Security Dilemma

Fear, Cooperation, and Trust in World Politics

Author: Ken Booth,Nicholas Wheeler

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

ISBN: 9780333587447

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

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This major new contribution to the study of internatioal politics provides the first comprehensive analysis of the concept of the "security dilemma," the phrase used to describe the mistrust and fear which is often thought to be the inevitable consequence of living in a world of sovereign states. By exploring the theory and practice of the security dilemma through the prisms of fear, cooperation and trust, it considers whether the security dilemma can be mitigated or even transcended analyzing a wide range of historical and contemporary cases
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Trusting Enemies

Author: Nicholas J. Wheeler

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199696470

Category: History

Page: 256

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How can two enemies transform their relationship into a cooperative one? The starting point for this book is that the discipline of International Relations has not done a good job of answering this question, and the reason for this is that the concept of trust - and the possibility of building new trusting relationships between enemies - has been marginalized by the discipline. The author argues that to understand how enemies cooperate, we need to focus on the potential for building trusting relationships between state leaders. The book argues that it is forging personal relationships of trust across the enemy divide that hold out the best chance of breaking down the 'enemy images' that fuel security competition. Previous theorizing about trust-building in the discipline of International Relations has focused on the state and individual levels. Nicholas Wheeler argues for a new level of analysis - the interpersonal level - and shows how the building of trust between leaders changes the possibilities for cooperation between states. He shows how the process of interpersonal bonding between two leaders - especially through face-to-face diplomacy - can lead to what he calls a 'leap-to-trust'. He develops his argument through three detailed case studies: the interaction between US and Soviet leaders Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev; the relationship between Indian prime minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee and his Pakistani counterpart Nawaz Sharif in the context of the Lahore peace process; and the failed attempts by Barack Obama to build a trusting relationship with Iran's Ayatollah Ali Khamenei. The book represents the most authoritative assessment to date of trust research in International Relations and it develops a theory that explains how interpersonal trusting relationships become possible at the highest levels of diplomacy; relationships that in transforming enemy images reconstitute the possibilities of state action in conflict situations.
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Human Rights in Global Politics

Author: Tim Dunne,Nicholas J. Wheeler

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521646437

Category: Political Science

Page: 352

View: 7927

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There is a stark contradiction between the theory of universal human rights and the everyday practice of human wrongs. This timely volume brings together leading scholars to evaluate this paradox. The contributors ask whether human rights abuses are a result of the failure of governments to live up to a universal human rights standard, or whether the search for moral universals is a fundamentally flawed enterprise. The book evaluates the philosophical basis of human rights, and reflects on the structures that affect the development of a global human rights culture.
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Coping and Conformity in World Politics

Author: Hugh C. Dyer

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135182299

Category: Political Science

Page: 192

View: 6415

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Conformity is a common coping strategy for dealing with stresses in political situations, as well a strategy for dealing with the lack of agreed foundations. This work introduces the conceptual frameworks of coping and conformity to provide a new analysis of the ethical and political demands of international life. The volume argues that coping through conformity is the only means available for dealing with uncertainty and the absence of shared foundations, and while conformity may be a largely practical issue it also reflects a consensus on values. Dyer draws on recent critical theoretical perspectives as well as engaging with dominant ‘liberal’ assumptions in the global context providing a critical study of the impact of norms and values in world politics. The book also addresses wider issues of freedom and necessity, individualism and communitarianism and cosmopolitanism, agency and structure, and the legitimacy of governance and institutions. The theoretical arguments are illuminated within the ecological context and such recent concerns as climate and energy security are examined as forceful illustrations of current political challenges as well as a potential source of insights into the alternatives. Providing a fresh theoretical perspective on world politics, this work will be of great interest to all scholars of global politics, international relations and globalization studies.
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Security and Profit in China’s Energy Policy

Hedging Against Risk

Author: Øystein Tunsjø

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231535430

Category: Political Science

Page: 336

View: 5583

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China has developed sophisticated hedging strategies to insure against risks in the international petroleum market. It has managed a growing net oil import gap and supply disruptions by maintaining a favorable energy mix, pursuing overseas equity oil production, building a state-owned tanker fleet and strategic petroleum reserve, establishing cross-border pipelines, and diversifying its energy resources and routes. Though it cannot be "secured," China's energy security can be "insured" by marrying government concern with commercial initiatives. This book comprehensively analyzes China's domestic, global, maritime, and continental petroleum strategies and policies, establishing a new theoretical framework that captures the interrelationship between security and profit. Arguing that hedging is central to China's energy-security policy, this volume links government concerns about security of supply to energy companies' search for profits, and by drawing important distinctions between threats and risks, peacetime and wartime contingencies, and pipeline and seaborne energy-supply routes, the study shifts scholarly focus away from securing and toward insuring an adequate oil supply and from controlling toward managing any disruptions to the sea lines of communication. The book is the most detailed and accurate look to date at how China has hedged its energy bets and how its behavior fits a hedging pattern.
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Fear in the German Speaking World, 1600-2000

Author: Thomas Kehoe,Michael Pickering

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1350150487

Category: History

Page: 312

View: 956

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This book addresses the nature and role of fear in the German world from the early modern period through to the 20th century. Offering the first collection that centres fear in the historical analysis of central Europe since 1600, these essays demonstrate the importance of emotional experience to the study of the past. Fear has been at the centre of many of the most important historical events in this region; witch hunts, religious conflicts, invasions and ultra-nationalism in the form of the Nazi regime. This book explores ways in which fear was understood, developed and negotiated throughout these historical contexts, and how people of the German world coped with it. From the fear of vampires to the loss of national sovereignty, pestilence, gypsies and criminals, Fear in the German Speaking World 1600-2000 draws connections between cases over a period of 400 years and considers fear alongside the history of emotions more generally. In doing so, the chapters reveal a complex, evolving construction of fear that is universally human, but also dependent upon its cultural and historical context.
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Friendship and International Relations

Author: S. Koschut,A. Oelsner

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137396342

Category: Political Science

Page: 216

View: 6961

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International friendship is a distinct type of interstate relationship, and that as such, it can contribute to capture aspects of international politics that have long remained unattended. This book offers a framework for analyzing friendship in international politics by presenting a variety of conceptual approaches and empirical cases.
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Trust

A History

Author: Geoffrey Hosking

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191022829

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 7149

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Today there is much talk of a 'crisis of trust'; a crisis which is almost certainly genuine, but usually misunderstood. Trust: A History offers a new perspective on the ways in which trust and distrust have functioned in past societies, providing an empirical and historical basis against which the present crisis can be examined, and suggesting ways in which the concept of trust can be used as a tool to understand our own and other societies. Geoffrey Hosking argues that social trust is mediated through symbolic systems, such as religion and money, and the institutions associated with them, such as churches and banks. Historically these institutions have nourished trust, but the resulting trust networks have tended to create quite tough boundaries around themselves, across which distrust is projected against outsiders. Hosking also shows how nation-states have been particularly good at absorbing symbolic systems and generating trust among large numbers of people, while also erecting distinct boundaries around themselves, despite an increasingly global economy. He asserts that in the modern world it has become common to entrust major resources to institutions we know little about, and suggests that we need to learn from historical experience and temper this with more traditional forms of trust, or become an ever more distrustful society, with potentially very destabilising consequences.
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Intelligence in the Cold War: What Difference did it Make?

Author: Michael Herman,Gwilym Hughes

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131797994X

Category: History

Page: 150

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Intelligence was a major part of the Cold War, waged by both sides with an almost warlike intensity. Yet the question 'What difference did it all make?' remains unanswered. Did it help to contain the Cold War, or fuel it and keep it going? Did it make it hotter or colder? Did these large intelligence bureaucracies tell truth to power, or give their governments what they expected to hear? These questions have not previously been addressed systematically, and seven writers tackle them here on Cold War aspects that include intelligence as warning, threat assessment, assessing military balances, Third World activities, and providing reassurance. Their conclusions are as relevant to understanding what governments can expect from their big, secret organizations today as they are to those of historians analysing the Cold War motivations of East and West. This book is valuable not only for intelligence, international relations and Cold War specialists but also for all those concerned with intelligence's modern cost-effectiveness and accountability. This book was published as a special issue of Intelligence and National Security.
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Losing an Empire and Finding a Role

Britain, the USA, NATO and Nuclear Weapons, 1964-70

Author: K. Stoddart

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230369251

Category: Political Science

Page: 327

View: 8136

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This book sheds fresh light on developments in British nuclear weapons policy between October 1964, when the Labour Party came back into power under Harold Wilson following a thirteen year absence, and June 1970 when the Conservative government of Edward Heath was elected.
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