Summary of basics of small system (or nonmacroscopic) thermodynamics, written by the originator of the field, introduces basics, explores environmental variables, examines binding on macromolecules and aggregation, and includes brief ...

Author: Terrell L. Hill

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486495094

Category: Science

Page: 210

View: 112

Summary of basics of small system (or nonmacroscopic) thermodynamics, written by the originator of the field, introduces basics, explores environmental variables, examines binding on macromolecules and aggregation, and includes brief summaries of electric and magnetic fields, spherical drops and bubbles, and polydisperse systems. 1964 edition.

However, a general corresponding small system thermodynamic framework has
been lacking.2 The applicability Of statistical mechanical ensemble theory to small systems as well as large suggests strongly that a parallel thermodynamics
...

Author: Terrell L. Hill

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 9780486783178

Category: Science

Page: 416

View: 175

Authoritative summary introduces basics, explores environmental variables, examines binding on macromolecules and aggregation, and includes brief summaries of electric and magnetic fields, spherical drops and bubbles, and polydisperse systems. 1963 and 1964 editions.

These systems should be ideally suited for a treatment by statistical mechanics. ...
Most applications of thermodynamics to small systems are more or less
transcriptions from the thermodynamics of homogeneous macroscopic systems,
c.f. the ...

Author: Dieter H E Gross

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789814493642

Category: Science

Page: 284

View: 816

Boltzmann's formula S = In[W(E)] defines the microcanonical ensemble. The usual textbooks on statistical mechanics start with the microensemble but rather quickly switch to the canonical ensemble introduced by Gibbs. This has the main advantage of easier analytical calculations, but there is a price to pay — for example, phase transitions can only be defined in the thermodynamic limit of infinite system size. The question how phase transitions show up from systems with, say, 100 particles with an increasing number towards the bulk can only be answered when one finds a way to define and classify phase transitions in small systems. This is all possible within Boltzmann's original definition of the microcanonical ensemble.Starting from Boltzmann's formula, the book formulates the microcanonical thermodynamics entirely within the frame of mechanics. This way the thermodynamic limit is avoided and the formalism applies to small as well to other nonextensive systems like gravitational ones. Phase transitions of first order, continuous transitions, critical lines and multicritical points can be unambiguously defined by the curvature of the entropy S(E,N). Special attention is given to the fragmentation of nuclei and atomic clusters as a peculiar phase transition of small systems controlled, among others, by angular momentum.The dependence of the liquid-gas transition of small atomic clusters under prescribed pressure is treated. Thus the analogue to the bulk transition can be studied. The book also describes the microcanonical statistics of the collapse of a self-gravitating system under large angular momentum.

The crucial feature of such small thermodynamic systems is that their dynamics is
stochastic; their thermal or quantum fluctuations become the same order of
magnitude as the averages of the physical quantities. Therefore, the fluctuations
play ...

Author: Takahiro Sagawa

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9784431541677

Category: Computers

Page: 120

View: 195

This thesis presents a general theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics for information processing. Ever since Maxwell's demon was proposed in the nineteenth century, the relationship between thermodynamics and information has attracted much attention because it concerns the foundation of the second law of thermodynamics. From the modern point of view, Maxwell's demon is formulated as an information processing device that performs measurement and feedback at the level of thermal fluctuations. By unifying information theory, measurement theory, and the recently developed theory of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, the author has constructed a theory of "information thermodynamics," in which information contents and thermodynamic variables are treated on an equal footing. In particular, the maximum work that can be extracted by the demon and the minimum work that is needed for measurement and information erasure by the demon has been determined. Additionally, generalizations of nonequilibrium relations such as a Jarzynski equality for classical stochastic systems in the presence of feedback control have been derived. One of the generalized equalities has recently been verified experimentally by using sub-micron colloidal particles. The results obtained serve as fundamental principles for information processing in small thermodynamic systems, and are applicable to nanomachines and nanodevices.

The size of the systems (number of magnetic sites) is decreased so as to
appreciate the departure from the results valid in the thermodynamic limit;
periodic boundary conditions are eliminated to approach the reality of small
particles; 1D, 2D ...

Author: Andrea Puglisi

Publisher: MDPI

ISBN: 9783038970576

Category: Mathematics

Page: 334

View: 314

This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics of Small Systems" that was published in Entropy

D. Thermodynamics of small systems ( e.g. molecular motors ) The relationships
of classical thermodynamics describe the properties of macroscopic systems -
systems of large numbers of particles . In a typical differential scanning
calorimetry ...

Author: Donald T. Haynie

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521795494

Category: Science

Page: 379

View: 126

An accessible introduction to thermodynamics for undergraduate biology and biochemistry students.

Molecular-based Study of Condensed Matter in Small Systems G. Ali Mansoori ...
In what follows we introduce the specificities of the thermodynamics of nano systems, which includes an examination of laws of thermodynamics and the
concept ...

Author: G. Ali Mansoori

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9812561544

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 341

View: 180

- Gives unified presentation of many of the major principles in nanotechnology: molecular-based study of condensed matter in small systems. - Authored by an expert in the molecular-based study of matter - Accessible to students, yet of interest to experts - Emphasizes the intrinsic beauty of methods of bottom-up nanotechnology - Includes many full-color figures

The relationship between dissipation and irreversibility is at the core of statistical
mechanics and thermodynamics [1]. ... mechanics have extended the laws of thermodynamics to small-scale (microscopic or smaller) systems, where thermal
...

Author: Édgar Roldán

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319070797

Category: Science

Page: 211

View: 508

After an insightful introductory part on recent developments in the thermodynamics of small systems, the author presents his contribution to a long-standing problem, namely the connection between irreversibility and dissipation. He develops a method based on recent results on fluctuation theorems that is able to estimate dissipation using only information acquired in a single, sufficiently long, trajectory of a stationary nonequilibrium process. This part ends with a remarkable application of the method to the analysis of biological data, in this case, the fluctuations of a hair bundle. The third part studies the energetics of systems that undergo symmetry breaking transitions. These theoretical ideas lead to, among other things, an experimental realization of a Szilard engine using manipulated colloids. This work has the potential for important applications ranging from the analysis of biological media to the design of novel artificial nano-machines.

Equations of state can be developed for such a system; hence, its physical
behavior can be predicted. A thermodynamically inhomogeneous system,
however, has to be treated as a small system and local thermodynamic functions
have to be ...

Author: Maher S. Amer

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 9781847552402

Category: Science

Page: 287

View: 618

This unique book is the first treatment of nanotechnology as the science controlled by the behaviour of thermodynamic small systems. It provides comprehensive discussions on fullerenes as building blocks, Raman spectroscopy as a powerful diagnostic tool, and nanotechnology as the technology bridging the gap between human-made and biological materials systems. Aimed at graduate students, scientists, researchers, and educators interested in academia, government and industry, the text is divided into four chapters. The first covers the potential of nanotechnology to develop a better, deeper understanding of the physical and chemical phenomena observed in natural systems. It also contains a section introducing nanotechnology to the public in simple, non-scientific terms. The second chapter is devoted to Raman spectroscopy and could in itself serve as a basis for a short course on its applications in materials science. The third section covers fullerenes and presents their history and development as well as discussing the structure and production of zero-dimensional, one-dimensional, and two-dimensional fullerenes. The fourth and final chapter serves as a correlation discussion and over view. It emphasizes the unique nano-phenomena exhibited by the fullerene systems as carbon based nanostructured systems. This chapter, and therefore the book, concludes with a discussion on the potential of nano-science and technology to shape the future of human society.

Small. Systems. 14.1 Stability and Entropy Production In obtained Chapter
conditions 12 we considered for the stability fluctuations of the in equilibrium an
isolated state. system These in which conditions, U, V and in fact, Nk have are
constant ...

Author: Dilip Kondepudi

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118371817

Category: Science

Page: 552

View: 958

Modern Thermodynamics: From Heat Engines to Dissipative Structures, Second Edition presents a comprehensive introduction to 20th century thermodynamics that can be applied to both equilibrium and non-equilibrium systems, unifying what was traditionally divided into ‘thermodynamics’ and ‘kinetics’ into one theory of irreversible processes. This comprehensive text, suitable for introductory as well as advanced courses on thermodynamics, has been widely used by chemists, physicists, engineers and geologists. Fully revised and expanded, this new edition includes the following updates and features: Includes a completely new chapter on Principles of Statistical Thermodynamics. Presents new material on solar and wind energy flows and energy flows of interest to engineering. Covers new material on self-organization in non-equilibrium systems and the thermodynamics of small systems. Highlights a wide range of applications relevant to students across physical sciences and engineering courses. Introduces students to computational methods using updated Mathematica codes. Includes problem sets to help the reader understand and apply the principles introduced throughout the text. Solutions to exercises and supplementary lecture material provided online at http://sites.google.com/site/modernthermodynamics/. Modern Thermodynamics: From Heat Engines to Dissipative Structures, Second Edition is an essential resource for undergraduate and graduate students taking a course in thermodynamics.

They were then discovered as generalizationsofthesecondlaw of thermodynamics for thermostated dynamical systems,thatis,systemsinteracting
with thermal reservoirs, in nonequilibrium steady states [3–6] (see Chapters 2
and 3 for this ...

Author: Rainer Klages

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9783527658725

Category: Science

Page: 450

View: 585

This book offers a comprehensive picture of nonequilibrium phenomena in nanoscale systems. Written by internationally recognized experts in the field, this book strikes a balance between theory and experiment, and includes in-depth introductions to nonequilibrium fluctuation relations, nonlinear dynamics and transport, single molecule experiments, and molecular diffusion in nanopores. The authors explore the application of these concepts to nano- and biosystems by cross-linking key methods and ideas from nonequilibrium statistical physics, thermodynamics, stochastic theory, and dynamical systems. By providing an up-to-date survey of small systems physics, the text serves as both a valuable reference for experienced researchers and as an ideal starting point for graduate-level students entering this newly emerging research field.

This approach is based on the development of a thermodynamic theory of micelle
formation, which assumes that micelles ... Introduction Hill (1964) developed a
very elegant theory on thermodynamics of small systems, where these small ...

Author: Albert Reimer

Publisher: Nova Publishers

ISBN: 1590339274

Category: Science

Page: 325

View: 333

This volume presents leading-edge research in physics from researchers around the world. Contents: Preface; Interface-Localised Mode in Bilayer Film Ferromagnetic Resonance Spectrum; On Similarity Waves in Compacting Media; Generalised Relativistic Dynamics of Charged Particle; Deviatoric Elasticity as a Mechanism describing Stable Shapes of Nanotubes; A Thermodynamic Approach for Predicting Micelle and Asphaltene-Micelle Formation; Asymptotic Theories for the Non-linear Analysis of Axisymmetric Laminated Cylindrical Shells; Statistical Dynamics of Energy Transfer in Direct Inelastic Gas-Surface Scattering within Dynamical Lie Algebraic Method; Topologically Charged Vortex in a Supersymmetric Kalb-Ramond Theory; The Effect of Fibre Curvature on Suspension Viscosity; Measurements of Reaction Cross-Sections and Determination of Nucleon Matter Density Distributions; Index.

In this chapter , several thermodynamic treatments are outlined which describe
mixed micellization of surfactants in ... or charged ) pseudophase separation
model , the mass action model , and the small system thermodynamics and the ...

Author: Keizo Ogino

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 082478796X

Category: Science

Page: 472

View: 417

This work describes the solubility, solution properties, thermodynamics, miscibility, solubilization, mesomorphic character and other physical properties of mixed surfactant systems - presenting both theoretical analysis and a wide range of practical applications. Equations clarify complex and abstract constructs.;The book also: treats mixed critical micelle concentrations, surface tension, flotation and absorption in terms of thermodynamic models; explores the miscibility of fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon surfactants in the micelles, covering micelle formation, liquid-liquid solubility and thermodynamics of mixed micellization; determines the mean aggregation number by steady-state quenching methods, and analyzes the composition of mixed micelles; discusses the mechanisms and experimental studies of adsorption from mixed surfactant systems; examines surface activity of surfactant mixtures, mixing phenomena and liquid crystal phase behaviour; and reviews means of investigation that use ion-specific electrodes, light scattering, and NMR and flourescence probing.

Hence our aim is to generalize the equations of thermodynamics so that they will
be valid for small systems , like the one represented by ... 3 ) , and will go over
into ordinary thermodynamic equations as a limiting case ( macroscopic system )
.

Proteins and their aggregates are comparatively small systems. A typical protein
consists of a sequence of some hundred amino acids and aggregates are often
formed by only a few peptides. A very prominent example is the extracellular ...

Author: Michael Bachmann

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781107014473

Category: Computers

Page: 354

View: 761

The structural mechanics of proteins that fold into functional shapes, polymers that aggregate and form clusters, and organic macromolecules that bind to inorganic matter can only be understood through statistical physics and thermodynamics. This book reviews the statistical mechanics concepts and tools necessary for the study of structure formation processes in macromolecular systems that are essentially influenced by finite-size and surface effects. Readers are introduced to molecular modeling approaches, advanced Monte Carlo simulation techniques, and systematic statistical analyses of numerical data. Applications to folding, aggregation, and substrate adsorption processes of polymers and proteins are discussed in great detail. Particular emphasis is placed on the reduction of complexity by coarse-grained modeling, which allows for the efficient, systematic investigation of structural phases and transitions. Providing insight into modern research at this interface between physics, chemistry, biology, and nanotechnology, this book is an excellent reference for graduate students and researchers.

INTRODUCTION There has recently appeared a treatment of the classical thermodynamics of small systems , in which the well - known relations of classical
thermodynamics have been extended to be applicable to small systems [ 1 ] .

Emergence of Thermodynamic Behavior Within Composite Quantum Systems
Jochen Gemmer, Mathias Michel, Günter ... for equilibrium thermodynamics even
of small systems and therefore it is tempting to expect non-equilibrium behavior ...

Author: Jochen Gemmer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540229116

Category: Science

Page: 287

View: 828

This extended tutorial essay views thermodynamics as an incomplete description of quantum systems with many degrees of freedom. The main goal is to show that the approach to equilibrium - with equilibrium characterized by maximum ignorance about the open system of interest - neither requires that many particles nor is it a precise way of partitioning relevant for the salient features of equilibrium and equilibration. Moreover it is indeed quantum effects that are at work in bringing about universal thermodynamic behaviour of modestly sized open systems. Von Neumann`s concept of entropy thus proves to be much more widely useful than something to be feared, and far beyond truly macroscopic systems in equilibrium.

Because it is possible to treat such systems in some detail , they give us new
insights into the phases and phase ... The first fundamental concept that
pervades the thermodynamics of small systems and especially the description of
their phase ...

Author: Chan L. Tien

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1560324597

Category: Science

Page: 400

View: 790

This text explores the field of microscale heat transfer in mechanical engineering. Experts from a wide range of science and engineering disciplines present topics that are built from simple macroscopic concepts and gradually lead into microscopic concepts. The book begins with an introductory chapter which discusses the history and the future directions of microscale heat transfer. It is then divided into two sections: the Fundamentals and the Applications.

In such small size systems, thermal processes are significantly different from
these in macro-systems. As a matter of fact, as long that the ratio between the
mean free path of the heat carriers ` and the characteristic length L of the system,
i.e. the ...

Author: David Jou

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9048130743

Category: Science

Page: 483

View: 465

The fast progress in many areas of research related to non-equilibrium ther- dynamics has prompted us to write a fourth edition of this book. Like in the previous editions, our main concern is to open the subject to the widest au- ence, including students, teachers, and researchers in physics, chemistry, engine- ing, biology, and materials sciences. Our objective is to present a general view on several open problems arising in non-equilibrium situations, and to afford a wide perspective of applications illustrating their practical outcomes and con- quences. A better comprehension of the foundations is generally correlated to an increase of the range of applications, implying mutual feedback and cross fert- ization. Truly, thermodynamic methods are widely used in many areas of science but, surprisingly, the active dynamism of thermodynamics as a ?eld on its own is not suf?ciently perceived outside a relatively reduced number of specialized researchers. Extended irreversible thermodynamics (EIT) goes beyond the classical f- malisms based on the local equilibrium hypothesis; it was also referred to in an earlier publication by the authors (Lebon et al. 1992) as a thermodynamics of the third type, as it provides a bridge between classical irreversible thermodynamics and rational thermodynamics, enlarging at the same time their respective range of application. The salient feature of the theory is that the ?uxes are incorporated into the set of basic variables.

It is found that in small systems , contrary to macroscopic systems , internal
energy and entropy are nonextensive whereas temperature and pressure are
nonintensive . These deviations from macroscopic thermodynamics , that
continue to ...