is ...

Author: L. H. V. van der Woude

Publisher: IOS Press

ISBN: 9051994427

Category: Medical

Page: 374

View: 378

Mobility is fundamental to health, social integration and individual well-being of the human being. Henceforth, mobility must be viewed as being essential to the outcome of the rehabilitation process of wheelchair dependent persons and to the successful (re-)integration into society and to a productive and active life. Many lower limb disabled subjects depend upon a wheelchair for their mobility. Estimated numbers for the Netherlands, Europe and USA are respectively 80.000, 2,5 million and 1,25 million wheelchair dependent individuals. Groups large enough to allow a special research focus and conference activity. Both the quality of the wheelchair, the individual work capacity, the functionality of the wheelchair/user combination, and the effectiveness of the rehabilitation programme do indeed determine the freedom of mobility. Their optimization is highly dependent upon a continuous and high quality research effort, in combination with regular discussion and dissemination with practitioners. The book intends to give a state of the art view on the current fundamental, clinical and applied research findings and their consequences upon wheelchair propulsion, arm work, wheelchair training and possible consequences of a wheelchair confined life style. Also its implications for rehabilitation, as well as alternative modes of ambulation and activity in the wheelchair confined population, such as functional electrical stimulation and its possible future developments, are dealt with.
Categories: Medical

Strategies in Regenerative Medicine

Strategies in Regenerative Medicine

Through mechanisms often under-rated by the biological research community,
but fundamental to tissue physiology, cells have the ability to sense and respond
to the mechanical properties and stress state of their microenvironment (Table ...

Author: Matteo Santin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387746609

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 605

View: 945

The profound transformations occurred in our modern age have been made possible by the unique combination of new technologies. Among them, me- cine has completely changed our perception of life. Longevity has been signi- cantly extended and linked to new lifestyles. The negative impact that pathologies and ageing have always had on the quality of our life is now mitigated by the availability of treatments daily applied to many individuals worldwide. For many years, pharmacological and surgical treatments have been supported by the introduction of biomedical devices. Biomedical implants have played a key role in the development of these treatments and achieved the objective of replacing tissue and organ structures and functionalities. Gra- ally, the scientific and clinical communities have understood that replacement could be improved by materials able to interact with the tissues and to parti- pate in their metabolism and functions. This approach soon led to biomedical implants with improved clinical performances, but also to a new aspiration; rather than replacing damaged tissues and organs scientists and clinicians nowadays aim at their partial or complete regeneration. As a consequence of this ambition, the disciplines of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have recently emerged. It is the dawn of a fascinating era where scientists from various disciplines, clinicians, and industry will need to intensify their col- borative efforts to provide our society with new and affordable solutions.
Categories: Technology & Engineering