The Sociology of Science

Theoretical and Empirical Investigations

Author: Robert K. Merton

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226520926

Category: Social Science

Page: 605

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"The exploration of the social conditions that facilitate or retard the search for scientific knowledge has been the major theme of Robert K. Merton's work for forty years. This collection of papers [is] a fascinating overview of this sustained inquiry. . . . There are very few other books in sociology . . . with such meticulous scholarship, or so elegant a style. This collection of papers is, and is likely to remain for a long time, one of the most important books in sociology."—Joseph Ben-David, New York Times Book Review "The novelty of the approach, the erudition and elegance, and the unusual breadth of vision make this volume one of the most important contributions to sociology in general and to the sociology of science in particular. . . . Merton's Sociology of Science is a magisterial summary of the field."—Yehuda Elkana, American Journal of Sociology "Merton's work provides a rich feast for any scientist concerned for a genuine understanding of his own professional self. And Merton's industry, integrity, and humility are permanent witnesses to that ethos which he has done so much to define and support."—J. R. Ravetz, American Scientist "The essays not only exhibit a diverse and penetrating analysis and a deal of historical and contemporary examples, with concrete numerical data, but also make genuinely good reading because of the wit, the liveliness and the rich learning with which Merton writes."—Philip Morrison, Scientific American "Merton's impact on sociology as a whole has been large, and his impact on the sociology of science has been so momentous that the title of the book is apt, because Merton's writings represent modern sociology of science more than any other single writer."—Richard McClintock, Contemporary Sociology
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The Sociology of Tourism

Theoretical and Empirical Investigations

Author: Yiorgos Apostolopoulos,Stella Leivadi,Andrew Yiannakis

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135635722

Category: Science

Page: 376

View: 4494

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The rapid expansion of the tourism industry has provided many economic benefits and affected every facet of contemporary societies including employment, government revenue and cultural manifestations. However, tourism can also be considered a problematic phenomenon, promoting dependency, underdevelopment and adverse sociocultural effects, especially for developing countries. This pioneering work provides a comprehensive review of these complex tourism issues from a sociological perspective. Various theoretical and empirical approaches are introduced and the following issues are discussed: * identifiable and stable forms of touristic behaviour and roles * social divisions within tourism * the interdependence of tourism and social institutions * the effects of transnational tourism and commodification on the ecosystem. Featuring international contributions from nine different countries, this book brings together the most noted theoretical and empirical studies and enriches them with diverse experiences and perspectives.
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Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research

Author: John C. Smart,Michael B. Paulsen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400729502

Category: Education

Page: 568

View: 5137

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Published annually since 1985, the Handbook series provides a compendium of thorough and integrative literature reviews on a diverse array of topics of interest to the higher education scholarly and policy communities. Each chapter provides a comprehensive review of research findings on a selected topic, critiques the research literature in terms of its conceptual and methodological rigor, and sets forth an agenda for future research intended to advance knowledge on the chosen topic. The Handbook focuses on twelve general areas that encompass the salient dimensions of scholarly and policy inquiries undertaken in the international higher education community. The series is fortunate to have attracted annual contributions from distinguished scholars throughout the world.
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Robert K. Merton

Sociology of Science and Sociology as Science

Author: Craig Calhoun

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231151128

Category: Social Science

Page: 336

View: 7139

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Includes bibliographical references (p. ) and index.
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Knowledge and Networking

On Communication in the Social Sciences

Author: Anton N. Oleinik

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 141285301X

Category: Education

Page: 238

View: 7547

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Success and career growth in academic life depend upon reaching and influencing the widest audience possible. To do so, scientists strive to develop personalized trust. They do so by establishing a large number of connections through networking and also through the strength of their arguments and the validity and reliability of their research. To secure increasingly rare tenure positions and achieve salary increases, promotions, and recognition, scholars place themselves on a continuum of priorities ranging from total emphasis on networking to complete focus on advancing knowledge, trying to find some middle ground between the two extremes. Anton Oleinik argues that when scholars prioritize networking, science reproduces features of a "small world," in which personal connections prevail. Who knows whom matters more than who knows what. In this scenario, one's status derives more from affiliation with a specific group of scholars or a particular university than from contributing to advancing knowledge. Acknowledging that it would be a mistake to consider networking the main source of evils in science, Oleinik instead criticizes the decisions scholars make while struggling to find that middle ground between networking and advancing knowledge, and managing conflicts between these priorities. The fierce competition for increasingly scarce research funds, and the difficulty of finding jobs in academia underlines the growing importance of the choices made by an academic. Though Oleinik focuses particularly on the social sciences, his ideas are just as relevant to other disciplinary areas.
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Vocabularies Of Public Life

Author: Gerhard R Andlinger Professor of Sociology and Director of the Center for the Study of Religion Robert Wuthnow,Robert Wuthnow

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134902484

Category: Social Science

Page: 280

View: 4498

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A collection of original essays advancing the study of culture from a sociological perspective. Exploring and extending recent studies of culture with both qualitative and quantitative analysis, this book focuses on the ways in which contemporary cultural products function as vocabularies of public life. The contributors cover a wide range of topics; these include the symbolic structure of religion, science and the arts. The book is unified with a common concern - the concrete manifestations of culture and the importance of understanding its internal structure. This book should be of interest to students and lecturers in the sociology of culture, religion and the arts.
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Philosophy of Science after Feminism

Author: Janet A. Kourany

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199889813

Category: Philosophy

Page: 168

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In this monograph Janet A. Kourany argues for a philosophy of science more socially engaged and socially responsible than the philosophy of science we have now. The central questions feminist scientists, philosophers, and historians have been raising about science during the last three decades form Kourany's point of departure and her response to these questions builds on their insights. This way of approaching science differs from mainstream philosophy of science in two crucial respects: it locates science within its wider societal context rather than treating science as if it existed in a social, political, and economic vacuum; and it points the way to a more comprehensive understanding of scientific rationality, one that integrates the ethical with the epistemic. Kourany develops her particular response, dubbed by her the ideal of socially responsible science, beyond the gender-related questions and contexts that form its origins and she defends it against a variety of challenges, epistemological, historical, sociological, economic, and political. She ends by displaying the important new directions philosophy of science can take and the impressive new roles philosophers of science can fill with the approach to science she offers.
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Prematurity in Scientific Discovery

On Resistance and Neglect

Author: Ernest B. Hook

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520231061

Category: Philosophy

Page: 378

View: 2304

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"In preparing this remarkable book, Ernest Hook persuaded an eminent group of scientists, historians, sociologists and philosophers to focus on the problem: why are some discoveries rejected at a particular time but later seen to be valid? The interaction of these experts did not produce agreement on 'prematurity' in science but something more valuable: a collection of fascinating papers, many of them based on new research and analysis, which sometimes forced the author to revise a previously-held opinion. The book should be enthusiastically welcomed by all readers who are interested in how science works."—Stephen G. Brush, co-author of Physics, The Human Adventure: From copernicus to Einstein and Beyond "Prematurity and Scientific Discovery contains interesting and insightful papers by numerous well-known scientists and scholars. It will be of wide interest, not only to science studies scholars but also to working scientists and to science-literate general readers."—Thomas Nickles, editor of Scientific Discovery, Logic, and Rationality
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Lives in Science

How Institutions Affect Academic Careers

Author: Joseph C. Hermanowicz

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226327760

Category: Social Science

Page: 344

View: 5952

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What can we learn when we follow people over the years and across the course of their professional lives? Joseph C. Hermanowicz asks this question specifically about scientists and answers it here by tracking fifty-five physicists through different stages of their careers at a variety of universities across the country. He explores these scientists’ shifting perceptions of their jobs to uncover the meanings they invest in their work, when and where they find satisfaction, how they succeed and fail, and how the rhythms of their work change as they age. His candid interviews with his subjects, meanwhile, shed light on the ways career goals are and are not met, on the frustrations of the academic profession, and on how one deals with the boredom and stagnation that can set in once one is established. An in-depth study of American higher education professionals eloquently told through their own words, Hermanowicz’s keen analysis of how institutions shape careers will appeal to anyone interested in life in academia.
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