The Politics of Attention

How Government Prioritizes Problems

Author: Bryan D. Jones,Frank R. Baumgartner

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226406534

Category: Political Science

Page: 316

View: 5175

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On any given day, policymakers are required to address a multitude of problems and make decisions about a variety of issues, from the economy and education to health care and defense. This has been true for years, but until now no studies have been conducted on how politicians manage the flood of information from a wide range of sources. How do they interpret and respond to such inundation? Which issues do they pay attention to and why? Bryan D. Jones and Frank R. Baumgartner answer these questions on decision-making processes and prioritization in The Politics of Attention. Analyzing fifty years of data, Jones and Baumgartner's book is the first study of American politics based on a new information-processing perspective. The authors bring together the allocation of attention and the operation of governing institutions into a single model that traces public policies, public and media attention to them, and governmental decisions across multiple institutions. The Politics of Attention offers a groundbreaking approach to American politics based on the responses of policymakers to the flow of information. It asks how the system solves, or fails to solve, problems rather than looking to how individual preferences are realized through political action.
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The Politics of the Lisbon Agenda

Governance Architectures And Domestic Usages Of Europe

Author: Susana Borras,Claudio M. Radaelli

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317978838

Category: Political Science

Page: 153

View: 2259

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In the year 2000, in Lisbon, the European Union launched an agenda for growth, jobs, sustainability and competiveness with a ten-year target. In 2010, the agenda was re-launched with different specific objectives but with the same final goals. Why do the European Union leaders engage with these ten-year plans? What exactly do they commit to when they do so? Do they learn from the results, or is this a rhetorical exercise that complex organizations need to raise attention to certain issues? This volume is the first-ever systematic study of the Lisbon agenda of the European Union, now called Europe 2020. It explains the rise of the Lisbon agenda as governance architectures and examines its components across time and sectors. This book was published as a special issue of the Journal of European Public Policy.
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Pathways of Power

The Dynamics of National Policymaking

Author: Timothy J. Conlan,Paul L. Posner,David R. Beam

Publisher: Georgetown University Press

ISBN: 1626160392

Category: Political Science

Page: 240

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While textbooks often describe an idealized model of "how a bill becomes law" and journalists emphasize special interest lobbying and generous campaign contributions to Congress, these approaches fail to convey -- much less explain -- the tremendous diversity in political processes that shape specific policies in contemporary Washington. Pathways of Power provides a framework that integrates the roles of political interests and policy ideals in the contemporary policy process. This book argues that the policy process can be understood as a set of four distinctive pathways of policymaking -- pluralist, partisan, expert, and symbolic -- that draw upon different political resources, appeal to different political actors, and elicit unique strategies and styles of coalition building. The book's use of a wide universe of major policy decisions provides a useful foundation for students of the policy process as well as for policy practitioners eager to learn more about their craft.
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The Oxford Handbook of Legislative Studies

Author: Shane Martin,Thomas Saalfeld,Kaare W. Strøm

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191019070

Category: Political Science

Page: 800

View: 678

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Legislatures are political bodies essential to democracy and the rule of law. They present social scientists with numerous intriguing puzzles, with far-reaching implications for our understanding of political institutions. Why, and how, have these ancient assemblies, established in pre-democratic times, survived the transition to mass democracies? How have they adapted? How do they structure such processes as budgeting, legislation, and executive oversight? How do their members get selected, and what consequences flow from differences in these rules? What roles do committees and political parties play in contemporary legislatures? What functions do legislatures perform in autocratic, semi-democratic or recently democratized societies? What explains the similarities and differences in legislative rules, powers and recruitment? What are the policy and other consequences of variation in how legislatures are organized and function? The 33 chapters in The Oxford Handbook of Legislative Studies, written by 47 of the most distinguished legislative scholars, provide a comprehensive and up-to-date description and assessment of the state of the art in legislative studies. Key themes explored include theoretical paradigms and methodological approaches to the study of legislatures, representation and legislative careers, internal organization, the role of parties within legislatures and the role of legislatures in policy making and accountability. The Handbook also explores the emergence of parliaments in historical and contemporary contexts, including new democracies and trans-national institutions.
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Comparative Studies of Policy Agendas

Author: Frank R. Baumgartner,Christoffer Green-Pedersen,Bryan D. Jones

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317996968

Category: Political Science

Page: 192

View: 411

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Previously published as a special issue of the Journal of European Public Policy, this book draws on the insights of the existing literature on agenda setting and policy changes to explore the dynamics of attention allocation and its consequences. Attention is a crucial variable in understanding modern politics. Shifts in attention have dramatic consequences for both politics and policy decisions. This volume includes case studies of nine different political systems including the US, Canada, several European systems, and the EU itself. It asks the following questions: Which are the dynamics of agenda-setting in the EU? Which role do political parties play in attention allocation? What are the cross national differences in attention to health care? What role does science and expertise play in attention-allocation? What are the effects of political institutions? Comparative Studies of Policy Agendas will be of interest to students and scholars of policy analysis and public policy.
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Manipulating Democracy

Democratic Theory, Political Psychology, and Mass Media

Author: Wayne Le Cheminant,John M. Parrish

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136994459

Category: Political Science

Page: 280

View: 3178

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Manipulation is a source of pervasive anxiety in contemporary American politics. Observers charge that manipulative practices in political advertising, media coverage, and public discourse have helped to produce an increasingly polarized political arena, an uninformed and apathetic electorate, election campaigns that exploit public fears and prejudices, a media that titillates rather than educates, and a policy process that too often focuses on the symbolic rather than substantive. Manipulating Democracy offers the first comprehensive dialogue between empirical political scientists and normative theorists on the definition and contemporary practice of democratic manipulation. This impressive array of distinguished scholars—political scientists, philosophers, cognitive psychologists, and communications scholars—collectively draw out the connections between competing definitions of manipulation, the psychology of manipulation, and the political institutions and practices through which manipulation is seen to produce a tightly-knit exploration of an issue at the heart of democratic politics.
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The Oxford Handbook of Political Leadership

Author: R. A. W. Rhodes,Paul 't Hart

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191645869

Category: Political Science

Page: 800

View: 8617

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Political leadership has made a comeback. It was studied intensively not only by political scientists but also by political sociologists and psychologists, Sovietologists, political anthropologists, and by scholars in comparative and development studies from the 1940s to the 1970s. Thereafter, the field lost its way with the rise of structuralism, neo-institutionalism, and rational choice approaches to the study of politics, government, and governance. Recently, however, students of politics have returned to studying the role of individual leaders and the exercise of leadership to explain political outcomes. The list of topics is nigh endless: elections, conflict management, public policy, government popularity, development, governance networks, and regional integration. In the media age, leaders are presented and stage-managed—spun—as the solution to almost every social problem. Through the mass media and the Internet, citizens and professional observers follow the rise, impact, and fall of senior political officeholders at closer quarters than ever before. This Handbook encapsulates the resurgence by asking, where are we today? It orders the multidisciplinary field by identifying the distinct and distinctive contributions of the disciplines. It meets the urgent need to take stock. It brings together scholars from around the world, encouraging a comparative perspective, to provide a comprehensive coverage of all the major disciplines, methods, and regions. It showcases both the normative and empirical traditions in political leadership studies, and juxtaposes behavioural, institutional, and interpretive approaches. It covers formal, office-based as well as informal, emergent political leadership, and in both democratic and undemocratic polities.
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Forgetting Children Born of War

Setting the Human Rights Agenda in Bosnia and Beyond

Author: Charli Carpenter

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231522304

Category: Political Science

Page: 304

View: 8296

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Sexual violence and exploitation occur in many conflict zones, and the children born of such acts face discrimination, stigma, and infanticide. Yet the massive transnational network of organizations working to protect war-affected children has, for two decades, remained curiously silent on the needs of this vulnerable population. Focusing specifically on the case of Bosnia-Herzegovina, R. Charli Carpenter questions the framing of atrocity by human rights organizations and the limitations these narratives impose on their response. She finds that human rights groups set their agendas according to certain grievances-the claims of female rape victims or the complaints of aggrieved minorities, for example-and that these concerns can overshadow the needs of others. Incorporating her research into a host of other conflict zones, Carpenter shows that the social construction of rights claims is contingent upon the social construction of wrongs. According to Carpenter, this pathology prevents the full protection of children born of war.
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Dealing with Disaster

Public Management in Crisis Situations

Author: Saundra K. Schneider

Publisher: M.E. Sharpe

ISBN: 0765631288

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 5606

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Why does government sometimes do a superlative job handling natural disaster situations while at other times, as in the case of Hurricane Katrina, it performs extremely poorly? Updated with examples through 2010, this classic study examines the disruptive effects of disasters on patterns of human behavior and the routine operations of government, and the conditions under which even relatively minor crises can lead to system breakdown. Integrating case studies of emergency management with studies of collective behavior, the author identifies factors that contribute to successful government handling of disaster situations and distills insights that can be used to improve these capacities at all levels--federal, state, and local. The book includes numerous illustrations as well as expanded coverage of research on disaster management and greatly expanded reference lists.
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Learning, Relearning, and Unlearning. The Development of Counterinsurgency Doctrine in the United States Army and Marine Corps, 1898-1940

Author: Lauren Raouf

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 3668203776

Category: Political Science

Page: 131

View: 2058

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Bachelor Thesis from the year 2008 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Region: USA, Harvard University, language: English, abstract: The present thesis examines the factors that led to the development of counterinsurgency doctrine in the United States Army and Marine Corps, focusing on the period from 1898-1940, and why the two organizations had strikingly different approaches and beliefs about the importance of this doctrine. When the Prussian military theorist Carl von Clausewitz described war as “simply a continuation of political intercourse, with the addition of other means,” he was writing primarily with reference to conventional warfare between the national armies fighting for the achievement of a specific set of political objectives. However, Clausewitz's understanding of war is equally applicable to a different kind of warfare: revolutionary warfare, defined by John Shy and Thomas Collier as “the seizure of political power by the use of armed force.” In this type of warfare, the insurgent force attempts to gain political power (usually the power of the state) while the counterinsurgent force—usually the state, although sometimes supported by outside actors—attempts to retain its hold on political power. Revolutionary war is at its heart a struggle for the support of the people, an explicitly political kind of warfare. The problems of waging a successful counterinsurgency have plagued military experts for centuries. In a counterinsurgency, the strengths of a conventional military power are turned into weaknesses, as applying overwhelming force is generally counterproductive to the goal of winning popular support. For most conventional military forces, fighting a counterinsurgency means changing the organization's very way of thinking about warfare. Military organizations known for their technological and conventional warfare prowess are forced to adopt new strategies and ideas when faced with the harassing tactics of insurgents who need only strike when it suits them, while the counterinsurgent force must defend everything, everywhere, at all times. Isolating the insurgents from the population becomes the foremost goal of the counterinsurgency, requiring a delicate and shifting balance of offensive, defensive, and political operations often quite separate from the normal scope of military training and preparation.
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