The Scientific Basis of Flocculation

Author: K.J. Ives

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400999380

Category: Science

Page: 369

View: 6018

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K.J. Ives Professor of Public Health Engineering University College London The aggregation of small particles in liquids, to form flocs which are large enough to settle, or to be filtered, is a common operation in industrial processes, and water and wastewater treatment. This aggregation, given the general title flliocculation in this book, may be brought about by the addition of chemicals to reduce the stability of the original suspension, by neutralising electrical forces of repulsion, by the addition of chemicals (polymers) to link particles by bridging action, by the addition of chemicals which form particles to increase collision proba bilities, and by the input of energy leading to hydrodynamically induced collisions. The particles undergoing flocculation may range from colloidal in the nanometer size range, through micro scopic (micron) size, up to visible particles in the millimeter size range; that is a total size range of six orders of magnitude. Consequently the colloid chemist and the hydrodynamicist are both concerned with the interactions that take place, and to them the engineer must turn, to obtain the fundamental information ne cessary for the process design and its associated hardware.
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Encyclopedia of Chemical Processing and Design

Volume 41 - Polymers: Rubber Modified to Pressure-Relieving Devices: Rupture Disks: Low Burst Pressures

Author: John J. McKetta Jr

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780824724917

Category: Science

Page: 536

View: 4499

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"Written by engineers for engineers (with over 150 International Editorial Advisory Board members),this highly lauded resource provides up-to-the-minute information on the chemical processes, methods, practices, products, and standards in the chemical, and related, industries. "
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Unit Operations Handbook

Volume 2 (In Two Volumes)

Author: John J. McKetta Jr

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780824786700

Category: Science

Page: 742

View: 592

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Emphasizes the design, control, and functioning of various unit operations - offering shortcut methods of calculation along with computer and nomographic solution techniques. Provides practical sections on conversion to and from SI units and cost indexes for quick updating of all cost information.;This book should be of interest to mechanical, chemical, process design, project, and materials engineers and continuing-education courses in these disciplines.
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Mathematical Models and Design Methods in Solid-Liquid Separation

Author: A. Rushton

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400950918

Category: Science

Page: 399

View: 2646

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The separation of finely-divided solids from liquids constitutes an important stage in many industrial processes. Separation of mixtures ranging from highly concentrated slurries to slightly turbid liquids must be effected in circumstances where the solids, liquid or both phases may have value. Separations may be achieved by use of a membrane or filter medium which, positioned in the path of a flowing suspension, will allow passage of the fluid whilst retaining solids on the surface or within the medium. Alternatively the two phases may be separated by sedimentation processes involving gravitational or centrifugal force. In either mode, separation difficulties are sometimes experienced with the result that solid-liquid separation is often a bottleneck in commercial plants. Operational difficulties and plant failures are associated with the random nature of the particles being separated; variations in size, shape, states of aggregation, compressibility, etc. , produce a wide range of problems. Plugging of the filter medium or the collapse of the solids under applied stress lead to slow flowrates of liquid. The colloidal nature of some precipitates makes separation by settling virtually impossible without the use of chemical agents to enhance the size of basic units and to reduce repulsive surface forces. Unit operations such as filtration, comminution, etc. , involve a seemingly bewildering array of machines which makes plant selection a difficult step and reflects the uncer tainties attaching to operations involving the solid )hase. Many types of pressure, vacuum and centrifugal filter are available.
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The Scientific Basis of Flocculation

Author: K.J. Ives

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789028607583

Category: Science

Page: 369

View: 5298

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K.J. Ives Professor of Public Health Engineering University College London The aggregation of small particles in liquids, to form flocs which are large enough to settle, or to be filtered, is a common operation in industrial processes, and water and wastewater treatment. This aggregation, given the general title flliocculation in this book, may be brought about by the addition of chemicals to reduce the stability of the original suspension, by neutralising electrical forces of repulsion, by the addition of chemicals (polymers) to link particles by bridging action, by the addition of chemicals which form particles to increase collision proba bilities, and by the input of energy leading to hydrodynamically induced collisions. The particles undergoing flocculation may range from colloidal in the nanometer size range, through micro scopic (micron) size, up to visible particles in the millimeter size range; that is a total size range of six orders of magnitude. Consequently the colloid chemist and the hydrodynamicist are both concerned with the interactions that take place, and to them the engineer must turn, to obtain the fundamental information ne cessary for the process design and its associated hardware.
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The Scientific Basis of Flotation

Author: K.J. Ives

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400969260

Category: Science

Page: 429

View: 8383

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K.J.Ives Professor of Public Health Engineering University College London Industrial application of the use of bubbles to float fine particles in water began before the beginning of this century, in the field of mineral processing. Such bubble flotation was applied very little outside mineral processing, until about 1960 when the dissolved air process, which has already had some success in the pulp and paper industry, was applied to water and wastewater treatment. The subsequent two decades saw not only a growth development for water and wastewater treatment, but also a growing cognisance of the similarities that existed with mineral processing flotation. Therefore the time seemed ripe in 1982 for a joint meeting between experts in these two major fields of flotation to put together the Scientific Basis of Flotation in the form of a NATO Advanced Study Institute. Attended by about 60 specialists, mainly post doctoral, from 17 countries, this Study Institute in residence for two weeks in Christ's College, Cambridge (UK) heard presentations from several international experts, principally the 8 co-authors of this book. The integration of the various scientific disciplines of physics, physical chemistry, colloid science, hydrodynamics and process engineering showed where the common basiS, and occasional important differences, of flotation could be applied to mineral processing, water and wastewater treatment, and indeed some other process industries (for example: pharmaceuticals, and food manufacture).
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Sludge Characteristics and Behavior

Author: J.B. Carberry,A.J. Englande

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400968604

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 441

View: 8665

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As requirements for high quality wastewater effluent increase, quantities of sludge generated also increase. Contaminants removed from wastewater concentrate in the sludge and can represent serious environmental insult and health effects if not properly managed. The cost of sludge handling can be estimated to constitute as much as 50% of the cost of wastewater treatment. If properly managed, however, sludge may be considered a resource of value. Unfortunately, very little attention in the scientific commu nity has been given the sludge dilemma either in research or in practice. Sludge properties are presently characterized in various ways which do not permit rational design and operation of sludge management systems. The need for basic information regarding sludge properties and behavior was the impetus for a NATO Advanced Study Institute. The NATO Advanced Study Institute entitled "Sludge Character istics and Behavior" was held July 17-26, 1979, at the Uni versi ty of Delaware, Newark, DE 19711, USA. The excellent program quality was a result of both outstanding lecturers and participants. Twelve countries were represented at the Institute so that both formal, professional discussions and informal social activities crossed a broad spectrum of cultures. Gratitude is expressed to all contributors to this volume. Special acknowledgement must be given to the Scientific Affairs Division of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Without its financial support, this Advanced Study Institute would not have been possible.
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Innovations in Flotation Technology

Author: P. Mavros,Kostas A. Matis

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401126585

Category: Science

Page: 538

View: 8751

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The present book is the outcome of an Advanced Study Institute meeting, which was held in Kallithea, Chalkidiki, in Northern Greece, from 12-25 May 1991 and attended by 69 delegates from 18 countries. The Institute brought together scientists, engineers and technologists currently involved in basic and applied research on the different aspects of flotation. The Institute covered subjects in four major areas of flotation: a) fundamentals; b) chemical technology aspects; c) mineral processing; and d) water and wastewater treatment. Apart from the papers reproduced in this volume, several short oral communications were also presented. Participants also had the opportunity to visit the Hellenic Chemical Products & Fertilizers Co. Ltd. mixed sulphides plant, in Chalkidiki. Conference participants, whose interest and research projects are in this broad field of science and engineering, provided a well-informed discussion of the problems encountered, as well as possible directions of future technological developments. It is hoped that this book is not only a good record of the presentations made (formal and informal), analyzing the state-of-the-art in flotation, but will also be helpful for students, scientists and technologists working in the fields of separation processes and in particular mineral processing and wastewater engineering. All the invited speakers and the participants made this summer school possible, worthwhile and enjoyable. The sponsorship by the NATO Scientific Affairs Division is gratefully ack nowledged. The Editors would like to thank the members of the Organizing Committee, Dr. B.A.
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Genesis and Properties of Collapsible Soils

Author: Tom Dijkstra,Ian J. Smalley

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401100977

Category: Science

Page: 413

View: 8135

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Collapsing engineering soils are a formidable hazard around the world. These difficult materials also include some of the world's most fertile agricultural soils, fostering dense human populations which are therefore increasingly at risk. Despite an impressive literature on the engineering aspects of collapsing soils, these materials are coming under increasing scrutiny by scientists in other fields. This is most evidently the case with soil scientists, stratigraphers and sedimentologists. Past earth surface conditions have a direct influence on the detailed behaviour of collapsible soils: as a complement, these materials also provide detailed data on changing global climates. The selected papers presented here highlight the common ground between three scientific groups with a vested interest in a better understanding of collapsible soils.
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Bibliographic Guide to Conference Publications

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780816168668

Category: Congresses and conventions

Page: N.A

View: 8356

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Vols. for 1975- include publications cataloged by the Research Libraries of the New York Public Library with additional entries from the Library of Congress MARC tapes.
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