The Reconstruction of A. N. Prior's Ontology

Author: Zuzana Rybaříková

Publisher: Vydavatelství Filozofické fakulty Univerzity Palackého v Olomouci

ISBN: 8087895770

Category: Philosophy

Page: 134

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Although the first analytic philosophers were primarily focused on the logical analysis of language, some of their initial works also contained ontological discussions. One of the most distinct ontological positions of the twentieth century was defended by Arthur Norman Prior. The unusual nature of the position could be demonstrated by the fact that he was ascribed to such divergent positions as nominalism and platonism. This might have been caused by his atypical combination of ontological views. He was, on the one hand, a nominalist in his mature works. On the other hand, he advocated intensional logic and presentism. The aim of this study is to reconstruct the ideas which influenced him as he formulated his ontological positions. Not only are Prior’s ideas introduced, but also the ideas of his precursors and contemporaries who influenced him. In contrast, the ideas of logicians and philosophers who Prior opposed are also presented. The dissertation consists of four parts which deal with Prior’s concepts of possible worlds, theories of quantifications, propositions and individuals. It is a historical study and therefore the polemics which arose after Prior’s death are not discussed.
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Probabilistic Graphical Models for Genetics, Genomics, and Postgenomics

Author: Christine Sinoquet,Raphaël Mourad

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191019208

Category: Science

Page: 464

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Nowadays bioinformaticians and geneticists are faced with myriad high-throughput data usually presenting the characteristics of uncertainty, high dimensionality and large complexity. These data will only allow insights into this wealth of so-called 'omics' data if represented by flexible and scalable models, prior to any further analysis. At the interface between statistics and machine learning, probabilistic graphical models (PGMs) represent a powerful formalism to discover complex networks of relations. These models are also amenable to incorporating a priori biological information. Network reconstruction from gene expression data represents perhaps the most emblematic area of research where PGMs have been successfully applied. However these models have also created renewed interest in genetics in the broad sense, in particular regarding association genetics, causality discovery, prediction of outcomes, detection of copy number variations, and epigenetics. This book provides an overview of the applications of PGMs to genetics, genomics and postgenomics to meet this increased interest. A salient feature of bioinformatics, interdisciplinarity, reaches its limit when an intricate cooperation between domain specialists is requested. Currently, few people are specialists in the design of advanced methods using probabilistic graphical models for postgenomics or genetics. This book deciphers such models so that their perceived difficulty no longer hinders their use and focuses on fifteen illustrations showing the mechanisms behind the models. Probabilistic Graphical Models for Genetics, Genomics and Postgenomics covers six main themes: (1) Gene network inference (2) Causality discovery (3) Association genetics (4) Epigenetics (5) Detection of copy number variations (6) Prediction of outcomes from high-dimensional genomic data. Written by leading international experts, this is a collection of the most advanced work at the crossroads of probabilistic graphical models and genetics, genomics, and postgenomics. The self-contained chapters provide an enlightened account of the pros and cons of applying these powerful techniques.
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The Oxford Handbook of Metaphysics

Author: Michael J. Loux,Dean W. Zimmerman

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780199284221

Category: Philosophy

Page: 724

View: 8076

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Some of the world's specialists provide in this handbook essays about what kinds of things there are, in what ways they exist, and how they relate to each other. They give the word on such topics as identity, modality, time, causation, persons and minds, freedom, and vagueness.
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Rethinking Feminist Identification

The Case for de Facto Feminism

Author: Patricia S. Misciagno

Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group

ISBN: 9780275958251

Category: Political Science

Page: 127

View: 6589

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Is it possible to be a de facto feminist? This question is explored and debated in this book about the phenomenon of people who support feminist positions but do not call themselves feminists. The author examines the implications of de facto feminism on both the level of feminist theory as well as that of practical politics in the U.S. In a theoretical manner, the author considers how the problem of abstraction in many of the behavioral approaches to feminist identity have the unintended consequence of reinforcing elite depictions of social change. At the level of practical politics in the U.S., this has left feminism open to the many polemical attacks that have risen in recent years. The author asks whether the attempt to bring about beneficial policy can be rendered ineffective if women do not identify with the feminist organizations working on their behalf.
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Islamic Law, Epistemology and Modernity

Legal Philosophy in Contemporary Iran

Author: Ashk Dahlen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135943540

Category: Social Science

Page: 424

View: 7366

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This study analyses the major intellectual positions in the philosophical debate on Islamic law that is occurring in contemporary Iran. As the characteristic features of traditional epistemic considerations have a direct bearing on the modern development of Islamic legal thought, the contemporary positions are initially set against the established normative repertory of Islamic tradition. It is within this broad examination of a living legacy of interpretation that the context for the concretizations of traditional as well as modern Islamic learning, are enclosed.
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Philosophies of Nature: The Human Dimension

In Celebration of Erazim Kohák

Author: Robert S. Cohen,A.I. Tauber

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401726140

Category: Philosophy

Page: 334

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Philosophical understandings of Nature and Human Nature. Classical Greek and modern West, Christian, Buddhist, Taoist, by 14 authors, including Robert Neville, Stanley Rosen, David Eckel, Livia Kohn, Tienyu Cao, Abner Shimoney, Alfred Tauber, Krzysztof Michalski, Lawrence Cahoone, Stephen Scully, Alan Olson and Alfred Ferrarin. Dedicated to the phenomenological ecology of Erazim Kohák, with 10 of his essays and a full bibliography. Overall theme: on the question of the moral sense of nature.
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Engaging with the World

Agency, Institutions, Historical Formations

Author: Margaret S Archer,Andrea Maccarini

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135077010

Category: Social Science

Page: 240

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This title reflects the general theme of the 2010 IACR annual conference that was held in Padova, Italy, the aim of which was to provide a fresh view on some cultural and structural changes involving Western societies after the world economic crisis of 2008, from the point of view of Critical Realism. Global society is often regarded as disrupting identities and blurring boundaries, one which entails giving up ideas of structure and fixity. Globalization supposedly introduces a "liquid" era of fluidity where everything is possible, and anything goes. Nevertheless, its current dynamics are developing into a harder reality: wars, economic crisis, the haunting risk of pandemics, the ever worsening food supply crisis, and the environmental challenge. These social facts call for a dramatic shift in the optimistic cosmopolitan mood and the thought that we can build and rebuild ourselves and our world as we please, at least for the most developed countries. The challenges we face produce new forms of social life and individual experience. They also require us to develop new frameworks to analyze emergent contexts, institutional complexes and morphogenetic fields, and new ways to understand human agency and the meaning of emancipation. The book broadly falls into three parts: The first, "Social Ontology and a New Historical Formation", deals with mainly social ontological issues, insofar as they are connected to social scientific and public issues in the emerging society of the XXI century. The second, "Being human and the adventure of agency", is concerned with the way human beings adapts to the "new world" of "our times", and comes up with innovative models of agency and socialization. The third, "The constitutionalization of the new world", explores critical realist perspectives, as compared to system-theoretical ones, on the issue of global order and justice. In all of this, the challenge is to engage with this "new world" in a meaningful way, a task for which a realist mind set is badly needed. Critical realism provides a strong theoretical framework that can meet the challenge, and the book explores its contribution to making sense of, and coming to terms with, this historical formation.
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