The Radiation Legacy of the Soviet Nuclear Complex

The Radiation Legacy of the Soviet Nuclear Complex

This volume presents the first authoritative and detailed information available in the West.

Author: Vladimir M. Novikov

Publisher: Earthscan

ISBN: 1853836583

Category: History

Page: 270

View: 581

The legacy of nuclear contamination in the former Soviet Union presents an extremely grave challenge, not just for Russia and the other successor republics, but for the rest of the world too. This volume presents the first authoritative and detailed information available in the West. It gives the location and characteristics of the accumulated radioactive material and wastes by each sector, from ore and mining to use and disposal. This includes the volume and activity, nuclide composition, state and concentration, and discharges to the environment. It describes type of storage, capacity and utilization, age and location. It gives information on the territories and locations contaminated, by normal operations and by accidents, from which strategic plans for remediation can be formulated. This volume provides a unique resource for policy makers, analysts and professionals in the relevant industries, addressing the legacy of the Soviet nuclear complex and its implications. Published in association with the International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis.
Categories: History

The Radiation Legacy of the Soviet Nuclear Complex

The Radiation Legacy of the Soviet Nuclear Complex

Bibliography Energoatomizdat, 1995, The Production of the First Soviet Atomic Bomb (Collection of articles), pp. ... including presently available data on the radiation legacy of the ex-USSR, In: The Final Technical Report on the ISTC ...

Author: Nikolai N. Egorov

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781134197149

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 276

View: 457

A study of the legacy of nuclear contamination in the Soviet Union. It gives the location and characteristics of the accumulated radioactive material and wastes by each sector, from ore and mining to use and disposal. It describes types of storage, capacity and utilization, age and location. It gives information on the territories and locations contaminated, by normal operations and by accidents, from which strategic plans for remediation can be formulated.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Risk Methodologies for Technological Legacies

Risk Methodologies for Technological Legacies

Radiation. Legacy. of. the. Soviet. Nuclear. Complex. The radiation legacy left from nuclear weapons production is one of the forces compelling countries of the former Soviet Union to undertake risk assessment and risk management.

Author: Dennis Bley

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401000970

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 366

View: 976

The Cold War Era left the major participants, the United States and the former Soviet Union (FSU), with large legacies in terms of both contamination and potential accidents. Facility contamination and environmental degradation, as well as the accident vulnerable facilities and equipment, are a result of weapons development, testing, and production. Although the countries face similar issues from similar activities, important differences in waste management practices make the potential environmental and health risks of more immediate concern in the FSU and Eastern Europe. In the West, most nuclear and chemical waste is stored in known contained locations, while in the East, much of the equivalent material is unconfined, contaminating the environment. In the past decade, the U.S. started to address and remediate these Cold War legacies. Costs have been very high, and the projected cost estimates for total cleanup are still increasing. Currently in Russia, the resources for starting such major activities continue to be unavailable.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Challenges in Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Regulation of the Nuclear Legacy

Challenges in Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Regulation of the Nuclear Legacy

Some waste management sites are in a poor state. Legacy management experience was provided from the UK, France and the USA.

Author: Malgorzata Sneve

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402086342

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 236

View: 953

A NATO workshop was held in September 2007 under the Security through Science framework to consider the current challenges in regulation of the nuclear legacy. The overall objective was to share East-West competence and experience in radiation protection and nuclear safety supervision of installations built during the cold war, particularly in relation to regulatory strategies for safe decommissioning of unique or unusual nuclear facilities and remediation activities. There were over 60 participants from 8 countries as well as representatives from the International Commission on Radiological Protection, the International Atomic Energy Agency and NATO. The organisations involved included regulatory authorities, operators and technical support organizations. The new Russian Federation Unified State Programme for Handling Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste was introduced and the steps necessary to set this up as a comprehensive programme of activities were described. Some waste management sites are in a poor state. Legacy management experience was provided from the UK, France and the USA. Information was provided on methods for site characterisation and separation of wastes into exempt, low-level and intermediate level waste, and the complication of dealing at the same time with chemical hazards, such as beryllium. Strategies for contaminated site management were also explained and the associated risk assessment methods outlined. The Russian Federation has responsibility to manage its own nuclear legacy. But it is also one of several countries in the global network of nuclear activities. Harmonisation of approaches is valuable in building future cooperation, but local conditions may influence the best local solution. Accordingly, future exchanges, such as those provided for by this workshop, should be encouraged. There are many complex issues to be addressed and they cannot all be solved at once. Clear recognition of the major threats, as well as weakness in regulatory processes, can be useful in directing future resources. However, at this stage it is clear that there are specific regulatory issues to address as well as a need to maintain development of an enhanced overall safety culture. Such guidance needs to be thoroughly based on the best use of scientific and technical information. At the same time, part of the solution relates to policy issues and value judgements, and so broader interaction among regulators, operators and other stakeholders is to be encouraged.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Cleaning Up Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Materials

Cleaning Up Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Materials

International Workshop Proceedings Russian Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Policy and Global Affairs, Development, Security, and Cooperation ... The Radiation Legacy of the Soviet Nuclear Complex: An Analytical Overview.

Author: Russian Academy of Sciences

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309177368

Category: Science

Page: 234

View: 183

This publication features papers presented at the Workshop on Cleaning Up Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Materials, held in Moscow in June 2007. This activity was organized by the National Academies in cooperation with the Russian Academy of Sciences and with funding provided by the Russell Family Foundation. The workshop was designed to promote exchanges of information on specific contaminated sites in Russia and elsewhere and to stimulate greater attention to the severity of the problems and the urgent need to clean up sites of concern to the local and international communities.
Categories: Science

The Soviet Union and Global Environmental Change

The Soviet Union and Global Environmental Change

Egorov, N.N., 2000a, 'An Introduction to the Nuclear Complex of the Former Soviet Union', in Egorov, N.N., Novikov, V.M., Parker, F.L., and Popov, V.K., eds., The Radiation Legacy of the Soviet Nuclear Complex: An Analytical Overview, ...

Author: Jonathan D. Oldfield

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781000393347

Category: Social Science

Page: 154

View: 212

This book argues that the Soviet Union was a highly influential actor in furthering understandings of society-nature interaction on the international stage and played a key role in helping to shape, conceptualize and assess the relationship between humankind and the Earth system. It considers how humankind’s capacity to affect physical and biological systems at a global scale was acknowledged and studied by Soviet scientists, discusses how the interaction between Soviet and Western scientists stimulated the development of new technologies and insights, which simultaneously facilitated a more profound understanding of the Earth’s physical and biological systems, and explores how Soviet scientists drew upon pre-revolutionary intellectual traditions in order to make sense of society-nature interaction and did so in collaboration with a range of international initiatives. Overall, the book provides a deep analysis of how Soviet scientists conceptualized society-nature interaction and influenced the understanding of global physical and biological systems. Furthermore, it is argued that this intellectual legacy remains of importance today with respect to the activities of Russian science and contemporary global environmental challenges.
Categories: Social Science

Global Interdependence

Global Interdependence

On the Soviet nuclear complex, see Nikolai Egorov, Valdimir Novikov, Frank Parker, and Victor Popov, eds., The Radiation Legacy of the Soviet Nuclear Complex (London: Earthscan, 2000); Igor Kudrik, Charles Digges, Alexander Nikitin, ...

Author: Akira Iriye

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674045729

Category: History

Page: 1004

View: 424

Global Interdependence provides a new account of world history from the end of World War II to the present, an era when transnational communities began to challenge the long domination of the nation-state. In this single-volume survey, leading scholars elucidate the political, economic, cultural, and environmental forces that have shaped the planet in the past sixty years. Offering fresh insight into international politics since 1945, Wilfried Loth examines how miscalculations by both the United States and the Soviet Union brought about a Cold War conflict that was not necessarily inevitable. Thomas Zeiler explains how American free-market principles spurred the creation of an entirely new economic order--a global system in which goods and money flowed across national borders at an unprecedented rate, fueling growth for some nations while also creating inequalities in large parts of the Middle East, Latin America, and Africa. From an environmental viewpoint, J. R. McNeill and Peter Engelke contend that humanity has entered a new epoch, the Anthropocene era, in which massive industrialization and population growth have become the most powerful influences upon global ecology. Petra Goedde analyzes how globalization has impacted indigenous cultures and questions the extent to which a generic culture has erased distinctiveness and authenticity. She shows how, paradoxically, the more cultures blended, the more diversified they became as well. Combining these different perspectives, volume editor Akira Iriye presents a model of transnational historiography in which individuals and groups enter history not primarily as citizens of a country but as migrants, tourists, artists, and missionaries--actors who create networks that transcend traditional geopolitical boundaries.
Categories: History

The Great Acceleration

The Great Acceleration

On the Soviet nuclear complex, see Nikolai Egorov, Valdimir Novikov, Frank Parker, and Victor Popov, eds., The Radiation Legacy of the Soviet Nuclear Complex (London: Earthscan, 2000); Igor Kudrik, Charles Digges, Alexander Nikitin, ...

Author: J. R. McNeill

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674970748

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 205

The pace of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and population growth has thrust the planet into a new age—the Anthropocene. Humans have altered the planet’s biogeochemical systems without consciously managing them. The Great Acceleration explains the causes, consequences, and uncertainties of this massive uncontrolled experiment.
Categories: History

The Cambridge History of the Cold War Volume 3 Endings

The Cambridge History of the Cold War  Volume 3  Endings

Nuclear Wastelands: A Global Guide to Nuclear Weapons Production and Its Health and Environmental Effects (Cambridge, ... The Radiation Legacy ofthe Soviet Nuclear Complex (London: Earthscan, 2000); Igor Kudrik, Charles Digges, ...

Author: Melvyn P. Leffler

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781316025635

Category: History

Page:

View: 388

Volume III of The Cambridge History of the Cold War examines the evolution of the conflict from the Helsinki Conference of 1975 until the Soviet collapse in 1991. A team of leading scholars analyzes the economic, social, cultural, religious, technological and geopolitical factors that ended the Cold War and discusses the personalities and policies of key leaders such as Brezhnev, Reagan, Gorbachev, Thatcher, Kohl and Deng Xiaoping. The authors show how events throughout the world shaped the evolution of Soviet-American relations and they explore the legacies of the superpower confrontation in a comparative and transnational perspective. Individual chapters examine how the Cold War affected and was affected by environmental issues, economic trends, patterns of consumption, human rights and non-governmental organizations. The volume represents the new international history at its best, emphasizing broad social, economic, demographic and strategic developments while keeping politics and human agency in focus.
Categories: History

Environmental Histories of the Cold War

Environmental Histories of the Cold War

In the case of nuclear weapons, although the United States first developed them in World War II, ... Frank Parker, and Victor Popov, eds., The Radiation Legacy of the Soviet Nuclear Complex (London, 2000); V. I. Bulatov, ...

Author: J. R. McNeill

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521762441

Category: History

Page: 377

View: 120

Explores the links between the Cold War and the global environment, ranging from the environmental impacts of nuclear weapons to the political repercussions of environmentalism.
Categories: History