The Sumerians

The History and Legacy of the Ancient Mesopotamian Empire That Established Civilization

Author: Charles River Charles River Editors

Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform

ISBN: 9781542467476

Category:

Page: 56

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*Includes pictures *Includes links to online sources like the Epic of Gilgamesh and more *Includes primary sources written by the ancient Sumerians *Includes a bibliography for further reading *Includes a table of contents When American archaeologists discovered a collection of cuneiform tablets in Iraq in the late 19th century, they were confronted with a language and a people who were at the time only scarcely known to even the most knowledgeable scholars of ancient Mesopotamia: the Sumerians. The exploits and achievements of other Mesopotamian peoples, such as the Assyrians and Babylonians, were already known to a large segment of the population through the Old Testament and the nascent field of Near Eastern studies had unraveled the enigma of the Akkadian language that was widely used throughout the region in ancient times, but the discovery of the Sumerian tablets brought to light the existence of the Sumerian culture, which was the oldest of all the Mesopotamian cultures. Although the Sumerians continue to get second or even third billing compared to the Babylonians and Assyrians, perhaps because they never built an empire as great as the Assyrians or established a city as enduring and great as Babylon, they were the people who provided the template of civilization that all later Mesopotamians built upon. The Sumerians are credited with being the first people to invent writing, libraries, cities, and schools in Mesopotamia (Ziskind 1972, 34), and many would argue that they were the first people to create and do those things anywhere in world. For a people so great it is unfortunate that their accomplishments and contributions, not only to Mesopotamian civilization but to civilization in general, largely go unnoticed by the majority of the public. Perhaps the Sumerians were victims of their own success; they gradually entered the historical record, established a fine civilization, and then slowly submerged into the cultural patchwork of their surroundings. They also never suffered a great and sudden collapse like other peoples of the ancient Near East, such as the Hittites, Assyrians and Neo-Babylonians did. A close examination of Sumerian culture and chronology reveals that the Sumerians set the cultural tone in Mesopotamia for several centuries in the realms of politics/governments, arts, literature, and religion. The Sumerians were truly a great people whose legacy continued long after they were gone. The Sumerians: The History and Legacy of the Ancient Mesopotamian Empire that Established Civilization traces the history and legacy of Sumer across several centuries. Along with pictures of important people, places, and events, you will learn about the history of the Sumerians like never before, in no time at all.
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The Greatest Civilizations of Ancient Mesopotamia

The History and Legacy of the Sumerians, Babylonians, Hittites, and Assyrians

Author: Charles River Charles River Editors

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781542764346

Category:

Page: 240

View: 5390

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*Includes pictures *Includes primary sources from ancient records about their cultures and battles *Includes bibliographies for further reading *Includes a table of contents Although the Sumerians continue to get second or even third billing compared to the Babylonians and Assyrians, perhaps because they never built an empire as great as the Assyrians or established a city as enduring and great as Babylon, they were the people who provided the template of civilization that all later Mesopotamians built upon. The Sumerians are credited with being the first people to invent writing, libraries, cities, and schools in Mesopotamia (Ziskind 1972, 34), and many would argue that they were the first people to create and do those things anywhere in world. For a people so great it is unfortunate that their accomplishments and contributions, not only to Mesopotamian civilization but to civilization in general, largely go unnoticed by the majority of the public. Perhaps the Sumerians were victims of their own success; they gradually entered the historical record, established a fine civilization, and then slowly submerged into the cultural patchwork of their surroundings. Among the many cities of the ancient world, Rome and Athens may come to mind first, but the city of Babylon in the land of Mesopotamia was already an ancient, venerated city when the others were still inconsequential settlements. Today, Babylon has become a byword for greed, excess, and licentiousness, mostly due to its mention in the Bible, but a closer examination reveals that Babylon was so much more, and even perhaps the most important city in the ancient world. Ancient Babylon was home to great dynasties that produced some of the world's most influential leaders, most notably Hammurabi and Nebuchadnezzar, and these rulers invoked their wills on the entire ancient Near East and have been remembered as both progressive and cruel all at the same time. Babylon was also the seat of culture in ancient Mesopotamia and the place where scholars made amazing scientific advances that would not be eclipsed for several centuries. An examination of ancient Babylon demonstrates that it was truly the first great city in the ancient world. Compared to some of their contemporaries - including the Egyptians, Assyrians, and Babylonians - the Hittites were somewhat distant both culturally and geographically. The Hittites were an Indo-European speaking in an ocean of Afro-Asiatic and Semitic groups, their homeland was to the north of Mesopotamia, and it contained no major river like the Nile, Tigris, or Euphrates Rivers. The Hittite empire was also far less enduring than its neighbors, as it only existed from about 1800-1200 BCE (van de Mieroop 2007, 156), which was considerably shorter than most of the other major kingdoms of the Near East. With that said, the influence of the Hittites on the politics, economy, and overall situation of the ancient Near East cannot be understated; the Hittites were a force to be reckoned with while they existed. Although the Biblical accounts of the Assyrians are among the most interesting and are often corroborated with other historical sources, the Assyrians were much more than just the enemies of the Israelites and brutal thugs. A historical survey of ancient Assyrian culture reveals that although they were the supreme warriors of their time, they were also excellent merchants, diplomats, and highly literate people who recorded their history and religious rituals and ideology in great detail. The Assyrians, like their other neighbors in Mesopotamia, were literate and developed their own dialect of the Akkadian language that they used to write tens of thousands of documents in the cuneiform script. This book looks at all four of these highly influential empires. Along with pictures depicting important people, places, and events, you will learn about the greatest civilizations of Ancient Mesopotamia like never before.
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Uruk

The History and Legacy of the Ancient World's First Major City

Author: Charles River Charles River Editors

Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform

ISBN: 9781979620345

Category:

Page: 88

View: 6610

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*Includes pictures *Describes the history, architecture, and layout of Uruk *Includes online resources and a bibliography for further reading In southern Iraq, a crushing silence hangs over the dunes. For nearly 5,000 years, the sands of the Iraqi desert have held the remains of the oldest known civilization: the Sumerians. When American archaeologists discovered a collection of cuneiform tablets in Iraq in the late 19th century, they were confronted with a language and a people who were at the time only scarcely known to even the most knowledgeable scholars of ancient Mesopotamia. The exploits and achievements of other Mesopotamian peoples, such as the Assyrians and Babylonians, were already known to a large segment of the population through the Old Testament and the nascent field of Near Eastern studies had unraveled the enigma of the Akkadian language that was widely used throughout the region in ancient times, but the discovery of the Sumerian tablets brought to light the existence of the Sumerian culture, which was the oldest of all the Mesopotamian cultures. Although the Sumerians continue to get second or even third billing compared to the Babylonians and Assyrians, perhaps because they never built an empire as great as the Assyrians or established a city as enduring and great as Babylon, they were the people who provided the template of civilization that all later Mesopotamians built upon. The Sumerians are credited with being the first people to invent writing, libraries, cities, and schools in Mesopotamia (Ziskind 1972, 34), and many would argue that they were the first people to create and do those things anywhere in world. For a people so great it is unfortunate that their accomplishments and contributions, not only to Mesopotamian civilization but to civilization in general, largely go unnoticed by the majority of the public. Perhaps the Sumerians were victims of their own success; they gradually entered the historical record, established a fine civilization, and then slowly submerged into the cultural patchwork of their surroundings. They also never suffered a great and sudden collapse like other peoples of the ancient Near East, such as the Hittites, Assyrians and Neo-Babylonians did. A close examination of Sumerian culture and chronology reveals that the Sumerians set the cultural tone in Mesopotamia for several centuries in the realms of politics/governments, arts, literature, and religion. The Sumerians were truly a great people whose legacy continued long after they were gone. No site better represents the importance of the Sumerians than the city of Uruk. Between the fourth and the third millennium BCE, Uruk was one of several city-states in the land of Sumer, located in the southern end of the Fertile Crescent, between the two great rivers of the Tigris and the Euphrates. Discovered in the late 19th century by the British archaeologist William Loftus, it is this site that has revealed much of what is now known of the Sumerian, Akkadian, and Neo-Sumerian people. Although Uruk was not the only city that the Sumerians built during the Uruk period, it was by far the greatest and also the source of most of the archeological and written evidence concerning early Sumerian culture (Kuhrt 2010, 1:23). Uruk went from being the world's first city to the most important political and cultural center in the ancient Near East in relatively quick fashion. Around 3200 BCE, the Sumerian Uruk culture began to expand beyond the borders of Sumer, which coincided with the emergence of writing (Kuhrt 2010, 1:23). The form of writing that the Sumerians developed became known by its Greek name, "cuneiform," for the wedge style characters that it employed (van de Mieroop 2007, 28). Writing, like many other inventions throughout world history, appears to have been created because of necessity as the Uruk culture grew.
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People of Ancient Assyria

Their Inscriptions and Correspondence

Author: Jørgen Læssøe

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317602617

Category: Social Science

Page: 204

View: 5561

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Was Assyria merely a more brutal, more uncivilized and less interesting offshoot of the culture created by Sumerians and Babylonians in Southern Mesopotamia at the dawn of history? Do the Assyrian reliefs that fill our museums give a complete picture of the phenomenon that was Assyria? Was the contribution of this people to world culture merely an incredibly effective military organization? The answers to these questions are sought here in this detailed book from 1963, referring to personal documents of the time, in the letters Assyrians wrote to one another rather than in the annals of the rulers.
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Strategies for Promoting Democracy in Iraq

Author: Eric Davis

Publisher: DIANE Publishing

ISBN: 1437904270

Category:

Page: 20

View: 7640

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The Educ. Program at the U.S. Inst. of Peace (USIP) is involved in a project to help rehabilitate the Iraqi higher educ. system and to introduce courses and materials in conflict resolution and peace educ. into univ. curricula throughout the country. The USIP has organized conferences and workshops with academics from Iraqi univ. and administrators from the Ministry of Higher Educ. and Scientific Research. The USIP is helping Iraqi univ. play a civil role in their communities by providing univ.-centered projects of public educ. on Iraq¿s constitution, good governance, the rule of law, and democracy. This report is part of the USIP¿s effort to suggest ways to involve the Iraqi higher educ. system in building and promoting democratic governance in Iraq.
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Ur and Uruk

The History and Legacy of the Ancient Sumerians' Two Most Important Cities

Author: Charles River Charles River Editors

Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform

ISBN: 9781981340217

Category:

Page: 158

View: 9037

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*Includes pictures *Examines the Sumerians' culture, daily life at the cities, and architecture *Includes ancient accounts describing the cities *Includes a bibliography for further reading In southern Iraq, a crushing silence hangs over the dunes. For nearly 5,000 years, the sands of the Iraqi desert have held the remains of the oldest known civilization: the Sumerians. When American archaeologists discovered a collection of cuneiform tablets in Iraq in the late 19th century, they were confronted with a language and a people who were at the time only scarcely known to even the most knowledgeable scholars of ancient Mesopotamia. The exploits and achievements of other Mesopotamian peoples, such as the Assyrians and Babylonians, were already known to a large segment of the population through the Old Testament and the nascent field of Near Eastern studies had unraveled the enigma of the Akkadian language that was widely used throughout the region in ancient times, but the discovery of the Sumerian tablets brought to light the existence of the Sumerian culture, which was the oldest of all the Mesopotamian cultures. Although the Sumerians continue to get second or even third billing compared to the Babylonians and Assyrians, perhaps because they never built an empire as great as the Assyrians or established a city as enduring and great as Babylon, they were the people who provided the template of civilization that all later Mesopotamians built upon. The Sumerians are credited with being the first people to invent writing, libraries, cities, and schools in Mesopotamia (Ziskind 1972, 34), and many would argue that they were the first people to create and do those things anywhere in world. No site better represents the importance of the Sumerians than the city of Uruk. Between the fourth and the third millennium BCE, Uruk was one of several city-states in the land of Sumer, located in the southern end of the Fertile Crescent, between the two great rivers of the Tigris and the Euphrates. Discovered in the late 19th century by the British archaeologist William Loftus, it is this site that has revealed much of what is now known of the Sumerian, Akkadian, and Neo-Sumerian people. Although Uruk was not the only city that the Sumerians built during the Uruk period, it was by far the greatest and also the source of most of the archeological and written evidence concerning early Sumerian culture (Kuhrt 2010, 1:23). Uruk went from being the world's first major city to the most important political and cultural center in the ancient Near East in relatively quick fashion. Long before Alexandria was a city and even before Memphis and Babylon had attained greatness, the ancient Mesopotamian city of Ur stood foremost among ancient Near Eastern cities. Today, the greatness and cultural influence of Ur has been largely forgotten by most people, partially because its monuments have not stood the test of time the way other ancient culture's monuments have. For instance, the monuments of Egypt were made of stone while those of Ur and most other Mesopotamian cities were made of mud brick and as will be discussed in this report, mud-brick may be an easier material to work with than stone but it also decays much quicker. The same is true to a certain extent for the written documents that were produced at Ur. At its height Ur was the center of a great dynasty that controlled most of Mesopotamia directly through a well maintained army and bureaucracy and the areas that were not under its direct control were influenced by Ur's diplomats and religious ideas. Ur was also a truly resilient city because it survived the downfall of the Sumerians, outright destruction at the hands of the Elamites, and later occupations by numerous other peoples, which included Saddam Hussein more recently.
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The History of the World

Author: John Morris Roberts,Odd Arne Westad

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199936765

Category: History

Page: 1260

View: 2738

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"The fifth revised edition was published in Great Britain as The new Penguin history of the world by Penguin Press/Allen Lane, 2012"--Title page verso.
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Civilization Past & Present

Author: Palmira Johnson Brummett

Publisher: Addison-Wesley

ISBN: 9780321005311

Category: History

Page: 1081

View: 1389

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The Ninth Edition of this classic is a major revision that features a beautiful new four-color design. Now more inclusive of areas beyond Europe, Civilization Past and Present continues to be well known in the marketplace as a highly readable, accessible survey.
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Pagan Trinity - Holy Trinity

The Legacy of the Sumerians in Western Civilization

Author: Alan Dickin

Publisher: Hamilton Books

ISBN: 1461626706

Category: Religion

Page: 138

View: 3639

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This book offers a revolutionary new synthesis of ancient history and religion by bridging the gap between the archaeology of Mesopotamia (now the country of Iraq) and the biblical account of Genesis. Professor Alan Dickin shows how the Sumerians, the ancient inhabitants of Mesopotamia, established the world's first organized religion, which was a direct fore-runner of the Judeo-Christian faith. He places the biblical accounts of the Creation, Fall, Flood, and Tower of Babel in their historical context in ancient Mesopotamia, and identifies the origins of the biblical Trinity in the Sumerian pantheon. Finally, he explores the manner of God's first revelations to mankind and the meaning of the lost secrets of the Garden of Eden. Over seventy line drawings of ancient artifacts, in addition to maps and historical tables, bring the civilization and religion of ancient Mesopotamia to life for a modern audience.
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