Although the field was not formalized until the 20th century, it is thought that the work of Hero, his "programmable" automated devices in particular, represents some of the first formal research into cybernetics.
Hero (or Heron) of Alexandria (c. 10-70 AD) was an ancient Greek mathematician and engineer who was active in his native city of Alexandria during the height of the Roman Empire. He is considered the greatest experimenter of antiquity and his work is representative of the Hellenistic scientific tradition. Hero published a well recognized description of a steam-powered device called an aeolipile (hence sometimes called a "Hero engine"). Among his most famous inventions was a windwheel, constituting the earliest instance of wind harnessing on land. He is also said to have been a follower of the Atomists. Much of Hero's original writings and designs have been lost, but some of his works were preserved in Arab manuscripts.It is almost certain that Hero taught at the Musaeum which once included the famous Library of Alexandria, because most of his writings appear as lecture notes for courses in mathematics, mechanics, physics and pneumatics. Although the field was not formalized until the 20th century, it is thought that the work of Hero, his "programmable" automated devices in particular, represents some of the first formal research into cybernetics. The Pneumatica, or Pneumatics of Hero of Alexandria include descriptions of machines working on air, steam or water pressure, including the hydraulis or water organ.
This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations.
Author: Hero von Alexandria
Publisher: Franklin Classics Trade Press
This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity (individual or corporate) has a copyright on the body of the work. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be preserved, reproduced, and made generally available to the public. To ensure a quality reading experience, this work has been proofread and republished using a format that seamlessly blends the original graphical elements with text in an easy-to-read typeface. We appreciate your support of the preservation process, and thank you for being an important part of keeping this knowledge alive and relevant.
A very interesting treatise on pneumatics by one Hero of Alexandria , supposed
to have been a pupil of Ctesibius , has lately been translated from the original
Greek , and published by Mr. Bennet Woodcroft . + Hitherto we have been
content to ...
6 al - Asrār fi natā'ij al - afkār : see al - Murādī Āthār al - bilād : see al - Qazwīnī
Automata ( Hero of Alexandria ) : III 189 ... Ibn Hayyān Nuzhat al - mushtāq fi '
khtirāq al - āfāq ( al - Bīrūnī ) : VII 968 ; Pneumatics ( Hero of Alexandria ) : I 227 ;
II 12 ...
Author: Donald R. Hill
These studies represent the major contributions to the history of Islamic technology during the second half of the 20th century beside Donald Hill’s separate publications on the mechanical devices of Pseudo-Apollonios, the Banu Musa and al-Jazari. A gifted linguist who was trained as a historian of Islamic civilisation, and also a professional engineer, Hill achieved his goal of setting his subject on a solid basis. The papers reprinted here include his early studies of the trebuchet and the camel and horse, several overviews of different aspects of Islamic technology, articles on specific topics such as the Cairo Nilometer and al-Biruni’s geared luni-solar device, and the first notice of an extremely important Andalusian treatise on mechanical devices discovered in 1975.
These may contain some later Islamic interpolations, but for the most part the
descriptions of ingenious devices can be accepted as authentic.6 Another
important surviving text is the Pneumatics of Hero of Alexandria (fl. mid-first
century AD).7 ...
Author: Donald Hill
It is impossible to understand the cultures and achievements of the Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, and Arabs, without knowing something of their technology. Rome, for example, made advances in many areas which were subsequently lost and not regained for more than a millenium. This is a knowledgeable yet lucid account of the wonderful triumphs and the limitations of ancient and medieval engineering. This book systematically describes what is known about the evolution of irrigation works, dams, bridges, roads, building construction, water and wind power, automata, and clocks, with references to the social, geographical, and intellectual context.
The one and only mention of harnessing windpower is in the Pneumatics of Hero of Alexandria (I, 43), and, being unparalleled, it has come under suspicion as a
later interpolation. But there is nothing in the vocabulary or style of the Greek ...
Author: J. G. Landels
Publisher: Univ of California Press
In a new edition of this highly acclaimed book, the author reveals the engineering know-how of the ancient Greeks and Romans. In fascinating detail he describes how they developed and constructed their machines, and considers how the same principles are used in modern-day engineering.
... electric fish also provided people with new ways of thinking about other
phenomena in the physical world. The most notable example comes from an
argument about the corpuscular nature of matter in the Pneumatics of Hero of Alexandria, ...
Author: William J. Turkel
Publisher: JHU Press
Spark from the Deep tells the story of how human beings came to understand and use electricity by studying the evolved mechanisms of strongly electric fish. These animals have the ability to shock potential prey or would-be predators with high-powered electrical discharges. William J. Turkel asks completely fresh questions about the evolutionary, environmental, and historical aspects of people’s interest in electric fish. Stimulated by painful encounters with electric catfish, torpedos, and electric eels, people learned to harness the power of electric shock for medical therapies and eventually developed technologies to store, transmit, and control electricity. Now we look to these fish as an inspiration for engineering new sensors, computer interfaces, autonomous undersea robots, and energy-efficient batteries.
Author: British Museum. Department of Printed BooksPublish On: 1889
8o . 31 . HERO , of Alexandria . Heronis de constructione et mensura HERO , Alexandria : [ Xapoßalluoteas Karaokevn , etc. ) manubalistæ . Heronis Ctesibii
Belopoeeca , id est , teli La Chirobaliste d'Héron ... traduite du Grec en
Author: British Museum. Department of Printed Books
Author: Georgia L. Irby-MassiePublish On: 2013-02-01
*Greenwood, J. G. and B. Woodcroft (1851/1971) The Pneumatics of Hero of Alexandria, London: Macdonald; New York: Elsevier. *Hankinson, R. J. (1991)
Galen on the Therapeutic Method, books I and II, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Author: Georgia L. Irby-Massie
We all want to understand the world around us, and the ancient Greeks were the first to try and do so in a way we can properly call scientific. Their thought and writings laid the essential foundations for the revivals of science in medieval Baghdad and renaissance Europe. Now their work is accessible to all, with this invaluable introduction to c.100 scientific authors active from 320 BCE to 230 CE. The book begins with an outline of a new socio-political model for the development and decline of Greek science, followed by eleven chapters that cover the main disciplines: * the science which the Greeks saw as fundamental - mathematics * astronomy * astrology and geography * mechanics * optics and pneumatics * the non-mathematical sciences of alchemy, biology, medicine and 'psychology'. Each chapter contains an accessible introduction on the origins and development of the topic in question, and all the authors are set in context with brief biographies.
4. Thomas Homer-Dixon, The Upside of Down: Catastrophe, Creativity, and the
Renewal of Civilization (Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2006). 5. Ibid. 6. The Pneumatics of Hero of Alexandria, trans. Bennet Woodcroft (London: Taylor
Author: Richard Martin
Publisher: St. Martin's Press
A riveting look at how an alternative source of energy is revoluntionising nuclear power, promising a safe and clean future for millions, and why thorium was sidelined at the height of the Cold War In this groundbreaking account of an energy revolution in the making, award-winning science writer Richard Martin introduces us to thorium, a radioactive element and alternative nuclear fuel that is far safer, cleaner, and more abundant than uranium. At the dawn of the Atomic Age, thorium and uranium seemed to be in close competition as the fuel of the future. Uranium, with its ability to undergo fission and produce explosive material for atomic weapons, won out over its more pacific sister element, relegating thorium to the dustbin of science. Now, as we grapple with the perils of nuclear energy and rogue atomic weapons, and mankind confronts the specter of global climate change, thorium is re-emerging as the overlooked energy source as a small group of activists and outsiders is working, with the help of Silicon Valley investors, to build a thorium-power industry. In the first book mainstream book to tackle these issues, Superfuel is a story of rediscovery of a long lost technology that has the power to transform the world's future, and the story of the pacifists, who were sidelined in favour of atomic weapon hawks, but who can wean us off our fossil-fuel addiction and avert the risk of nuclear meltdown for ever.
hero. of. alexandria's. Pneumatics. Though they did not understand the true
nature of heat, the ancient Greeks learned to use it to operate simple mechanical
devices. Little is known of the life of Hero of Alexandria, but historians believe he
Author: Jeffrey Moran
Publisher: The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction
Introduces thermodynamics, presents a history of the field, and discusses the advances in thermometry.
Hero (or Heron) of Alexandria, a first-century A.d. contemporary of Plutarch, was
famous for constructing machines that ... In the Pneumatics he describes pipes
and vessels from which wine and water alternately flow, or from which wine flows
Author: John Vernon
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
Category: Biography & Autobiography
The author chronicles his brother's tragic and mostly concealed descent into a reclusive lifestyle, living in squalor with his own trash and seldom leaving the house, in a moving memoir of a life gone wrong. Reprint. 10,000 first printing.