Time and Modality

Time and Modality

The relationship between formal logic and general philosophy is discussed under headings such as A Re-examination of Our Tense-Logical Postulates, Modal Logic in the Style of Frege, and Intentional Logic and Indeterminism.

Author: Arthur N. Prior

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780198241584

Category: Logic, Symbolic and mathematical

Page: 148

View: 689

The relationship between formal logic and general philosophy is discussed under headings such as A Re-examination of Our Tense-Logical Postulates, Modal Logic in the Style of Frege, and Intentional Logic and Indeterminism.
Categories: Logic, Symbolic and mathematical

Time and Modality

Time and Modality

Author: Arthur N. Prior

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:1068868908

Category:

Page: 148

View: 284

Categories:

Time and Modality

Time and Modality

(Shakespeare, Hamlet) Abstract In semantic approaches to modality inspired by
Kratzer (1981, 1991), modal verbs are construed as ... In thischapter, I will
present an analysis of modal verbs ascausal verbs. ... Time and Modality,143–
172.

Author: Jacqueline Guéron

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402083549

Category: Philosophy

Page: 296

View: 961

Here is a unique work of reference. Not only does it unite studies which explore the syntax and semantics of tense or modality, but it is the first book of its kind to embrace the interaction of tense and modality within a coherent generative model.
Categories: Philosophy

Selective Deployment of Attention to Time and Modality and Its Impact Upon Behavior and Brain Oscillations

Selective Deployment of Attention to Time and Modality and Its Impact Upon Behavior and Brain Oscillations

This thesis investigates the relationship between attention to time and modality at the levels of behavior and pre-stimulus brain oscillations, measured with EEG.

Author: Stefanie Mühlberg

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:1120432206

Category:

Page: 242

View: 448

This thesis investigates the relationship between attention to time and modality at the levels of behavior and pre-stimulus brain oscillations, measured with EEG. Participants were presented with target stimuli from one of two possible modalities, which could appear at one of two different time points. The factors time and modality were interlaced with each other by the fact that each of the modalities was more likely to appear at a different point in time and additionally one of the modalities being more likely overall. We observed that attention to each modality followed its respective temporal likelihood, independently which combination of modalities was used, suggesting a general mechanism for cross-modal temporal decoupling in time. This result is in contrast with cross-modal attention in space, which occurs in a coupled way. At the physiological level, the decoupling effect in time also seems to modulate ongoing neural oscillations in different frequency bands. Based on the results obtained in the time-frequency analysis, we put forward the following tentative hypotheses: alpha oscillations appear to encode switches in modality expectation over sensory cortices, while the beta band might encode the expected modality of the next upcoming stimulus and for the effect of temporal attention itself.
Categories:

Recent Advances in the Syntax and Semantics of Tense Aspect and Modality

Recent Advances in the Syntax and Semantics of Tense  Aspect and Modality

The principles are these: (1) The Deictic Principle Situations – events and states
– are temporally located with respect to the present moment, Speech Time. (2)
The Bounded Event Constraint Bounded situations are not located at Speech
Time ...

Author: Louis de Saussure

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 9783110198768

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 253

View: 781

It is a fact that tense, aspect and modality together form one of the most recurring and active areas of research in contemporary syntax and semantics, as well as in other disciplines of linguistics. A large number of syntactic and semantic phenomena are concerned by the temporal-aspectual-modal level of representation: information about time, aspect and modality is part of virtually all sentences; inflexion is quite widely considered as the core of syntactic projections. Because of this very crucial situation and role in the sentence structure, temporal-aspectual and modal information concerns virtually any part of the sentence and this information has scope over the whole characterization of the eventuality denoted by the sentence. This book is an up-to-date milestone for the studies of temporality and language, in particular regarding syntax and semantics, but with incidental hints to pragmatics and theories of human natural language understanding. Through this very tight selection of 15 papers (originally delivered during the 6th Chronos colloquium), tenses, aspect and modality are investigated both at the descriptive and theoretical levels, involving many different Indo-European and non-Indo-European languages. The volume sheds light on a wide array of phenomena that remained too little explored until now. These include the following: modal subordination in Japanese, epistemic modals in Dutch and English in Free Indirect Speech contexts, aspectual readings of idioms, adverb-licensing with the German perfect, French imperfective past compared with English progressive past, infinitival perfect in English, Adult Root Infinitives, economy constraints on temporal subordinations, future modality, past interpretation of present tense in embedded clauses, and time without tenses in Mandarin and Navajo. The book is of interest to scholars and advanced students in the fields of linguistics (general linguistics, semantics, syntax) as well as philosophy and logic.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Aspect and Modality in Kwa Languages

Aspect and Modality in Kwa Languages

In (169a) the affix a is an expression of Past Time and Non-Durative (Aorist)
Aspect. In (16%) the affix bé is a combination of Future Time and NonDurative (
Aorist) Aspect. However, the Past and Future affixes are not the only means of ...

Author: Felix K. Ameka

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9789027291387

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 335

View: 464

This book explores the thesis that in the Kwa languages of West Africa, aspect and modality are more central to the grammar of the verb than tense. Where tense marking has emerged it is invariably in the expression of the future, and therefore concerned with the impending actualization or potentiality of an event, hence with modality, rather than the purely temporal sequencing associated with tense. The primary grammatical contrasts are perfective versus imperfective. The main languages discussed are Akan, Dangme, Ewe, Ga and Tuwuli while Nzema-Ahanta, Likpe and Eastern Gbe are also mentioned. Knowledge about these languages has deepened considerably during the past decade or so and ideas about their structure have changed. The volume therefore presents novel analyses of grammatical forms like the so-called S-Aux-O-V-Other or “future” constructions, and provides empirical data for theorizing about aspect and modality. It should be of considerable interest to Africanist linguists, typologists, and creolists interested in substrate issues.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Time Tense and Aspect in Early Vedic Grammar

Time  Tense and Aspect in Early Vedic Grammar

1.1 The semantics of time and modality This section outlines some basic
assumptions about the semantics of temporality and modality which constitute the
theoretical framework of this work. Before entering a discussion of more specific,
 ...

Author: Eystein Dahl

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9789004178144

Category: Foreign Language Study

Page: 475

View: 941

Drawing on insights from formal semantics and linguistic typology, this book presents a comprehensive account of the tense/aspect/mood system in Early Vedic, the language of the Rigveda. It also outlines a theoretical framework for the study of semantics in dead languages.
Categories: Foreign Language Study

The Semantics of Aspect and Modality

The Semantics of Aspect and Modality

A situation is inclusive if it includes its R-time (and, as a result, it usually includes
other situation(s), especially when it appears in a narrative discourse). But this is
an oversimplification which will be rectified in section 3.1 below. Such situations ...

Author: Galia Hatav

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9789027230379

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 224

View: 109

“The semantics of aspect and modality” will be of interest both to linguists working on temporality, as a general phenomenon in language, and Hebraists investigating the semantics of the verbal forms in biblical Hebrew. Tense, aspect and modality are among the most challenging discussed areas of language. Similarly, the semantics of the verbal system in biblical Hebrew has been investigated since the Middle Ages. Galia Hatav provides extensive critical overviews of research in both areas, and suggests a new approach for analyzing the biblical Hebrew verb system, showing it to be tenseless. The overall approach adopted in the book is basically of truth conditional semantics, and adheres closely to Kamp's DRT (Discourse Representation Theory). For each phenomenon covered, the relevant literature is surveyed and critically discussed, with reference to English, and when relevant to other languages, too. The conclusions arrived at are then applied to biblical Hebrew. However, despite the sophisticated semantic theory the book is also meticulous in its attention to philological details of the Hebrew text, lending to a particulary harmonious combination of formal and discourse approach. The biblical Hebrew part of the book will be of interest mainly to Hebraists, but linguists dealing with temporality in general may find it useful as an interesting illustration for a tenseless exotic language.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Deictic Conceptualisation of Space Time and Person

Deictic Conceptualisation of Space  Time  and Person

German mood and modal verbs as deictic modal expressions In German , both
mood markers ( Indikativ , Konjunktiv I ... nature of the semantic domain of
modality , which — in contrast to the ( also abstract ) domain of time — does not
have a ...

Author: Friedrich Lenz

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9027253544

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 274

View: 230

This volume is a collection of articles which present the results of investigations into the grammar, semantics and pragmatics of deictic expressions in several languages. Special emphasis is placed on contrastive studies that take cognitive and cultural context into account. Both the empirical and theoretical studies focus on the ways in which spatial, temporal, personal and textual entities are conceptualised and referred to. The cognitive approach proves to be a promising perspective combining aspects of perception, reasoning and linguistic expression to reveal what seems to be at the very heart of deictics.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Modality and the English Modals

Modality and the English Modals

'Reference to the future . . . is often as much a matter of modality as it is of purely
temporal reference' (Lyons 1977: 816). ... There are two points in English: [i]
SHOULD is essentially an independent modal, with no past time reference, yet it
is ...

Author: F.R. Palmer

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317900924

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 256

View: 258

A detailed account of the many uses and functions of these verbs. The nature of modality, and some controversial issues, are also discussed.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Causality Method and Modality

Causality  Method  and Modality

Let there be three actions: A does the double in a single time, B does the double
in a double time, and finally C does the single in a single time; the relation A to C,
which is that of actions of different velocities in the same time, is composed of ...

Author: G.G. Brittan

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401133487

Category: Science

Page: 241

View: 577

Deservedly so, Jules Vuillemin is widely respected and greatly admired. It is not simply that he has produced a large body of outstanding work, in many different areas of philosophy. Or that he combines to an unusual degree rigorous standards with a very wide perspective. Or even that in his path-breaking accounts of algebra, of !)escartes, of Kant and of Russell, he showed in new and profound ways how the histories of science and philosophy could be used to illuminate each other. It is also that he has pursued the application of formal techniques and the defense of liberal institutions with a rare singlemindedness and courage. In a time and place where the former were generally ignored and the latter often attacked, he carried on, at some personal cost, embodying a traditional and ideal conception of the philosophical life, bridging national differences. Those who know him also treasure his friendship. Always curious, he delights in new facts and new experiences, and continually heightens the perception of those around him. Almost yearly, at the College de France he introduced brand new courses always with fresh and fruitful inSights. Exceptionally solicitous, he follows the lives of the families around him in great detail. The devotion of his students is legend. His personal energy is also legend. Many of us have followed him bounding up the stairs two at a time or through the gardens of the Luxembourg, his wit and irony apace.
Categories: Science

Cognitive English Grammar

Cognitive English Grammar

Grammatically , aspect , tense and modality belong to the verb complex .
Semantically , aspect , tense and modality specify notions of time and related
concepts that apply to a situation . Aspect specifies the temporal structure of a
situation and ...

Author: Günter Radden

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 1556196636

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 374

View: 913

"Cognitive English Grammar" is designed to be used as a textbook in courses of English and general linguistics. It introduces the reader to cognitive linguistic theory and shows that Cognitive Grammar helps us to gain a better understanding of the grammar of English. The notions of motivation and meaningfulness are central to the approach adopted in the book. In four major parts comprising 12 chapters, "Cognitive English Grammar "integrates recent cognitive approaches into one coherent model, allowing the analysis of the most central constructions of English. Part I presents the cognitive framework: conceptual and linguistic categories, their combination in situations, the cognitive operations applied to them, and the organisation of conceptual structures into linguistic constructions. Part II deals with the category of things and their linguistic structuring as nouns and noun phrases. It shows how things are grounded in reality by means of reference, quantified by set and scalar quantifiers, and qualified by modifiers. Part III describes situations as temporal units of various layers: internally, as types of situations; and externally, as located relative to the time of speech and grounded in reality or potentiality. Part IV looks at situations as relational units and their structuring as sentences. Its two chapters are devoted to event schemas and space and metaphorical extensions of space."Cognitive English Grammar" offers a wealth of linguistic data and explanations. The didactic quality is guaranteed by the frequent use of definitions and examples, a glossary of the terms used, overviews and chapter summaries, suggestions for further reading, and study questions. For the Key to Study Questions click here.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Ontology Identity and Modality

Ontology  Identity  and Modality

Temporal parts and identity across time Many philosophers think that " What is
identity across time ? " is an important and meaningful question . I have a great
deal of trouble seeing what this question might be . But , very often , if one cannot
 ...

Author: Peter van Inwagen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521795486

Category: Philosophy

Page: 261

View: 567

Thirteen of Peter van Inwagen's essays on metaphysics, with a specially-written introduction.
Categories: Philosophy

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Time

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Time

While I discussed time and modality separately, I said very little about the
interaction between them. That is a significant omission because time often
features prominently in counterfactual reasoning. Consider: 'Had there been no
railroad ...

Author: Craig Callender

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191559389

Category: Science

Page: 704

View: 483

As the study of time has flourished in the physical and human sciences, the philosophy of time has come into its own as a lively and diverse area of academic research. Philosophers investigate not just the metaphysics of time, and our experience and representation of time, but the role of time in ethics and action, and philosophical issues in the sciences of time, especially with regard to quantum mechanics and relativity theory. This Handbook presents twenty-three specially written essays by leading figures in their fields: it is the first comprehensive collaborative study of the philosophy of time, and will set the agenda for future work.
Categories: Science

Non Locality and Modality

Non Locality and Modality

The paper gives a physicist's view on the framework of branching space-time [ 1 ].
Branching models are constructed from physical state assignments. The models
are then employed to give a formal semantics for the modal operators ...

Author: Tomasz Placek

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402006624

Category: Mathematics

Page: 352

View: 234

Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Modality, Probability, and Bell's Theorems, Cracow, Poland, August 19-23, 2001
Categories: Mathematics

Multidisciplinary Aspects of Time and Time Perception

Multidisciplinary Aspects of Time and Time Perception

Distortions in temporal memory can occur as a function of differences in signal
modalities and/or by the encoding of multiple signal ... Keywords: Timing and
time perception, Interval timing, Memory distributions, Individual differences,
Modality ...

Author: Argiro Vatakis

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642214776

Category: Computers

Page: 291

View: 399

This book constitutes the documentation of the scientific outcome of the first meeting of the TIMELY network, the International Workshop on Multidisciplinary Aspects of Time and Time Perception, which took place in Athens, Greece, in October 2010. The 21 papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion in the book. They cover the following topics: conceptual analysis and measurement of time; exploring factors associated with time perception variability; extending time research to ecologically-valid stimuli and real-world applications; and uncovering the neural correlates of time perception.
Categories: Computers

Perspectives on Time

Perspectives on Time

The claim here will be that these theories either misrepresent the very nature of
modality or, alternatively, fall short of a ... of the paper is thus, to endorse Arthur
Prior's dictum clas- sicurn: that there is an intimate link between time and
modality.

Author: Jan Faye

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0792343301

Category: Philosophy

Page: 472

View: 763

Perspectives on Time deals with the problem of time from different perspectives such as logic, physics and philosophy. It contains 18 previously unpublished papers, written by philosophers from various European countries, as well as a large introduction about the history and the main situation in the respective fields today. The prominent issues which are addressed in this book concern the direction of time, the reality of tenses, the objectivity of becoming, the existence in time, and the logical structures of reasoning about time. The papers have been written based on different approaches, partly depending on whether the authors subscribe to an A-theory or a B-theory of time. Audience: Due to the broad variety of approaches the book contains important contributions both for philosophers, philosophers of science, logicians and for scientists working in the field of language and AI.
Categories: Philosophy

Reduction Time and Reality

Reduction  Time and Reality

Modal reality COLIN McGINN This paper is given over to a difficult and
controversial topic : how we should conceive the truth ... The focus will be on so -
called de re modality , but I think the underlying issue extends to de dicto
modality .

Author: Richard Healey

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521143721

Category: Science

Page: 202

View: 984

Each of the contributors examine scientific realism by questioning or rejecting how it was traditionally discussed.
Categories: Science

Crosslinguistic Views on Tense Aspect and Modality

Crosslinguistic Views on Tense  Aspect and Modality

The past tense form thought establishes a past domain and therefore receives a
factual interpretation : there is no doubt the referent of the subject of the reply had
the thought in question at some time in the past. However, it is clear from the ...

Author: Bart Hollebrandse

Publisher: Rodopi

ISBN: 9789042017542

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 259

View: 924

This Cahiers Chronos volume reports on new and ongoing research on tense, aspect and modality in which a variety of languages has been gathered. The languages discussed by the authors include (in alphabetical order): Brazilian Portuguese, Chinese, Dutch, English, French, German, Greek, Italian, Japanese, Polish, Russian and Spanish.The articles form a selection of the papers presented at the 5th Chronos Conference that took place at the University of Groningen, the Netherlands, in June 2002. We have categorized the papers into three sections: Tense, Aspect and Modality. Obviously, this ordering is somewhat arbitrary given that some of the papers cross these rather rigid boundaries, as they discuss the interplay of tense and aspect or tense and modality.This book is of interest for scholars in the field of semantics, logic, syntax, and comparative linguistics.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Identity and Modality

Identity and Modality

Standardly, the product of these values would be useless as a measure of the
probability of the branch even in the case where time is dense: for a
denumerable product of values in the interval [0,1) is zero. Resorting to non-
standard methods ...

Author: Fraser MacBride

Publisher: Clarendon Press

ISBN: 9780191536588

Category: Philosophy

Page: 288

View: 166

The papers in this volume address fundamental, and interrelated, philosophical issues concerning modality and identity, issues that have not only been pivotal to the development of analytic philosophy in the twentieth century, but remain a key focus of metaphysical debate in the twenty-first. How are we to understand the concepts of necessity and possibility? Is chance a basic ingredient of reality? How are we to make sense of claims about personal identity? Do numbers require distinctive identity criteria? Does the capacity to identify an object presuppose an ability to bring it under a sortal concept? Rather than presenting a single, partisan perspective, Identity and Modality enriches our understanding of identity and modality by bringing together papers written by leading researchers working in metaphysics, the philosophy of mind, the philosophy of science, and the philosophy of mathematics. The resulting variety of perspectives correspondingly reflects both the breadth and depth of contemporary theorizing about identity and modality, each paper addressing a particular issue and advancing our knowledge of the area. This volume will provide essential reading for graduate students in the subject and professional philosophers.
Categories: Philosophy