The Politics of Scale

A History of Rangeland Science

Author: Nathan F. Sayre

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022608339X

Category: Science

Page: 288

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Rangelands are vast, making up one quarter of the United States and forty percent of the Earth’s ice-free land. And while contemporary science has revealed a great deal about the environmental impacts associated with intensive livestock production—from greenhouse gas emissions to land and water degradation—far less is known about the historic role science has played in rangeland management and politics. Steeped in US soil, this first history of rangeland science looks to the origins of rangeland ecology in the late nineteenth-century American West, exploring the larger political and economic forces that—together with scientific study—produced legacies focused on immediate economic success rather than long-term ecological well being. During the late 1880s and early 1890s, a variety of forces—from the Homestead Act of 1862 to the extermination of bison, foreign investment, and lack of government regulation—promoted free-for-all access to and development of the western range, with disastrous environmental consequences. To address the crisis, government agencies turned to scientists, but as Nathan F. Sayre shows, range science grew in a politically fraught landscape. Neither the scientists nor the public agencies could escape the influences of bureaucrats and ranchers who demanded results, and the ideas that became scientific orthodoxy—from fire suppression and predator control to fencing and carrying capacities—contained flaws and blind spots that plague public debates about rangelands to this day. Looking at the global history of rangeland science through the Cold War and beyond, The Politics of Scale identifies the sources of past conflicts and mistakes and helps us to see a more promising path forward, one in which rangeland science is guided less by capital and the state and more by communities working in collaboration with scientists.
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The Palgrave Handbook of Critical Physical Geography

Author: Rebecca Lave,Christine Biermann,Stuart N. Lane

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319714619

Category: Social Science

Page: 594

View: 2410

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This handbook is recognition of the need to better integrate physical and human geography. It combines a collection of work and research within the new field of Critical Physical Geography, which gives critical attention to relations of social power with deep knowledge of a particular field of biophysical science. Critical Physical Geography research accords careful attention to biophysical landscapes and the power relations that have increasingly come to shape them, and to the politics of environmental science and the role of biophysical inquiry in promoting social and environmental justice. The Palgrave Handbook of Critical Physical Geography lays out the scope and guiding principles of Critical Physical Geography research. It presents a carefully selected set of empirical work, demonstrating the range and intellectual strength of existing integrative work in geography research. This handbook is the first of its kind to cover this emerging discipline and will be of significant interest to students and academics across the fields of geography, the environment and sustainability.
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Red Meat Republic

A Hoof-to-Table History of How Beef Changed America

Author: Joshua Specht

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 0691185786

Category: History

Page: 339

View: 2717

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How beef conquered America and gave rise to the modern industrial food complex By the late nineteenth century, Americans rich and poor had come to expect high-quality fresh beef with almost every meal. Beef production in the United States had gone from small-scale, localized operations to a highly centralized industry spanning the country, with cattle bred on ranches in the rural West, slaughtered in Chicago, and consumed in the nation’s rapidly growing cities. Red Meat Republic tells the remarkable story of the violent conflict over who would reap the benefits of this new industry and who would bear its heavy costs. Joshua Specht puts people at the heart of his story—the big cattle ranchers who helped to drive the nation’s westward expansion, the meatpackers who created a radically new kind of industrialized slaughterhouse, and the stockyard workers who were subjected to the shocking and unsanitary conditions described by Upton Sinclair in his novel The Jungle. Specht brings to life a turbulent era marked by Indian wars, Chicago labor unrest, and food riots in the streets of New York. He shows how the enduring success of the cattle-beef complex—centralized, low cost, and meatpacker dominated—was a consequence of the meatpackers’ ability to make their interests overlap with those of a hungry public, while the interests of struggling ranchers, desperate workers, and bankrupt butchers took a backseat. America—and the American table—would never be the same again. A compelling and unfailingly enjoyable read, Red Meat Republic reveals the complex history of exploitation and innovation behind the food we consume today.
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Rangeland Systems

Processes, Management and Challenges

Author: David D. Briske

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319467093

Category: Nature

Page: 661

View: 3374

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This book is open access under a CC BY-NC 2.5 license. This book provides an unprecedented synthesis of the current status of scientific and management knowledge regarding global rangelands and the major challenges that confront them. It has been organized around three major themes. The first summarizes the conceptual advances that have occurred in the rangeland profession. The second addresses the implications of these conceptual advances to management and policy. The third assesses several major challenges confronting global rangelands in the 21st century. This book will compliment applied range management textbooks by describing the conceptual foundation on which the rangeland profession is based. It has been written to be accessible to a broad audience, including ecosystem managers, educators, students and policy makers. The content is founded on the collective experience, knowledge and commitment of 80 authors who have worked in rangelands throughout the world. Their collective contributions indicate that a more comprehensive framework is necessary to address the complex challenges confronting global rangelands. Rangelands represent adaptive social-ecological systems, in which societal values, organizations and capacities are of equal importance to, and interact with, those of ecological processes. A more comprehensive framework for rangeland systems may enable management agencies, and educational, research and policy making organizations to more effectively assess complex problems and develop appropriate solutions.
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Environmental Problems in America's Garden of Eden

Author: Gordon Morris Bakken,Brenda Farrington

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9780815334590

Category: History

Page: 364

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This anthology examines Love's Labours Lost from a variety of perspectives and through a wide range of materials. Selections discuss the play in terms of historical context, dating, and sources; character analysis; comic elements and verbal conceits; evidence of authorship; performance analysis; and feminist interpretations. Alongside theater reviews, production photographs, and critical commentary, the volume also includes essays written by practicing theater artists who have worked on the play. An index by name, literary work, and concept rounds out this valuable resource.
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Vulnerability of Land Systems in Asia

Author: Ademola K. Braimoh,He Qing Huang

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118854918

Category: Science

Page: 368

View: 1956

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This book provides a comprehensive yet accessible overview of landsystems vulnerability assessment in Asia - fundamental to theunderstanding of the link between global change, environmentalsustainability and human wellbeing. The extent and intensity ofhuman interactions with the environment have increasedspectacularly since the Industrial Revolution. Thus, the globalchange research community and development practitionersincreasingly recognize the need to address the adverse consequencesof changes taking place in the structure and function of thebiosphere and the implications for society. With a focus onAsia, this book provides an overview of the vulnerability of landsystems and the subsequent multiple stressors in this region. Thebook offers a discussion surrounding the potential causal processesthat affect land systems vulnerability and our capacity to copewith different perturbations. It also identifies factors that helpto integrate vulnerability assessment into policy anddecision-making. • Addresses the complex issues arising fromhuman–environment interactions that cannot be satisfactorilydealt with by core disciplinary methods alone. • Key coverage of a variety of topics from thevulnerability of smallholder agriculture and urban systems to theimpact of socioeconomic processes at the sub-regional level. • Coverage of the causal processes that affect landsystems vulnerability and capacity to cope with differentperturbations are documented. • Focus on integrating vulnerability assessment intopolicies and decision-making • Includes contributions from leading academics in thefield.
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Rangeland Desertification

Author: Olafur Arnalds,Steve Archer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780792360711

Category: Nature

Page: 209

View: 1015

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Desertification has occurred worldwide. The biophysical and socio-economic complexity of this phenomenon has challenged our ability to categorize, inventory, monitor and repair the condition of degraded lands. One of the most important distinctions to be made in relation to land degradation is between cultivated land used for annual crop production and `rangelands'. Grazing by free-roaming livestock is the traditional primary use of the world's rangelands. However, there is growing recognition of the importance of these vast acreages for wildlife habitat, hydrology and ground water recharge, recreation and aesthetics. This text focuses on the desertification of rangelands and explores processes, problems and solutions. Chapters in the first section evaluate interactions between `natural' and human-induced disturbance regimes, thresholds, and non-linear change with respect to vegetation, hydrology, nutrients and erosion. Chapters in the second section examine socio-economic constraints and approaches for preventing and reversing degradation. The book provides a contemporary, process-oriented perspective on rangeland degradation of value to students, policy-makers and professionals alike.
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Assessing the Impacts of Climate Change on Natural Resource Systems

Author: Kenneth D. Frederick,Norman J. Rosenberg

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401102074

Category: Science

Page: 219

View: 2771

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This volume characterizes the current state of natural science and socioeconomic modeling of the impacts of climate change and current climate variability on forests, grasslands, and water. It identifies what can be done currently with impact assessments and suggests how to undertake such assessments. Impediments to linking biophysical and socioeconomic models into integrated assessments for policy purposes are identified, and recommendations for future research activities to improve the state of the art and remove these impediments to model integration are provided. This book is for natural and social scientists with an interest in the impacts of climate change on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and their socioeconomic impacts, and policy makers interested in understanding the status of current assessment capabilities and in identifying priority areas for future research.
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