Gabriele Herz's memoir, published for the first time, is a unique record of a Jewish woman's detention in the first women's concentration camp in Moringen (housed in part of an old-established workhouse), at a time when most other inmates ...
Author: Gabriele Herz
Publisher: Berghahn Books
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Memoirs of Herz (born in Vienna in 1886) describing her incarceration at a workhouse camp for women in the village of Moringen (near Hanover). This camp was in existence from 1933 to March 1938. Herz was arrested in Berlin in October 1936 for spending more than three months abroad (she had spent six months in Italy exploring whether her family could make a new life there). As a Jew, she could be released at the end of her term only if she met Nazi requirements for emigration. After her initial imprisonment in the Alexanderplatz prison, she was sent for "protective custody" to Moringen; very few of the detainees were Jewish. She was released in March 1937 and emigrated with her husband and children, eventually settling in the U.S. The introduction by Jane Caplan (p. 1-55) deals with a description of the case of Herz and her family, German police custody and concentration camps after 1933, the camp in Moringen, and the subject of women in detention.
Author: Geoffrey P. MegargeePublish On: 2009-05-22
54; Gabriele Herz, The Women's Camp in Moringen: A Memoir of Imprisonment in Germany, 1936–1937, ed. and intro. by Jane Caplan, trans. Hildegard Herz and Howard Hartig (New York: Berghahn Books, 2006), pp. 92–94. 11. BA-K, Best.
Author: Geoffrey P. Megargee
Publisher: Indiana University Press
Winner of the National Jewish Book Award: “This valuable resource covers an aspect of the Holocaust rarely addressed and never in such detail.” —Library Journal This is the first volume in a monumental seven-volume encyclopedia, reflecting years of work by the Jack, Joseph, and Morton Mandel Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, which will describe the universe of camps and ghettos—many thousands more than previously known—that the Nazis and their allies operated, from Norway to North Africa and from France to Russia. For the first time, a single reference work will provide detailed information on each individual site. This first volume covers three groups of camps: the early camps that the Nazis established in the first year of Hitler’s rule, the major SS concentration camps with their constellations of subcamps, and the special camps for Polish and German children and adolescents. Overview essays provide context for each category, while each camp entry provides basic information about the site’s purpose; prisoners; guards; working and living conditions; and key events in the camp’s history. Material from personal testimonies helps convey the character of the site, while source citations provide a path to additional information.
The Women's Camp in Moringen: A Memoir of Imprisonment in Germany, 1936-1937. New York: Berghahn Books, 183 pp. Memoir of Gabriele Herz. Includes an extensive introduction by Jane Caplan which provides the history of the former women's ...
Author: Samuel Totten
Category: Political Science
The plight and fate of female victims during the course of genocide is radically and profoundly different from their male counterparts. Like males, female victims suffer demonization, ostracism, discrimination, and deprivation of their basic human rights. They are often rounded up, deported, and killed. But, unlike most men, women are subjected to rape, gang rape, and mass rape. Such assaults and degradation can, and often do, result in horrible injuries to their reproductive systems and unwanted pregnancies. This volume takes one stride towards assessing these grievances, and argues against policies calculated to continue such indifference to great human suffering. The horror and pain suffered by females does not end with the act of rape. There is always the fear, and reality, of being infected with HIV/AIDS. Concomitantly, there is the possibility of becoming pregnant.Then, there is the birth of the babies. For some, the very sight of the babies and children reminds mothers of the horrific violations they suffered. When mothers harbor deep-seated hatred or distain for such children, it results in more misery. The hatred may be so great that children born of rape leave home early in order to fend for themselves on the street. This seventh volume in the Genocide series will provoke debate, discussion, reflection and, ultimately, action. The issues presented include ongoing mass rape of girls and women during periods of war and genocide, ostracism of female victims, terrible psychological and physical wounds, the plight of offspring resulting from rapes, and the critical need for medical and psychological services.
Arndt in her 1970 study of women's camps called Lichtenburg “the first real women's concentration camp.” See Arndt, “Frauenkonzentrationslager,” 100. Hesse, however, reaches the conclusion that Moringen must be regarded as a ...
Author: Kim Wünschmann
Publisher: Harvard University Press
Nazis began detaining Jews in camps as soon as they came to power in 1933. Kim Wünschmann reveals the origin of these extralegal detention sites, the harsh treatment Jews received there, and the message the camps sent to Germans: that Jews were enemies of the state, dangerous to associate with and fair game for acts of intimidation and violence.
... expansion of the women's camp.27 Men's and women's camps were staffed and administered on significantly different lines initially, although with an increasing convergence after 1938 when women were moved from Moringen to Lichtenburg ...
Author: Nikolaus Wachsmann
The notorious concentration camp system was a central pillar of the Third Reich, supporting the Nazi war against political, racial and social outsiders whilst also intimidating the population at large. Established during the first months of the Nazi dictatorship in 1933, several million men, women and children of many nationalities had been incarcerated in the camps by the end of the Second World War. At least two million lost their lives. This comprehensive volume offers the first overview of the recent scholarship that has changed the way the camps are studied over the last two decades. Written by an international team of experts, the book covers such topics as the earliest camps; social life, work and personnel in the camps; the public face of the camps; issues of gender and commemoration; and the relationship between concentration camps and the Final Solution. The book provides a comprehensive introduction to the current historiography of the camps, highlighting the key conclusions that have been made, commenting on continuing areas of debate, and suggesting possible directions for future research.
Despite the terror, German women continued to operate underground, many now inspired by the outbreak of the Spanish civil war. Amongst those taken to the women's 'camp' of Moringen in the mid1930s were more women communists and former ...
Author: Sarah Helm
Publisher: Hachette UK
Winner of the Longman-History Today Book Prize: A 'profoundly moving chronicle' (Observer) that tells the story of Ravensbrück, the only concentration camp designed specifically for women, using new testimony from survivors On a sunny morning in May 1939 a phalanx of 800 women - housewives, doctors, opera singers, politicians, prostitutes - were marched through the woods fifty miles north of Berlin, driven on past a shining lake, then herded through giant gates. Whipping and kicking them were scores of German women guards. Their destination was Ravensbrück, a concentration camp designed specifically for women by Heinrich Himmler, prime architect of the Nazi genocide. For decades the story of Ravensbrück was hidden behind the Iron Curtain and today is still little known. Using testimony unearthed since the end of the Cold War, and interviews with survivors who have never spoken before, Helm has ventured into the heart of the camp, demonstrating for the reader in riveting detail how easily and quickly the unthinkable horror evolved. 'It not only fills a gap in Holocaust history but it is an utterly compelling read' Taylor Downing, History Today 'A sense of urgency infuses this history, which comes just in time to gather the testimony of the camp's survivors . . . meticulous, unblinking . . . [Helm's] book comes not a moment too soon' The Economist
158 Moringen, Acc. 105/96, Nr. 205. Our thanks to Kim Wünschmann and Julia Hörath for sharing this document with us. 117. Herz, The Women's Camp in Moringen, 82–88. It is not entirely clear when these postwar memoirs were written.
Author: Christian Goeschel
Publisher: U of Nebraska Press
Weeks after Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933, the Nazi regime established the first concentration camps in Germany. Initially used for real and suspected political enemies, the camps increasingly came under SS control and became sites for the repression of social outsiders and German Jews. Terror was central to the Nazi regime from the beginning, and the camps gradually moved toward the center of repression, torture, and mass murder during World War II and the Holocaust. This collection brings together revealing primary documents on the crucial origins of the Nazi concentration camp system in the prewar years between 1933 and 1939, which have been overlooked thus far. Many of the documents are unpublished and have been translated into English for the first time. These documents provide insight into the camps from multiple perspectives, including those of prisoners, Nazi officials, and foreign observers, and shed light on the complex relationship between terror, state, and society in the Third Reich.
Author: Michael Robert MarrusPublish On: 1989-01-01
After the Prussian Ministry of Interior designated Moringen a women's concentration camp (Frauenkonzentrationslager; FKL) for women arrested in protective custody in all of Germany (order of October 28, 1933), the inmate population ...
Author: Michael Robert Marrus
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
Diese Reihe bietet erstmals eine Basissammlung von Faksimiles englischsprachiger historischer Artikel zu allen Aspekten der Vernichtung der europäischen Juden. Die große Anzahl von annähernd 300 Aufsätzen aus 84 Zeitschriften und Sammlungen ermöglicht den Lesern, sich einen Überblick über diesen Themenkomplex zu verschaffen. Die Reihe beginnt mit einem Rückblick auf die Wurzeln des Antisemitismus und einer Darstellung der verschiedenen wissenschaftlichen Methoden zur Erforschung des Holocaust. Die Reihe endet mit der Dokumentation der Befreiung der Konzentrationslager und mit Aufsätzen zu den Kriegsverbrecherprozessen. Der Erscheinungszeitraum umfasst die Jahre 1950 bis 1987, zu den Verfassern gehören beispielsweise Jakob Katz, Saul Friedländer, Eberhard Jäckel, Bruno Bettelheim und Herbert A. Strauss.
Despite the terror, German women continued to operate underground, many now inspired by the outbreak of the Spanish civil war. Amongst those taken to the women's 'camp' of Moringen in the mid-1930s were more women communists and former ...
Author: Sarah Helm
A masterly and moving account of the most horrific hidden atrocity of World War II: Ravensbrück, the only Nazi concentration camp built for women On a sunny morning in May 1939 a phalanx of 867 women—housewives, doctors, opera singers, politicians, prostitutes—was marched through the woods fifty miles north of Berlin, driven on past a shining lake, then herded in through giant gates. Whipping and kicking them were scores of German women guards. Their destination was Ravensbrück, a concentration camp designed specifically for women by Heinrich Himmler, prime architect of the Holocaust. By the end of the war 130,000 women from more than twenty different European countries had been imprisoned there; among the prominent names were Geneviève de Gaulle, General de Gaulle’s niece, and Gemma La Guardia Gluck, sister of the wartime mayor of New York. Only a small number of these women were Jewish; Ravensbrück was largely a place for the Nazis to eliminate other inferior beings—social outcasts, Gypsies, political enemies, foreign resisters, the sick, the disabled, and the “mad.” Over six years the prisoners endured beatings, torture, slave labor, starvation, and random execution. In the final months of the war, Ravensbrück became an extermination camp. Estimates of the final death toll by April 1945 have ranged from 30,000 to 90,000. For decades the story of Ravensbrück was hidden behind the Iron Curtain, and today it is still little known. Using testimony unearthed since the end of the Cold War and interviews with survivors who have never talked before, Sarah Helm has ventured into the heart of the camp, demonstrating for the reader in riveting detail how easily and quickly the unthinkable horror evolved. Far more than a catalog of atrocities, however, Ravensbrück is also a compelling account of what one survivor called “the heroism, superhuman tenacity, and exceptional willpower to survive.” For every prisoner whose strength failed, another found the will to resist through acts of self-sacrifice and friendship, as well as sabotage, protest, and escape. While the core of this book is told from inside the camp, the story also sheds new light on the evolution of the wider genocide, the impotence of the world to respond, and Himmler’s final attempt to seek a separate peace with the Allies using the women of Ravensbrück as a bargaining chip. Chilling, inspiring, and deeply unsettling, Ravensbrück is a groundbreaking work of historical investigation. With rare clarity, it reminds us of the capacity of humankind both for bestial cruelty and for courage against all odds.
The women's concentration camps were organized along similar lines as the men's camps.8 As was the case for men, ... women's camp, the Moringen provincial workhouse (Provinzialwerkhaus), was set up in Prussia.14 Although Moringen also ...
Author: Elissa Mailänder
Publisher: MSU Press
How did “ordinary women,” like their male counterparts, become capable of brutal violence during the Holocaust? Cultural historian Elissa Mailänder examines the daily work of twenty-eight women employed by the SS to oversee prisoners in the concentration and death camp Majdanek/Lublin in Poland. Many female SS overseers in Majdanek perpetrated violence and terrorized prisoners not only when ordered to do so but also on their own initiative. The social order of the concentration camp, combined with individual propensities, shaped a microcosm in which violence became endemic to workaday life. The author’s analysis of Nazi records, court testimony, memoirs, and film interviews illuminates the guards’ social backgrounds, careers, and motives as well as their day-to-day behavior during free time and on the “job,” as they supervised prisoners on work detail and in the cell blocks, conducted roll calls, and “selected” girls and women for death in the gas chambers. Scrutinizing interactions and conflicts among female guards, relations with male colleagues and superiors, and internal hierarchies, Female SS Guards and Workaday Violence shows how work routines, pressure to “resolve problems,” material gratification, and Nazi propaganda stressing guards’ roles in “creating a new order” heightened female overseers’ identification with Nazi policies and radicalized their behavior.