The Underspecification of Past Participles

The Underspecification of Past Participles

This book discusses the long-standing mystery of past participial (non-)identity on the basis of a broad range of synchronic data from Germanic and Romance, eventually focussing on German and English as these draw the most relevant ...

Author: Dennis Wegner

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 9783110616149

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 368

View: 396

Are the past participial forms that occur in passive and perfect periphrases substantially identical or should they rather be distinguished into accidentally homophonous passive and perfect(ive) participles? This book discusses the long-standing mystery of past participial (non-)identity on the basis of a broad range of synchronic data from Germanic and Romance, eventually focussing on German and English as these draw the most relevant distinctions (e.g. auxiliary alternation, a passive auxiliary that is not BE). Together with some contrastive insights from Slavic as well as the diachrony of passive and perfect periphrases, this clearly points to an identity-view. The novel approach that is laid out suggests that past participles conflate diathetic and aspectual properties. The former cause the suppression of an external argument, whereas the latter impose event-structure sensitive perfectivity, which only induces the completion of a situation if the underlying eventuality denotes a simple change of state. An approach along these lines sheds light on the intricate properties of past participles and the auxiliaries they occur with, the determinants of auxiliary selection as well as the interplay of argument and event structure.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Research in Second Language Processing and Parsing

Research in Second Language Processing and Parsing

forms of the past participles in masculine contexts (despite feature clash) at fairly ... to the underspecification of the number feature on the auxiliary; ...

Author: Bill VanPatten

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9789027287489

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 351

View: 537

This volume is the first dedicated to the growing field of theory and research on second language processing and parsing. The fourteen papers in this volume offer cutting-edge research using a number of different languages (e.g., Arabic, Spanish, Japanese, French, German, English) and structures (e.g., relative clauses, wh-gaps, gender, number) to examine various issues in second language processing: first language influence, whether or not non-natives can achieve native-like processing, the roles of context and prosody, the effects of working memory, and others. The researchers include both established scholars and newer voices, all offering important insights into the factors that affect processing and parsing in a second language.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Partiality and Underspecification in Information Languages and Knowledge

Partiality and Underspecification in Information  Languages  and Knowledge

By this rule, these words should not be used to qualify past participles that follow the verb to be, since they would then be technically qualifying verbs.

Author: Henning Christiansen

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing

ISBN: 9781527500723

Category: Philosophy

Page: 360

View: 934

In recent years, there has been a proliferation of technological developments that incorporate processing of human language. Hardware and software can be specialized for designated subject areas, and computational devices are designed for a widening variety of applications. At the same time, new areas and applications are emerging by demanding intelligent technology enhanced by the processing of human language. These new applications often perform tasks which handle information, and they have a capacity to reason, using both formal and human language. Many sub-areas of Artificial Intelligence demand integration of Natural Language Processing, at least to some degree. Furthermore, technologies require coverage of known as well as unknown agents, and tasks with potential variations. All of this takes place in environments with unknown factors. The book covers theoretical work, advanced applications, approaches, and techniques for computational models of information, reasoning systems, and presentation in language. The book promotes work on intelligent natural language processing and related models of information, thought, reasoning, and other cognitive processes. The topics covered by the chapters prompt further research and developments of advanced systems in the areas of logic, computability, computational linguistics, cognitive science, neuroscience of language, robotics, and artificial intelligence, among others.
Categories: Philosophy

Passivization and Typology

Passivization and Typology

A/V is the underspecified category of the past participle neutral between A and V. (80) Die Tür wird (vom Zimmermann) geöffnet (derived from the adjective ...

Author: Werner Abraham

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9789027229809

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 553

View: 682

Is the passive a unified universal phenomenon? The claim derived from this volume is that the passive, if not universal, has become unified according to function. Language as a means of communication needs the passive, or passive-like constructions, and sooner or later develops them based on other voices (impersonal active, middle, reflexive), specific semantic meanings such as adversativity, or tense-aspect categories (stative, perfect, preterit). Certain contributors review the passives in various languages and language groups, including languages rarely discussed. Another group of contributors takes a novel theoretical approach toward passivization within a broad typological perspective. Among the languages discussed are Vedic, Irish, Mandarin Chinese, Thai, Lithuanian, Mordvin, and Nganasan, next to almost all European languages. Various theoretical frameworks such as Optimality Theory, modern structuralist approaches, Role and Reference Grammar, cognitive semantics, Distributed Morphology, and case grammar have been applied by the different authors.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

The Discourse Potential of Underspecified Structures

The Discourse Potential of Underspecified Structures

A similar directional bias holds for other complement-taking verbs as well, ... we searched for combinations of the past-participle form (which nearly ...

Author: Anita Steube

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 9783110209303

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 635

View: 263

The volume demonstrates the interdependence of man’s language capacity and his other conceptual capacities. This enables linguistic structures to be minimalised, and for extra-linguistic domains to provide much of the interpretations of sound and meaning. Underspecification is demonstrated in the word formation of Indo-European, Late Archaic Chinese and modern Khmer; on the word- and sentence levels by the event structures of German; and in the information structure predominantly of languages with the so-called free word order: German, Slavic languages, Arabic compared with English and the tone language Hausa. The volume is noteworthy due to the close cooperation between theoretical and experimental research. Within grammar, it has especially strengthened prosodic research and the syntax-phonology interrelations and their interpretations, and it has helped to create data bases for the relations within texts and to evaluate the findings.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

The Role of Agreement in Non Finite Predication

The Role of Agreement in Non Finite Predication

They use the passive past adjectival participle to “correct” the underspecified active form (Lacké 1999). To summarize, Hungarian adj ectival participle ...

Author: Gréte Dalmi

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9789027285317

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 222

View: 277

This comparative syntactic study claims that agreement is the most central functional category responsible for licensing predication in finite, non-finite and small clauses alike. Intriguing syntactic phenomena like Icelandic infinitival predicates taking non-nominative (quirky) subjects; psych-impersonal and modal predicates in Italian, Hungarian and Russian; meteorological predicates, existential clauses, post-verbal and null subjects in the so-called null-subject VSO languages can all be better analyzed through a concept of predication that is closely related to AGRP, manifesting subject-verb agreement. The overt agreement marking in Hungarian and Portuguese infinitival clauses further strengthens this view. Obviation and control subjunctive clauses in the Balkan languages, Welsh finite and non-finite infinitival clauses as well as case-marked secondary predicates in Icelandic, Slovak, Hungarian, Russian and Finnish also lend support to an analysis where the [+pred] feature is checked in AGRP.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Semantic Processing of Legal Texts

Semantic Processing of Legal Texts

The chunking process resorts to underspecified analyses in cases of systematic ambiguity, such as the one between adjective and past participle.

Author: Enrico Francesconi

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783642128370

Category: Computers

Page: 252

View: 264

Recent years have seen much new research on the interface between artificial intelligence and law, looking at issues such as automated legal reasoning. This collection of papers represents the state of the art in this fascinating and highly topical field.
Categories: Computers

Past Participle Agreement

Past Participle Agreement

As in passive clauses , in which the inflected passive suffix of the past participle is considered an argument ( Lois 1990 : 240 ) , the participle in ...

Author: Jorge Vega Vilanova

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing Company

ISBN: 9789027260468

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 236

View: 662

In this book, the traditional definition of ‘grammaticalization’ is challenged in the light of current developments in grammar theory. The main innovation of this approach is the focus on the feature composition of lexical items. From this perspective, the loss of past participle agreement in Catalan is analyzed on the basis of newly collected data as a consequence of the grammaticalization of formal features. The emergence of syntactic formal features through grammaticalization is understood as a last-resort repair mechanism for pragmatically costly derivations. Further far-reaching implications of this proposal under discussion are: the interplay between (re-)parametrization, economy, cyclicity, and grammaticalization; the characterization of free variation under a modified version of the Interface Hypothesis; and the precedence of syntactic over morphological change. This book is not only of interest to specialists in Romance languages but also to anyone working on diachronic linguistics.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

The Syntax of Old Romanian

The Syntax of Old Romanian

... three values of the supine are attested: the nominal, the underspecified, ... 3.3 The past participle and the participial clause 3.3.1 Preliminary ...

Author: Gabriela Pana Dindelegan

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198712350

Category:

Page: 728

View: 861

This book provides the first comprehensive overview of the syntax of old Romanian written in English and targeted at a non-Romanian readership. It draws on an extensive new corpus analysis of the period between the beginning of the sixteenth century, the date of the earliest attested Romanian texts, and the end of the eighteenth century, generally considered to mark the start of the modernization of Romanian. Gabriela Pană Dindelegan and her co-authors adopt both a synchronic and diachronic approach by providing a detailed corpus analysis in a given period, while also comparing old and modern Romanian. They examine the evolution of a variety of syntactic phenomena, including the elimination or diminishing of certain facts or generalization of others, the total or partial grammaticalization of phenomena, competition between structures, and cases of syntactic variation. The book takes a typological and comparative perspective, focusing on those phenomena that are considered specific to Romanian (either on the Romance or in the Balkan area), and adopts a modern framework while still remaining accessible to readers from any background.
Categories:

Finite State Methods and Natural Language Processing

Finite State Methods and Natural Language Processing

... and the concept of tag underspecification as an ordered sequence of tags. ... past tense vs. past participle) which are interpreted as underspecified ...

Author: Anssi Yli-Jyrä

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783540354697

Category: Computers

Page: 312

View: 760

This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Finite-State Methods in Natural Language Processing, FSMNLP 2005, held in Helsinki, Finland, September 2005. The book presents 24 revised full papers and seven revised poster papers together with two invited contributions and abstracts of six software demos. Topics include morphology, optimality theory, some special FSM families, weighted FSM algorithms, FSM representations, exploration, ordered structures, and surface parsing.
Categories: Computers

Grammar as Processor

Grammar as Processor

First, a feature maybe underspecified within the computational system, ... as noted by Halle & Marantz (1993), the English past participle ending /-d/ in a ...

Author: Roland Pfau

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9789027255204

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 372

View: 269

Spontaneous speech errors provide valuable evidence not only for the processes that mediate between a communicative intention and the articulation of an utterance but also for the types of grammatical entities that are manipulated during production. This study proposes an analysis of speech errors that is informed by grammar theory. In particular, it is shown how characteristic properties of erroneous German utterances can be accounted for within Distributed Morphology (DM). The investigation focuses on two groups of errors: Errors that result from the manipulation of semantic and morphosyntactic features, and errors which appear to involve the application of a post-error repair strategy. It is argued that a production model which incorporates DM allows for a straightforward account of the attested, sometimes complex, error patterns. DM mechanisms, for instance, render unnecessary the assumption of repair processes. Besides providing an account for the attested error patterns, the theory also helps us in explaining why certain errors do not occur. In this sense, DM makes for a psychologically real model of grammar.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Romance Languages and Linguistic Theory 2003

Romance Languages and Linguistic Theory 2003

... participle is derived from the “Past Passive” participle in any sense, ... may be underspecified with respect to the syntactico-semantic contexts in ...

Author: Twan Geerts

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9789027294067

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 369

View: 421

The annual Going Romance conference is the major European discussion forum for theoretically relevant research on Romance languages where current ideas about language in general and about Romance languages in particular are tested. Starting with the thirteenth conference held in 1999, volumes with selected papers of the conferences are published under the title Romance Languages and Linguistic Theory, This is the fifth such volume, containing a selection of papers that have been presented at the seventeenth Going Romance conference, held at the Radboud University Nijmegen (The Netherlands) from 20–22 November 2003. The three-day program included a workshop on ‘Diachronic Phonology’. The present volume contains a broad range of articles dealing not only with syntax and phonology, but also with morphology, semantics and acquisition of the Romance languages.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

The Oxford Gothic Grammar

The Oxford Gothic Grammar

CHAPTER 5 The verbal system 5.1 Introduction Verbs in Gothic are ... voice - underspecified infinitive , a nonpast and past participle , the former active ...

Author: D. Gary Miller

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198813590

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 692

View: 170

This volume provides a comprehensive reference grammar of Gothic, the earliest attested language of the Germanic family (apart from runic inscriptions). It is the first in English to draw on the recently discovered Bologna fragment and Crimean graffiti, in addition to the traditional Bible translation explored in most works to date.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Language Acquisition and Development

Language Acquisition and Development

Standard analyses (Kayne (1989); Sportiche (1998); Belletti (2006)) assume that object-past participle agreement requires a local spec-head relation between ...

Author: João Costa

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing

ISBN: 9781443824507

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 540

View: 232

This edited collection contains 43 papers presented at the GALA (Generative Approaches to Language Acquisition) conference 2009, held in Lisbon, Portugal. The volume contains a very wide and rich range of topics, reflecting the immense quality of the event: the acquisition of languages from different families is studied; comparisons between acquisition of L1, L2 and atypical language development are made; all areas of language development are explored (phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, lexicon, pragmatics and interactions between components). The proceedings of GALA are an invaluable reference for those interested in Language Acquisition, Language Development and Child Language.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Lexical Underspecification and the Syntax semantics Interface Jean Pierre Aim Koenig

Lexical Underspecification and the Syntax semantics Interface Jean Pierre Aim   Koenig

Typically , the general verb - class is declared to take -ed as a pasttense and past
participle suffix . Verbs like take are declared to be subtypes of verbs but specify
that their past - participle suffix is -en . In a default - inheritance scheme , the ...

Author: Jean-Pierre Aimé Koenig

Publisher:

ISBN: UCAL:C3385108

Category:

Page: 980

View: 310

Categories:

Multiword Expressions Acquisition

Multiword Expressions Acquisition

dependent : underspecified dependence • ta : text adjunct • arg_mod ... base form • VBD Verb, past tense • VBG Verb, gerund or present participle • VBN Verb ...

Author: Carlos Ramisch

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319092072

Category: Computers

Page: 230

View: 262

​This book is an excellent introduction to multiword expressions. It provides a unique, comprehensive and up-to-date overview of this exciting topic in computational linguistics. The first part describes the diversity and richness of multiword expressions, including many examples in several languages. These constructions are not only complex and arbitrary, but also much more frequent than one would guess, making them a real nightmare for natural language processing applications. The second part introduces a new generic framework for automatic acquisition of multiword expressions from texts. Furthermore, it describes the accompanying free software tool, the mwetoolkit, which comes in handy when looking for expressions in texts (regardless of the language). Evaluation is greatly emphasized, underlining the fact that results depend on parameters like corpus size, language, MWE type, etc. The last part contains solid experimental results and evaluates the mwetoolkit, demonstrating its usefulness for computer-assisted lexicography and machine translation. This is the first book to cover the whole pipeline of multiword expression acquisition in a single volume. It is addresses the needs of students and researchers in computational and theoretical linguistics, cognitive sciences, artificial intelligence and computer science. Its good balance between computational and linguistic views make it the perfect starting point for anyone interested in multiword expressions, language and text processing in general.
Categories: Computers

Form Structure and Grammar

Form  Structure  and Grammar

The general idea of category underspecification as employed here has been taken ... Past Participles (PP) with the following selectional distinctions: (i) ...

Author: Patrick Brandt

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 9783050085555

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 434

View: 829

This series publishes original contributions which describe and theoretically analyze structures of natural languages. The main focus is on principles and rules of grammatical and lexical knowledge both with respect to individual languages and from a comparative perspective. The volumes cover all levels of linguistic analysis, especially phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics, including aspects of language acquisition, language use, language change, and phonetical and neuronal realization.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

The Perfect Time Span

The Perfect Time Span

The Vocabulary Item la'st 'read-past-participle' consists of (at least) two ... possible feature underspecification to account for parasitic morphology.

Author: Björn Rothstein

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9789027290717

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 171

View: 313

This book is the first book-length study on the Swedish present perfect. It provides an in-depth exploration of the present perfect in English, German and Swedish. It is claimed that only a discourse-based ExtendedNow-approach fully accounts for the present perfect. The main claim is that the length of the ExtendedNow-interval varies cross-linguistically. The book is couched within the framework of the Discourse Representation Theory and also within Distributed Morphology. It is shown that Swedish provides empirical evidence against all previous research in the field. The following questions are investigated: Is it possible to assign a single uniform meaning to the present perfect? How can we account for the different readings of the perfect? How can we account for the cross-linguistic variation? These issues are addressed from a comparative perspective by integrating previous research on the present perfect. This book is of interest to all those working in the field of tense and aspect.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Pronouns Grammar and Representation

Pronouns    Grammar and Representation

The underspecified Tense is licensed by an empty element that receives discourse interpretation. Empty Tense does not have an inherent present/past feature, ...

Author: Horst J. Simon

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9789027297532

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 294

View: 997

The contributions of this thematic collection center around the typology of pronominal paradigms, the generation of syntactic and semantic representations for constructions containing pronouns, and the neurological underpinnings for linguistic distinctions that are relevant for the production and interpretation of these constructions. They come from different theoretical approaches and methodological backgrounds and take into account data from a wide range of Indoeuropean and non-Indoeuropean languages. Bringing together a cross-section of recent research on the grammar and representation of pronouns, the volume offers a kaleidoscope of studies united by the common topic of pronouns as a domain of language that exemplarily shows the interaction of different components responsible for computational (syntactic and semantic), lexical, and discourse-pragmatic processes.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Romance Linguistics

Romance Linguistics

'The underspecification of functional categories in early grammar". Paper presented at the Great Britain ... "Facets of Romance past participle agreement".

Author: Armin Schwegler

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9789027236654

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 349

View: 286

This volume contains selected papers from the 27th International Symposium on Romance Lanuages (LSRL XXVII), held in Irvine in February 1997. Focusing on theoretical perspectives, it covers expletive auxilliaries, negation and independent morphological development, and enclitic "-n" in Spanish.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines