5500054 Bauer T, Forbes I, Penlington R, Pearsall N (2005) Heat transfer
modelling in thermophotovoltaic cavities using glass media. Sol Energy Mater
Sol Cells 88(3):257–268 Chubb DL (2007) Light pipe thermophotovoltaics (LTPV
Author: Thomas Bauer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Category: Technology & Engineering
Thermophotovoltaics is the science and technology associated with the direct generation of electricity from high temperature heat. Potential applications include combined heat and power, portable and auxiliary power, radioisotope space power, industrial waste heat recovery and concentrated solar power. This book aims at serving as an introduction to the underlying theory, overview of present day components and system arrangements, and update of the latest developments in the field. The emphasis is placed on the understanding of the critical aspects of efficient thermophotovoltaic system design. The aim is to assist researchers in the field.
... to electrical energy by the PV cell . REFERENCES 1 . Stone , K . W . , Leingang
, E . F . , Kusek , S . M . , Drubka , R . E . and Fay , T . D . , “ On - Sun Test Results
of McDonnell - Douglas Prototype Solar Thermophotovoltaic Power System .
Brown, E.J. (2003) The status of thermophotovoltaic energy conversion
technology at Lockheed Martin Corp, Space ... Celanovic, I. (2006) Thermophotovoltaics: shaping the flow of thermal radiation, PhD dissertation,
Massachusetts Institute of ...
Author: Alexander Mitsos
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Category: Technology & Engineering
Focusing on a description of the technologies and methodologies for computer-aided conceptual design, this book covers the design, modeling and simulation of micropower generation devices. The articles are authored by internationally recognized experts in the field, who take the reader from fundamentals and design aspects to numerous power generation strategies and system engineering. The comprehensive coverage also extends to fuel processing, energy conversion, material and heat management, device operation, economics and quality control. For materials scientists, chemists, physicists, process engineers and those in power technology.
Figure 1.1 Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion concept. The energy flux
associated with plane waves is given by. Introduction 3 Thermphotovoltaic (TPV)
Energy Conversion Concept A Short History of TPV Energy Conversion.
Author: Donald Chubb
This is a text book presenting the fundamentals of thermophotovoltaic(TPV) energy conversion suitable for an upper undergraduate or first year graduate course. In addition it can serve as a reference or design aid for engineers developing TPV systems. Each chapter includes a summary and concludes with a set of problems. The first chapter presents the electromagnetic theory and radiation transfer theory necessary to calculate the optical properties of the components in a TPV optical cavity. Using a simplified model, Chapter 2 develops expressions for the maximum efficiency and power density for an ideal TPV system. The next three chapters consider the three major components in a TPV system; the emitter, filter and photovoltaic(PV) array. Chapter 3 applies the electromagnetic theory and radiation transfer theory presented in Chapter 1 in the calculation of spectral emittance. From the spectral emittance the emitter efficiency is calculated. Chapter 4 discusses interference, plasma and resonant array filters plus an interference filter with an imbedded metallic layer, a combined interference-plasma filter and spectral control using a back surface reflector(BSR) on the PV array. The theory necessary to calculate the optical properties of these filters is presented. Chapter 5 presents the fundamentals of semiconductor PV cells. Using transport equations calculation of the current-voltage relation for a PV cell is carried out. Quantum efficiency, spectral response and the electrical equivalent circuit for a PV cell are introduced so that the PV cell efficiency and power output can be calculated. The final three chapters of the book consider the combination of the emitter, filter and PV array that make up the optical cavity of a TPV system. Chapter 6 applies radiation transfer theory to calculate the cavity efficiency of planar and cylindrical optical cavities. Also introduced in Chapter 6 are the overall TPV efficiency, thermal efficiency and PV efficiency. Leakage of radiation out of the optical cavity results in a significant loss in TPV efficiency. Chapter 7 considers that topic. The final chapter presents a model for a planar TPV system. Six appendices present background information necessary to carry out theoretical developments in the text. Two of the appendices include Mathematica programs for the spectral optical properties of multi-layer interference filters and a planar TPV system. Software is included for downloading all the programs within the book. First text written on thermophotovoltaic(TPV) energy conversion Includes all the necessary theory to calculate TPV system performance Author has been doing TPV energy conversion research since 1980's Emphasizes the fundamentals of TPV energy conversion Includes a summary and problem set at the end of each chapter Includes Mathematica programs for calculating optical properties of interference filters and planar TPV system performance solution software
 R.E. Nelson, A brief history of thermophotovoltaic development,
Semiconductor Sci. ...  B.D. Wedlock, Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion
, Proc. ...  R.L. Bell, Concentration ratio and efficiency in thermophotovoltaics,
Sol. Energy ...
Author: Alejandro Datas
Publisher: Woodhead Publishing
Ultra-High Temperature Thermal Energy Storage, Transfer and Conversion presents a comprehensive analysis of thermal energy storage systems operating at beyond 800°C. Editor Dr. Alejandro Datas and his team of expert contributors from a variety of regions summarize the main technological options and the most relevant materials and characterization considerations to enable the reader to make the most effective and efficient decisions. This book helps the reader to solve the very specific challenges associated with working within an ultra-high temperature energy storage setting. It condenses and summarizes the latest knowledge, covering fundamentals, device design, materials selection and applications, as well as thermodynamic cycles and solid-state devices for ultra-high temperature energy conversion. This book provides a comprehensive and multidisciplinary guide to engineers and researchers in a variety of fields including energy conversion, storage, cogeneration, thermodynamics, numerical methods, CSP, and materials engineering. It firstly provides a review of fundamental concepts before exploring numerical methods for fluid-dynamics and phase change materials, before presenting more complex elements such as heat transfer fluids, thermal insulation, thermodynamic cycles, and a variety of energy conversation methods including thermophotovoltaic, thermionic, and combined heat and power. Reviews the main technologies enabling ultra-high temperature energy storage and conversion, including both thermodynamic cycles and solid-state devices Includes the applications for ultra-high temperature energy storage systems, both in terrestrial and space environments Analyzes the thermophysical properties and relevant experimental and theoretical methods for the analysis of high-temperature materials
Thermophotovoltaic. cells. 2.5.1. Photovoltaic. effect. The operation of
photovoltaic cells is based on photogeneration of electrons and separation of
charge carriers. When a photon hits a semiconductor material with energy higher
than the ...
Reproduced from typescripts, some double spaced. No subject index. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
Publisher: American Institute of Physics
Annotation Compared to the earlier convenings, the third demonstrated more interest in GaSb and its related ternary and quaternary alloys and the back-surface reflector technique for recirculating sub-bandgap photons, but less to multi-layer dielectric stacks and to transparent conducting oxides. After summaries of each of the eight sessions by the chair, the 43 papers cover overviews, devices based on GaSb and related materials, selective radiators, devices based on InGaAs, whole systems, novel concepts, and modeling and characterizing systems. Among the individual topics are modeling the system optical cavity, the advantages of quantum well solar cells, multi-fuel liquid hydrocarbon generators, applications of the super-emissive light pipe, a novel design for monolithically interconnected modules for power conversion, multiple-dopant selective emitter, improvements in GaSb cells, and an overview of European activities. Reproduced from typescripts, some double spaced. No subject index. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
Krist , K , “ GRI Research on Thermophotovoltaics ” , The First NREL Conference
on Thermophotovoltaic Generation of Electricity , Copper Mountain , 1994 , pp .
54-63 . 2. Becker , F.E. , Doyle , E.F. , Shukla , K. , " Development of a Portable ...
Thermophotovoltaics. Using. Infrared. Sensitive. Cells. Unfortunately here on
earth, the sun ... This process is called ThermoPhotoVoltaics or ThermoPV or
TPV. At a temperature of 6,000 K, the sun is a very hot high temperature radiation
Author: Lewis M. Fraas
This book describes recent breakthroughs that promise major cost reductions in solar energy production in a clear and highly accessible manner. The author addresses the three key areas that have commonly resulted in criticism of solar energy in the past: cost, availability, and variability. Coverage includes cutting-edge information on recently developed 40 efficient solar cells, which can produce double the power of currently available commercial cells. The discussion also highlights the potentially transformative emergence of opportunities for integration of solar energy storage and natural gas combined heat and power systems. Solar energy production in the evening hours is also given fresh consideration via the convergence of low cost access to space and the growing number of large terrestrial solar electric power fields around the world. Dr. Fraas has been active in the development of Solar Cells and Solar Electric Power Systems for space and terrestrial applications since 1975. His research team at Boeing demonstrated the first GaAs/GaSb tandem concentrator solar cell in 1989 with a world record energy conversion efficiency of 35, garnering awards from Boeing and NASA. He has over 30 years of experience at Hughes Research Labs, Chevron Research Co, and the Boeing High Technology Center working with advanced semiconductor devices. In a pioneering paper, he proposed the InGaP/GaInAs/Ge triple junction solar cell predicting a cell terrestrial conversion efficiency of 40 at 300 suns concentration. Having become today’s predominant cell for space satellites, that cell is now entering high volume production for terrestrial Concentrated Photovoltaic (CPV) systems. Since joining JX Crystals, Dr. Fraas has pioneered the development of various thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems based on the new GaSb infrared sensitive PV cell. Dr. Fraas holds degrees from Caltech (B.Sc. Physics), Harvard (M. A. Applied Physics), and USC (Ph.D. EE).
Solar energy has been an important component of the world's energy infrastructure for many years, but certain limitations have hindered its ability to become a primary source of renewable energy.
Author: Colin Clancy Kelsall
Solar energy has been an important component of the world's energy infrastructure for many years, but certain limitations have hindered its ability to become a primary source of renewable energy. In particular, intermittency and fundamental limitations on conversion efficiency have restricted adoption of direct photovoltaic conversion with PV cells. Recent developments in more advanced cell chemistries and concentrated solar power systems (CSP) seek to address some of these limitations and enable higher grid penetration of solar derived power. This thesis examines one of these such technologies, solar thermophotovoltaics (STPV), and presents opportunities to improve on past work in the field to enable higher conversion efficiencies and lower cost solar power. STPV power systems typically utilize a monolithic absorber-emitter component that is heated with concentrated sunlight through a highly absorptive surface. The monolith radiatively illuminates a low-bandgap PV cell from a different, spectrally selective emitter surface, producing electricity. This added spectral selectivity allows for improved photovoltaic conversion efficiencies compared to a standard PV cell illuminated with the solar spectrum. STPV systems, however, often operate above 1000°C and are hindered by substantial parasitic thermal losses. In this thesis we first present an overview of the loss mechanisms currently limiting STPV system efficiencies and some theoretical approaches to address these losses. Previously demonstrated STPV systems have significant drops in efficiency through re-emission losses from the hot absorber surface. Selective absorber coatings can reduce these losses; however, experimentally demonstrated efficiency improvements have been limited due to non-ideal spectral selectivity and high-temperature instability. Through an alternative approach, we present a purely geometric solution to mitigate re-emission losses by varying the area ratio, defined as the ratio of thermal emitter area to solar absorber area. We model how our solution could theoretically improve previously demonstrated STPV systems and also discuss the practical limitations of our approach. Secondly, we investigate the potential of integrating a cavity-based geometry for the absorber-emitter monolith in place of typical planar designs. By incorporating a cavity in place of the planar absorber-emitter, we take advantage of both increased absorption across the full solar spectrum and enable very high area ratios in a compact design. Third, we address how thermal gradients might develop within the absorber-emitter monolith and how these gradients might impact system performance. We present a numerical model capable of predicting PV cell performance degradation under uneven illumination resulting from emitter temperature gradients. Finally, we validate our model through experiments using cavities made from high-temperature refractory materials and a high-powered laser to emulate highly concentrated sunlight. By integrating a cavity-type absorber-emitter with state-of-the-art spectrally selective surfaces and filters, the maximum system efficiency demonstrated in previous works could be increased from 6.8% to upwards of 9% without any improvements in spectral selectivity. This cavity-type approach, which has the potential to improve solar absorber performance both for STPV and other solar thermal technologies, could help realize the full potential of these systems as efficient and useful methods of solar energy conversion.
using thermophotovoltaics Lewis M. Fraas JX Crystals Inc , 1105 12th Ave. NW ,
Suite ... The new generating source is a thermophotovoltaic generator , which
uses any fuel to heat a ceramic element in order to radiate infrared energy .
Author: Naomi Balaban
Publisher: CRC Press
Energy 2000, proceedings from the 8th in an international series of global energy forums, is now available in book format. These papers provide a broad-based perspective on not only technical energy developments, but a detailed examination into other aspects such as economic and policy assessments, global energy issues, energy efficiency and conservation, as well as architecture and international law. Also presented are individual and collected views on renewables, oil and gas, coal and nuclear. ENERGEX '2000, the 8th in an international series of global energy forums, was held in Las Vegas, July 23-28, 2000. The first in the series was held in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada in cooperation, coordination and communication with technical societies, federal and provincial governments and industry. The majority of papers presented at the 8th global energy forum are contained in these proceedings and represent over 200 papers from 45 countries out of a total of over 400 accepted abstracts. These papers will provide the reader with a broad based perspective on not only technical energy developments but, as consistent with the International Energy Foundation's objectives, a detailed examination into other aspects such as economic and policy assessments, global energy issues such as global climatic change, energy efficiency and conservation, architecture and international law. ENERGEX '2000 also provided the opportunity for researchers internationally to present their individual and collected views related to the diverse sources of energy available to mankind. These sources include renewables, oil and gas, coal, and nuclear. From ENERGEX 2000 has resulted this new book! Since the inception of the ENERGEX series in 1982, an open door policy has been established so that any researcher from either the developed or the emerging nations will have an equal opportunity to present their individual or collected technical, economic or human dimensional assessments and analyses on an equal footing. Through this participation, researchers worldwide are provided with a wider range of opportunity to expand our horizons with respect to the continued use of fossil energies and nuclear energy combined with energy conservation and efficiency. This opens the door of opportunity in the 21st century with respect to the rapid developments and utilization of renewable energies and fuel cells. Integrated within this global energy forum were inputs from academia, industry and government on specific issues related to carbon sequestration, fuel cells, fossil fuels, hydrogen and the role of the present day energy standards of oil and gas, coal and nuclear energies In expanding the global energy picture, the Foundation developed the conference with the theme "Energy-International Cooperation, Coordination and Communication: The Beginning of a New Millennium." Consistent with this theme we are pleased that ENERGEX '2000 developed the program in concert with the Nevada Test Site Development Corporation (NTS).
Materials Science and Engineering B, 2001. 83: p. 35-41. 2. Ferguson, L.G. and F
. Dogan, Spectral Analysis of Transition Metal-Doped MgO "Matched Emitters" for Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion. Journal of Materials Science, 2002.
Author: Ashok Gopinath
Publisher: American Inst. of Physics
Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) technology is a promising new means for the direct conversion of thermal to electric energy. This conference volume presents a broad range of peer-reviewed papers on various potential and current applications.
Thermophotovoltaics(TPV) is acompetingtechnologyfordirectthermal-to-electric
energy conversion. Thermal radiation from a hot source is incident on a filter that
transmits only photons at the peak emission . All other photons are reflected
Author: Sebastian Volz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Heat transfer laws for conduction, radiation and convection change when the dimensions of the systems in question shrink. The altered behaviours can be used efficiently in energy conversion, respectively bio- and high-performance materials to control microelectronic devices. To understand and model those thermal mechanisms, specific metrologies have to be established. This book provides an overview of actual devices and materials involving micro-nanoscale heat transfer mechanisms. These are clearly explained and exemplified by a large spectrum of relevant physical models, while the most advanced nanoscale thermal metrologies are presented.
... THERMOPHOTOVOLTAIC CONVERTER Michael W. Edenburn Solar Energy
Systems Analysis 4723 Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque , NM 87185
ABSTRACT A solar thermophotovoltaic ( TPV ) converter uses concentrated ...
Seventh World Conference on Thermophotovoltaic Generation of Electricity
Carlos Algora, Victoria Corregidor. be found . However , the combination MoSiz
IML rare - earth oxide proved its stability at even high temperatures and further
Author: Carlos Algora
Publisher: American Institute of Physics
This book features peer-reviewed papers that were presented at the Seventh World Conference on Thermophotovoltaic Generation of Electricity. Thermophotovoltaic technology is a promising new means for the direct conversion of thermal to electric energy. Its potential applications range from military power, to space propulsion, to commercial products for market niches.
FUNDING NUMBERS Development and Demonstration of a 25 Watt Thermophotovoltaic Power Source for a Hybrid Power System 6. AUTHOR ( S )
WU - 755-1A - 02-00 NAS3-97197 Edward Doyle , Kailash Shukla , and
Christopher Metcalfe ...
133 L . Broman and J . Marks Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic System Design
and its Application to an Illustrative Space Mission A . Schock and V . Kumar
Analysis of Solar Thermophotovoltaic Test Data from Experiments Performed at ...
However, it uses infrared radiation rather than light from the sun. TPV may be envisaged as a means of conservation of energy, as stand-alone item for some specific purpose (such as military applications), or in the domestic arena.
Author: Timothy J. Coutts
Publisher: Amer Inst of Physics
The proceedings from the September 2002 Rome conference comprise 47 papers edited by Timothy J. Coutts (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Colorado), Guido Guazzoni (US Army Central Electronic Command), and Joachim Luther (Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Germany). Papers on systems
Thermophotovoltaic. and. Thermophotonic. Conversion. 9.1. Introduction. One
way of reducing the energy loss on light absorption that occurs in a conventional
cell is to reduce the average energy of the photon absorbed by it. This is the
Author: Martin A. Green
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Category: Technology & Engineering
Photovoltaics, the direct conversion of sunlight to electricity, is now the fastest growing technology for electricity generation. Present "first generation" products use the same silicon wafers as in microelectronics. "Second generation" thin-films, now entering the market, have the potential to greatly improve the economics by eliminating material costs. Martin Green, one of the world’s foremost photovoltaic researchers, argues in this book that "second generation" photovoltaics will eventually reach its own material cost constraints, engendering a "third generation" of high performance thin-films. The book explores, self-consistently, the energy conversion potential of advanced approaches for improving photovoltaic performance and outlines possible implementation paths.