Author: United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Aeronautical and Space SciencesPublish On: 1972
Rather they argued it was the warheads ; “ the factor determining the peaceful or military purpose of a rocket is not ... outer space and foreign military bases by
asking " why is it then that the United States proposal suggests the outlawing of ...
Author: United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences
feels the United States has created an artificial division in our space efforts ;
namely , " Space for peaceful purposes " and " space for military uses , " when in
fact no technical and little other distinction between the two exists . Senator
Foreign military specialists view airspace and outer space as a strategically
inseparable medium above the earth's surface, where military actions will be of
important significance for armed combat as a whole. According to the views of the U.S. ...
Author: United States. Department of StatePublish On: 1991
The majority Planning Board view did not require the United States to be superior
to the Soviet Union specifically in outer space military capabilities . He very much
hoped , said General Cutler , that the maintenance of over - all military ...
An invaluable source of information for defense analysts and scholars of international relations, The Militarization of Space is essential reading for anyone wishing to understand present United States military space policy and its ...
Author: Paul B. Stares
From the front jacket flap: Contrary to widespread expectations in the wake of Sputnik, outer space did not immediately become a new arena for a superpower arms competition. Although the United States and the Soviet Union began to use space extensively for military purposes, both exhibited relatively little interest in the development of space weaponry. By the beginning of the 1980s, however, an arms race in space seemed inevitable. Now both the United States and the Soviet Union have developed the means to disable satellites and are now also considering the deployment of ballistic missile defenses in space. Why were these weapons never extensively developed earlier? What changed in the late 1970s to reverse the predominant trend in the militarization of space? What are the lessons for arms control and for Soviet-American relations in general? Paul Stares addresses these fundamental questions by examining the factors that have shaped United States policy towards the military use of space and in particular the development of antisatellite weapons. States relies heavily on declassified documents found in Presidential libraries and made available under the Freedom of Information Act, and he obtained additional information from a comprehensive series of interview with former members of the U.S. government and armed services. By judicious use of this material, he provides the first detailed account of United States space weapons policy and programs. An invaluable source of information for defense analysts and scholars of international relations, The Militarization of Space is essential reading for anyone wishing to understand present United States military space policy and its implications for the future.
United States space activities The Military Importance of Space Space - based
systems have clearly demonstrated their ability to support the planning and
execution of US military operations , thereby contributing to US deterrent
Author: United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Aeronautical and Space SciencesPublish On: 1961
U.S. Air Force officers have consistently urged that the United States must be
prepared to meet a Soviet threat in space . However , according to one observer ,
most military planners consider the use of missile - launching satellites the ...
Author: United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences
development missions among the Army , Navy , and Air Force . The Air Force
interpreted the request quite differently , believing that the Department of Defense
might approve a USAF space program . Two weeks later , the Air Force had ...
Sean N. Kalic’s reinterpretation of the development of US space policy, based on documents declassified in the past decade, demonstrates that a single vision for the appropriate uses of space characterized American strategies across ...
Author: Sean N. Kalic
Publisher: Texas A&M University Press
In the clash of ideologies represented by the Cold War, even the heavens were not immune to militarization. Satellites and space programs became critical elements among the national security objectives of both the United States and the Soviet Union. According to US Presidents and the Militarization of Space, 1946–1967, three American presidents in succession shared a fundamental objective of preserving space as a weapons-free frontier for the benefit of all humanity. Between 1953 and 1967 Presidents Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Johnson all saw nonaggressive military satellite development, as well as the civilian space program, as means to favorably shape the international community’s opinion of the scientific, technological, and military capabilities of the United States. Sean N. Kalic’s reinterpretation of the development of US space policy, based on documents declassified in the past decade, demonstrates that a single vision for the appropriate uses of space characterized American strategies across parties and administrations during this period. Significantly, Kalic’s findings contradict the popular opinion that the United States sought to weaponize space and calls into question the traditional interpretation of the space race as a simple action/reaction paradigm. Indeed, beyond serving as a symbol and ambassador of US technological capability, its satellite program provided the United States with advanced, nonaggressive military intelligence-gathering platforms that proved critical in assessing the strategic nuclear balance between the United States and the Soviet Union. It also aided the three administrations in countering the Soviet Union’s increasing international prestige after its series of space firsts, beginning with the launch of Sputnik in 1957.
The reinforced development of exotic technologies for ASAT and space laser
weapons is buttressed by new strategic plans of the US military , in particular of
the US Space Command under its former director and now head of the Joint
Author: Detlev Wolter
Publisher: United Nations Publications
This publication explores the concept of common security and the legal foundations for its application in outer space law, based on the premise that outer space is an internationalised common area beyond the national jurisdiction of individual states, and therefore security in space must be the common security of all states. Chapters cover a range of issues including: the principle of the peaceful use of outer space, passive military uses, and multilateral negotiations to prevent an arms race in outer space; structural change of international law and the common heritage of mankind principle; and proposals for a multilateral agreement and the creation of an International Organisation for Common Security in Outer Space.
manage crises and conflicts , the conduct of military operations and the
development of military capabilities to assure the attainment of US objectives . Military Space Mission Areas Another important typology for describing spacepower was ...
Author: United Nations
Publisher: United Nations Publications
Category: Technology & Engineering
This publication contains a number of papers presented at an international conference on the current and future military uses of space, held in Geneva in November 2002, as well as the conference report. Participants, who included governmental and non-governmental representatives, discussed a wide range of short and long-term measures to enhance space security, including the possibility of a ban on the deployment of any weapons in space.
12 Despite this rhetoric , the unmanned passive military satellite programmes
continued to grow , and by 1980 had become a major element of the US space
effort . The Soviet military in space According to the assertions of Soviet leaders
Major General Curtis E. LeMay, the Director of Research and Development for the Army Air Forces, however, viewed space operations as an exclusive Air Force domain, and he ordered an independent study.
Author: Curtis Peebles
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
Addresses the history of the U.S. military space program as an US Air Force domain. Includes discussion on aerial reconnaissance; national space policy; Project CORONA; manned military space flight; the X-20 Dyna-Soar; the Manned Orbiting Laboratory; military space shuttles; missile early warning; SPADATA/SSN tracking network; nuclear detection; communication, meteorological & navigational satellites; anti-satellite systems; launch operations, ground control, organization & management; Space Command; Desert Storm, the US Air Force & the military space program in a changing world; & more. Photos.
This handbook examines the militarization of space, providing a fair and balanced discussion of the emerging issues concerning space security and defense.
Author: Wilson Wong
This handbook examines the militarization of space, providing a fair and balanced discussion of the emerging issues concerning space security and defense. * Excerpts from key documents * A chronology * Select glossary of terms * Illustrations * Sidebars with additional detail
The Soviet Union has as a rule lagged behind the United States in the
development of military space technology , despite its early lead with Sputnik .
Table 1-1 gives the dates of the introduction of various categories of U.S. and
CHAPTER 3 SPACE ORGANIZATIONS PART 2 : U.S. MILITARY , FOREIGN ,
AND PRIVATE Historical funding for Missile Defense Agency , fiscal years 1985–
2007. Outer space , including the Moon and other celestial bodies , shall be free
Author: Kim Masters Evans
Publisher: Information Plus
Provides information on the history of space exploration and the daily life of astronauts.
The space domain's exploitation for national security broadened the array of
remote sensing , communications , missile warning , and other satellite functions
upon which U.S. military and national power depend . 30 Globalization of space ...
Author: J. Boone Bartholomees
Publisher: Strategic Studies Institute U. S. Army War College
Category: National security
This edition of the U. S. Army War College Guide to National Security Policy and Strategy continues to reflect the structure and approach of the core national security strategy and policy curriculum at the War College. The fourth edition is published in two volumes that correspond roughly to the Department of National Security and Strategy's core courses: "Theory of War and Strategy" and "National Security Policy and Strategy." Like previous editions, this one is largely an expansion of its predecessor rather than a major rewriting. About a quarter of the chapters are new, and several others have undergone significant rewrites or updates. However, approximately half of the book remains unchanged. Although this is not primarily a textbook, it does reflect both the method and manner we use to teach strategy formulation to America's future senior leaders. The book is not a comprehensive or exhaustive treatment of either strategic theory or the policymaking process. Both volumes are organized to proceed from the general to the specific. Thus the first volume opens with general thoughts on the nature and theory of war and strategy, proceeds to look at the complex aspect of power, and concludes with specific theoretical issues. Similarly, the second volume begins by examining the policy/strategy process, moves to a look at the strategic environment, and concludes with some specific issues. This edition adds several short case studies that can be used to illustrate the primary material in the volume.
A treaty dealing with space debris is already in place and is a guide to the liability of launching states . ... Another problem facing free enterprise is the push by the military to militarize space , a trend which the US judiciary is unable to prevent .
MacDonald recommends options and policies that will promote options and policies that will promote American security interests in space.
Author: Bruce W. MacDonald
Publisher: Council on Foreign Relations
Category: Political Science
MacDonald recommends options and policies that will promote options and policies that will promote American security interests in space. He argues that the U.S. needs to take priority defensive military space measures to offset potential Chinese anti-satellite and related capabilities.