Theatre in Europe Under German Occupation

Theatre in Europe Under German Occupation

Theatre in Europe Under German Occupation focuses for the first time on Nazi Germany’s attempts to control and shape the cultural sector in occupied territories, shedding new light on the importance of theatre for the regime’s military ...

Author: Anselm Heinrich

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317628866

Category: History

Page: 274

View: 631

The Second World War went beyond previous military conflicts. It was not only about specific geographical gains or economic goals, but also about the brutal and lasting reshaping of Europe as a whole. Theatre in Europe Under German Occupation explores the part that theatre played in the Nazi war effort. Using a case-study approach, it illustrates the crucial and heavily subsidised role of theatre as a cultural extension of the military machine, key to Nazi Germany’s total war doctrine. Covering theatres in Oslo, Riga, Lille, Lodz, Krakau, Warsaw, Prague, The Hague and Kiev, Anselm Heinrich looks at the history and context of their operation; the wider political, cultural and propagandistic implications in view of their function in wartime; and their legacies. Theatre in Europe Under German Occupation focuses for the first time on Nazi Germany’s attempts to control and shape the cultural sector in occupied territories, shedding new light on the importance of theatre for the regime’s military and political goals.
Categories: History

The Routledge Handbook to Music under German Occupation 1938 1945

The Routledge Handbook to Music under German Occupation  1938 1945

Heinrich, Anselm, Theatre in Europe under German Occupation (Abingdon: Routledge, 2017). Hennemeyer, Kurt, 'Vom deutschen Geist in der polnischen Musik', ...

Author: David Professor Fanning

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351862585

Category: Music

Page: 550

View: 424

Following their entry into Austria and the Sudetenland in the late 1930s, the Germans attempted to impose a policy of cultural imperialism on the countries they went on to occupy during World War II. Almost all music institutions in the occupied lands came under direct German control or were subject to severe scrutiny and censorship, the prime objective being to change the musical fabric of these nations and force them to submit to the strictures of Nazi ideology. This pioneering collection of essays is the first in the English language to look in more detail at the musical consequences of German occupation during a dark period in European history. It embraces a wide range of issues, presenting case studies involving musical activity in a number of occupied European cities, as well as in countries that were part of the Axis or had established close diplomatic relations with Germany. The wartime careers and creative outputs of individual musicians who were faced with the dilemma of either complying with or resisting the impositions of the occupiers are explored. In addition, there is some reflection on the post-war implications of German occupation for the musical environment in Europe. Music under German Occupation is written for all music-lovers, students, professionals and academics who have particular interests in 20th-century music and/or the vicissitudes of European cultural life during World War II.
Categories: Music

Prague in Danger

Prague in Danger

A dramatic account of life in Czechoslovakia's great capital during the Nazi Protectorate With this successor book to Prague in Black and Gold, his account of more than a thousand years of Central European history, the great scholar Peter ...

Author: Peter Demetz

Publisher: Farrar, Straus and Giroux

ISBN: 9781429930352

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 926

A dramatic account of life in Czechoslovakia's great capital during the Nazi Protectorate With this successor book to Prague in Black and Gold, his account of more than a thousand years of Central European history, the great scholar Peter Demetz focuses on just six short years—a tormented, tragic, and unforgettable time. He was living in Prague then—a "first-degree half-Jew," according to the Nazis' terrible categories—and here he joins his objective chronicle of the city under German occupation with his personal memories of that period: from the bitter morning of March 15, 1939, when Hitler arrived from Berlin to set his seal on the Nazi takeover of the Czechoslovak government, until the liberation of Bohemia in April 1945, after long seasons of unimaginable suffering and pain. Demetz expertly interweaves a superb account of the German authorities' diplomatic, financial, and military machinations with a brilliant description of Prague's evolving resistance and underground opposition. Along with his private experiences, he offers the heretofore untold history of an effervescent, unstoppable Prague whose urbane heart went on beating despite the deportations, murders, cruelties, and violence: a Prague that kept its German- and Czech-language theaters open, its fabled film studios functioning, its young people in school and at work, and its newspapers on press. This complex, continually surprising book is filled with rare human detail and warmth, the gripping story of a great city meeting the dual challenge of occupation and of war.
Categories: History

The Palgrave Handbook of Theatre and Race

The Palgrave Handbook of Theatre and Race

He is the author of Theatre in Europe Under German Occupation (2017); his other books include Theater in der Region: Westfalen und Yorkshire 1918 bis 1945 ...

Author: Tiziana Morosetti

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030439576

Category:

Page:

View: 650

Categories:

Escape from Paris

Escape from Paris

Escape from Paris is the true story of a small group of U.S. aviators whose four B-17 Flying Fortresses were shot down over German-occupied France on a single, fateful day: July 14, 1943, Bastille Day.

Author: Stephen Harding

Publisher: Hachette UK

ISBN: 9780306922145

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 642

This thrilling wartime adventure tells the true story of the downed American aviators who were rescued by French resistance fighters, taken to Nazi-occupied Paris, and hidden under the very noses of the Gestapo. Escape from Paris is the true story of a small group of U.S. aviators whose four B-17 Flying Fortresses were shot down over German-occupied France on a single, fateful day: July 14, 1943, Bastille Day. They were rescued by brave French civilians and taken to Paris for eventual escape out of France. In the French capital, where German troops walked on every street and Gestapo agents hid around every corner, the flyers met a brave Parisian resistance family living and working in the Hôtel des Invalides, a complex of buildings and military memorials, where Nazi officials had set up offices. Hidden in the complex the Americans, along with dozens of other downed Allied pilots and resistance operatives, hatched daring escape plots. The danger of discovery by the Nazis grew every day, as did an unlikely romance when one of the American airmen begins a star-crossed wartime romance with the twenty-two-year old daughter of the family sheltering him—a noir tale of war, courage and desperation in the shadows of the City of Light. Based on official American, French, and German documents, histories, personal memoirs, and the author's interviews with several of the story's key participants, Escape from Paris crosses the traditional lines of World War II history with tense drama of air combat over Europe, the intrigue of occupied Paris, and courageous American and Allied pilots and French resistance fighters pitted against Nazi thugs. All of this set in one of the world's most beautiful and captivating cities.
Categories: History

Countdown to D Day The German Perspective

Countdown to D Day  The German Perspective

A WWII historian takes readers inside the day-to-day drama of Nazi military commanders in occupied Europe as they brace for the Allied invasion.

Author: Peter Margaritis

Publisher: Casemate Publishers

ISBN: 9781612007700

Category: History

Page: 648

View: 654

In December 1943 with the rising realization that the Allies are planning to invade Fortress Europe, Field Marshal Erwin Rommel is assigned the title of General Inspector for the Atlantic Wall. His mission is to assess their readiness. What he finds disgusts him. The famed Atlantikwall is nothing but a paper tiger, woefully unprepared for the forces being massed across the English Channel. His task—to turn back the Allied invasion—already seems hopeless. His superior, theater commander, crusty old Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt, who had led the Reich to victory in the early years of the war, is now fed up with the whole Nazi regime. He lives comfortably in a plush villa in a quiet Paris suburb, waiting for the inevitable Allied invasion that will bring about their final defeat. General der Artillerie Erich Marcks, badly injured in Russia, is the corps commander on the ground in Normandy, trying to build up the coastal defenses with woefully inadequate supplies and a shortage of men to fulfill Rommel's demands. Marcks is convinced that the Allies will land in his sector, but no one higher up the chain of command seems interested in what he thinks. Meanwhile, aristocratic Generaloberst Hans von Salmuth, an outspoken, cocky, experienced veteran of the Russian Front, has been given responsibility for defending Fifteenth Army's coastline at Calais—the area that the High Command thinks is most likely to be the Allies' objective. General der Panzertruppen Geyr von Schweppenburg is preparing the élite panzer divisions for what may lie ahead. Generalmajor Max Pemsel struggles in coordinating efforts to prepare Seventh Army, suspecting that if an invasion comes he will be the hub of the German response. All of the Western Theater commanders are subject to the whims of Adolf Hitler, hundreds of miles away but continually issuing orders increasingly divorced from the reality of the war. Countdown to D-Day takes a detailed day-to-day journal approach tracing the daily activities and machinations of the German High Command as they try to prepare for the Allied invasion.
Categories: History

The History of Cinema

The History of Cinema

By 1941, with two-thirds of Europe under German occupation, most of the great names of European cinema were in exile in California.

Author: Geoffrey Nowell-Smith

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198701774

Category: Performing Arts

Page: 144

View: 884

Cinema was the first, and is arguably still the greatest, of the industrialized art forms that came to dominate the cultural life of the twentieth century. Today, it continues to adapt and grow as new technologies and viewing platforms become available, and remains an integral cultural and aesthetic entertainment experience for people the world over. Cinema developed against the backdrop of the two world wars, and over the years has seen smaller wars, revolutions, and profound social changes. Its history reflects this changing landscape, and, more than any other art form, developments in technology. In this Very Short Introduction, Nowell-Smith looks at the defining moments of the industry, from silent to sound, black and white to color, and considers its genres from intellectual art house to mass market entertainment. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introduction series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Categories: Performing Arts

Eradicating Differences

Eradicating Differences

The eleven essays that comprise this book offer an integrated perspective on Nazi policies of mass murder.

Author: Anton Weiss Wendt

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing

ISBN: 9781443824491

Category: Political Science

Page: 240

View: 917

The eleven essays that comprise this book offer an integrated perspective on Nazi policies of mass murder. Drawing heavily on primary sources from European and American archives, the collection of essays provides novel interpretations of Nazi policies vis-à-vis ethnic, religious, and sexual minorities in the German-occupied territories, specifically Eastern Europe. The essays printed in this volume advance two main theses, drawing a line under the Functionalist-Intentionalist debate regarding the origins of Nazi genocide. In their dealing with the “lesser races,” the Nazis proved more flexible and less single-minded than has been conventionally believed. Faced with what they saw as a temporary military setback, the Nazis were willing to renegotiate their murderous policies, granting certain concessions to the minority groups otherwise slated for destruction. In the long run, however, the Nazis never abandoned the ideology of racial exclusiveness, which had contributed to their ultimate defeat. Another thesis concerns the complex ethno-political landscape of Eastern Europe that came under Nazi domination. German occupation authorities encouraged ethnic rivalries and grievances, which trace back to the Austro-Hungarian and Russian Empires and beyond. Hobbesian war of all against all that had ensued made it easier for the Nazis to apply a divide-and-rule policy. It also provided a fertile ground for collaboration, specifically in the mass murder of Jews. The book will appear to both academic and non-academic audiences interested in the subjects as diverse as genocide, ethno-nationalism, and minority studies.
Categories: Political Science

German occupied Europe in the Second World War

German occupied Europe in the Second World War

... Western European Theatre of War, 1939–1945,” in Prisoners in War, edited by ... The History of Fascist-Nazi Political Philosophy (Boston, MA: Houghton ...

Author: Raffael Scheck

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351385886

Category: History

Page: 264

View: 994

Inspired by recent works on Nazi empire, this book provides a framework to guide occupation research with a broad comparative angle focusing on human interactions. Overcoming national compartmentalization, it examines Nazi occupations with attention to relations between occupiers and local populations and differences among occupation regimes. This is a timely book which engages in historical and current conversations on European nationalisms and the rise of right-wing populisms.
Categories: History

Theaters of Occupation

Theaters of Occupation

Theaters of Occupation reveals how Germans responded to these education efforts and offers new insights about American exceptionalism and virtual democracy at the dawn of the cold war.

Author: Jennifer Fay

Publisher: U of Minnesota Press

ISBN: 9780816647446

Category: Social Science

Page: 228

View: 446

In the aftermath of total war and unconditional surrender, Germans found themselves receiving instruction from their American occupiers. It was not a conventional education. In their effort to transform German national identity and convert a Nazi past into a democratic future, the Americans deployed what they perceived as the most powerful and convincing weapon-movies. In a rigorous analysis of the American occupation of postwar Germany and the military’s use of “soft power,” Jennifer Fay considers how Hollywood films, including Ninotchka, Gaslight, and Stagecoach, influenced German culture and cinema. In this cinematic pedagogy, dark fantasies of American democracy and its history were unwittingly played out on-screen. Theaters of Occupation reveals how Germans responded to these education efforts and offers new insights about American exceptionalism and virtual democracy at the dawn of the cold war. Fay’s innovative approach examines the culture of occupation not only as a phase in U.S.–German relations but as a distinct space with its own discrete cultural practices. As the American occupation of Germany has become a paradigm for more recent military operations, Fay argues that we must question its efficacy as a mechanism of cultural and political change. Jennifer Fay is associate professor and codirector of film studies in the Department of English at Michigan State University.
Categories: Social Science

The New Theatre of the Baltics

The New Theatre of the Baltics

More than an introduction, this book is a forum for ideas as well as a detailed, first-hand account of the current scene in Baltic theatre.

Author: Jeff Johnson

Publisher: McFarland

ISBN: 9781476608938

Category: Performing Arts

Page: 232

View: 282

Although Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania are culturally distinct, they share a common theatre history characterized by resistance, first as a response to Nazi occupation, then as an ideological weapon countering their annexation under strict Soviet ideology. This comprehensive overview of contemporary theatre in the Baltic states includes interviews with major directors, writers, academics and critics, critiques of significant performances, and historical information to familiarize readers with the region. It not only discusses the political ramifications of the three countries’ transition from occupied Soviet states to independent members of the European Union, but also addresses the aesthetic, cultural and national issues associated with the move to independence and the adaptation of a Western economic model. More than an introduction, this book is a forum for ideas as well as a detailed, first-hand account of the current scene in Baltic theatre. While useful for anyone interested in contemporary theatre, it is also essential reading for those interested in Baltic studies, post–Soviet cultural history, and recent trends in East European literature.
Categories: Performing Arts

Trial by Theatre

Trial by Theatre

The motto Národ sobě – “From the Nation to Itself” – inscribed over the proscenium arch of Prague’s National Theatre symbolizes the importance theatre holds for the Czechs.

Author: Day, Barbara

Publisher: Charles University in Prague, Karolinum Press

ISBN: 9788024639536

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 320

View: 530

The motto Národ sobě – “From the Nation to Itself” – inscribed over the proscenium arch of Prague’s National Theatre symbolizes the importance theatre holds for the Czechs. During the National Awakening of the 19th century, theatre took the place of politics, becoming an instrument of national identity in the hands of the revivalists. In what was then part of a German-speaking empire, the Czechs devised a complex and evocative theatre language made up of allegory, allusion, juxtaposition, games, wordplay, legend, history, illusion and music. A sophisticated avant-garde theatre flowered in Czechoslovakia between the wars, and became a symbol of independence during the Nazi occupation. It survived Socialist Realism and Stalinism to blossom again in the “Golden Sixties” when Prague became “the theatre capital of Europe” (Kenneth Tynan) and a generation of theatre and film directors (Radok, Grossman, Schorm) and playwrights (Havel, Kundera, Topol) were at the forefront of the Prague Spring. Reprisals took place after the 1968 Soviet invasion when, under “normalization,” hardline Communists tried to silence the voices of the ‘60s; thousands were forced into internal and external emigration. The theatre culture, however, flexible and experienced from previous repression, again provided a basis of opposition to totalitarianism. For two decades it operated in the provisional spaces of culture houses, studios, gymnasiums, bars, trade union halls, art galleries and living rooms. Strategies were devised and implemented to bring freedom back to the theatre and society. A strong sense of justice and ethics intensified the mutual commitment of theatres and audiences, leading the way to the Velvet Revolution of 1989 and the installation of a playwright as President.
Categories: Literary Criticism

Cinema and the Swastika

Cinema and the Swastika

To this end, European ideals and values were emphasised and contrasted with Hollywood's film hegemony.22 Before the German occupation, American domination ...

Author: Roel Vande Winkel

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9780230289321

Category: History

Page: 342

View: 325

This is the first publication to bring together comparative research on the international expansion of Third Reich cinema. This volume investigates various attempts to infiltrate - economically, politically and culturally - the film industries of 20 countries and regions either occupied by, friendly with or neutral towards Nazi Germany.
Categories: History

A New Nationalist Europe Under Hitler

A New Nationalist Europe Under Hitler

The present volume attempts to combine an analysis of Nazi Germany’s transnational relations with an evaluation of the discourse that accompanied these relations.

Author: Johannes Dafinger

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351627719

Category: History

Page: 306

View: 380

Nazis, fascists and völkisch conservatives in different European countries not only cooperated internationally in the fields of culture, science, economy, and persecution of Jews, but also developed ideas for a racist and ethno-nationalist Europe under Hitler. The present volume attempts to combine an analysis of Nazi Germany’s transnational relations with an evaluation of the discourse that accompanied these relations.
Categories: History

Logistics Matters and the U S Army in Occupied Germany 1945 1949

Logistics Matters and the U S  Army in Occupied Germany  1945 1949

This book examines the U. S. Army’s presence in Germany after the Nazi regime’s capitulation in May 1945.

Author: Lee Kruger

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319388366

Category: History

Page: 290

View: 768

This book examines the U. S. Army’s presence in Germany after the Nazi regime’s capitulation in May 1945. This presence required the pursuit of two stated missions: to secure German borders, and to establish an occupation government within the assigned U.S. zone and sector of Berlin. Both missions required logistics support, a critical aspect often understated in existing scholarship. The security mission, covered by the combat troops, declined between 1945 and 1948, but grew again with the Berlin Blockade/Airlift in 1948, and then again with the Korean crisis in 1950. The logistics mission grew exponentially to support this security mission, as the U.S. Army was the only U.S. Government agency possessing the ability and resources to initially support the occupation mission in Germany. The build-up of ‘Little Americas’ during the occupation years stood forward-deployed U.S. military forces in Europe in good stead over the ensuing decades.
Categories: History

Wars of the 20th Century

Wars of the 20th Century

The chapter titles of this book are: Events leading up to World War II in Europe, Invasion of Poland, Winter War, Denmark and Norway, Invasion of Denmark, Norwegian Campaign, France and the Low Countries, Battle of the Netherlands, Battle ...

Author: Daniel Orr

Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform

ISBN: 1976279313

Category:

Page: 372

View: 430

World War II remains the bloodiest and most destructive conflict in history. It also is the most wide-ranging, and many theaters of the war took place in different parts of the world. Wars of the Twentieth Century: World War II in Europe deals with the European theater of this colossal war, and brings together twenty subordinate wars and campaigns from the Italian Invasion of Albania in April 1939, to the outbreak of World War II in Europe in September 1939, and up to its end in May 1945. This book is sectioned into 24 chapters, with the first chapter detailing the events of the interwar period, notably the pacifism of the 1920s to the early 1930s and the rising tensions by the second half of the 1930s. The main body of the book then delves into the combat phases of the war, starting with the German invasion of Poland in September 1939. In April 1940, Germany attacked Norway and Denmark to secure the iron-ore resources in northern Scandinavia. In May 1940, several months of combat inactivity at the Western Front, called the "Phoney War," was broken when Germany blitzed into Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and France. There followed the German air campaign on Britain, called the Battle of Britain, preparatory to a cross-channel sea and land invasion. The air attacks failed to force the British into submission, but Hitler believed that Britain was effectively knocked out of the war, and he was the master of Western Europe. By spring of 1941, Hitler had set his sights firmly to the east, to the massive invasion of the Soviet Union. The invasion was temporarily set aside, however, as Hitler intervened in the Greco-Italian War to extricate his beleaguered ally, Italian leader Benito Mussolini. With little preparation, Hitler also included Yugoslavia together with the invasion of Greece. Then later with the Balkans secured under German control, in June 1941, Hitler and his Axis partners attacked the Soviet Union with the largest invasion force in history. The offensive made spectacular gains initially, and the Axis seized large swathes of Soviet territory. But by summer of 1943, the tide of war had turned invariably against Germany and the Axis. The Soviet Red Army then began a juggernaut that would wrest back all lost territory and then push right through into Eastern and Central Europe and Germany. Meanwhile, the Western Allies of Britain, the United States, Free France, and their other partners joined the fray in Europe in May 1943 by invading Crete in southern Italy and then in September 1943 the Italian mainland. On June 6, 1944, otherwise known as D-Day, American, British, and Canadian troops, launching from southern England, landed at Normandy in northern France. From there, they liberated occupied Western Europe and pushed from the west into Germany. Some of the greatest battles in history occurred in the European theater of World War II, and are featured here, including the Battle of Stalingrad, Siege of Leningrad, Battle of Kursk, Battle of Moscow, 1940 Ardennes Offensive, Dunkirk evacuation, Battle of the Bulge, and the Battle of Berlin, among others. The chapter titles of this book are: Events leading up to World War II in Europe, Invasion of Poland, Winter War, Denmark and Norway, Invasion of Denmark, Norwegian Campaign, France and the Low Countries, Battle of the Netherlands, Battle of Luxembourg, Battle of Belgium, Battle of France, Battle of the Atlantic, Battle of Britain, Italian Invasion of Albania, Greco-Italian War, the Balkan Campaign, Invasion of Yugoslavia, Invasion of Greece, Invasion of the Soviet Union, Soviet Counter-attack and Defeat of Germany, Lapland War, Italian Campaign, Defeat of Germany in the West 1944-1945, and The End of World War II in Europe.
Categories:

Austrian Cinema

Austrian Cinema

Dr. Goebbels was quick to take advantage of his good fortune: these films were shown in those parts of Europe under German occupation—and in some unoccupied ...

Author: Robert von Dassanowsky

Publisher: McFarland

ISBN: 9781476621470

Category: Performing Arts

Page: 328

View: 188

Austria, the multicultural crossroad of the European continent, has been the genesis of many artistic concepts. Just as late 19th and early 20th century Austria gave influential modernism to the world in the fields of medicine, urban planning, architecture, design, literature, music, and theater, so its film industry created a significant national cinema that seeded talents and concepts internationally. Nevertheless, the value of Austrian cinema to international film has been long obscured. Austria’s important bond with American film is also underappreciated because of the lack of accessible English language scholarship on the early careers of Austro-Hollywood artists and on influential developments in Austrian film history. This first comprehensive English survey of Austrian film introduces more than a century of cinema, following the development of the industry chronologically through the nation’s various transformations since 1895. Important industry movements, genres and films are highlighted with sociopolitical, cultural and aesthetic details. An analysis of the economic trends that have influenced Austrian film is also provided. The survey considers the directors, actors, producers, writers, cinematographers, editors, composers and other film artists who have been essential to the development and influence of Austrian cinema. The closing chapter anticipates new faces of the Austrian film industry in the 21st century.
Categories: Performing Arts

Belgium Under the German Occupation

Belgium Under the German Occupation

And then the ball at the Palace and the dancers under the brilliant ... so soon to be reproduced on a titanic scale with the whole vast theatre of Europe as ...

Author: Brand Whitlock

Publisher:

ISBN: STANFORD:36105023699312

Category: Belgium

Page: 490

View: 564

Categories: Belgium

World Encyclopedia of Contemporary Theatre

World Encyclopedia of Contemporary Theatre

Volume 1: Europe Peter Nagy, Philippe Rouyer. POLAND. most ofthe twentieth century was bounded by Germany to thewest, Czechoslovakia tothe south and the ...

Author: Peter Nagy

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781136118128

Category: Performing Arts

Page: 1064

View: 257

The World Encyclopedia of Contemporary Theatre:Europe covers theatre since World War II in forty-seven European nations, including the nations which re-emerged following the break-up of the former USSR, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia. Each national article is divided into twelve sections - History, Structure of the National Theatre Community, Artistic Profile, Music Theatre, Theatre for Young Audiences, Puppet Theatre, Design, Theatre, Space and Architecture, Training, Criticism, Scholarship and Publishing and Further Reading - allowing the reader to use the book as a source for both area and subject studies.
Categories: Performing Arts

Paris Under the Occupation

Paris Under the Occupation

Afterward, the renowned French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre attempted to explain France's experience under the occupation and repair the nation's now tarnished reputation.

Author: Jean-Paul Sartre

Publisher: Now and Then Reader LLC

ISBN: 9781937853013

Category: History

Page:

View: 468

Categories: History