The Noether Theorems

Invariance and Conservation Laws in the Twentieth Century

Author: Yvette Kosmann-Schwarzbach

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387878683

Category: Mathematics

Page: 205

View: 1827

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In 1915 and 1916 Emmy Noether was asked by Felix Klein and David Hilbert to assist them in understanding issues involved in any attempt to formulate a general theory of relativity, in particular the new ideas of Einstein. She was consulted particularly over the difficult issue of the form a law of conservation of energy could take in the new theory, and she succeeded brilliantly, finding two deep theorems. But between 1916 and 1950, the theorem was poorly understood and Noether's name disappeared almost entirely. People like Klein and Einstein did little more then mention her name in the various popular or historical accounts they wrote. Worse, earlier attempts which had been eclipsed by Noether's achievements were remembered, and sometimes figure in quick historical accounts of the time. This book carries a translation of Noether's original paper into English, and then describes the strange history of its reception and the responses to her work. Ultimately the theorems became decisive in a shift from basing fundamental physics on conservations laws to basing it on symmetries, or at the very least, in thoroughly explaining the connection between these two families of ideas. The real significance of this book is that it shows very clearly how long it took before mathematicians and physicists began to recognize the seminal importance of Noether's results. This book is thoroughly researched and provides careful documentation of the textbook literature. Kosmann-Schwarzbach has thus thrown considerable light on this slow dance in which the mathematical tools necessary to study symmetry properties and conservation laws were apparently provided long before the orchestra arrives and the party begins.
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Recent Progress and Modern Challenges in Applied Mathematics, Modeling and Computational Science

Author: Roderick Melnik,Roman Makarov,Jacques Belair

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1493969692

Category: Mathematics

Page: 444

View: 1858

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This volume is an excellent resource for professionals in various areas of applications of mathematics, modeling, and computational science. It focuses on recent progress and modern challenges in these areas. The volume provides a balance between fundamental theoretical and applied developments, emphasizing the interdisciplinary nature of modern trends and detailing state-of-the-art achievements in Applied Mathematics, Modeling, and Computational Science. The chapters have been authored by international experts in their respective fields, making this book ideal for researchers in academia, practitioners, and graduate students. It can also serve as a reference in the diverse selected areas of applied mathematics, modelling, and computational sciences, and is ideal for interdisciplinary collaborations.
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Variational Formulation of Fluid and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics

Mechanics, Symmetries and Conservation Laws

Author: Gualtiero Badin,Fulvio Crisciani

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319596950

Category: Science

Page: 218

View: 6186

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This book describes the derivation of the equations of motion of fluids as well as the dynamics of ocean and atmospheric currents on both large and small scales through the use of variational methods. In this way the equations of Fluid and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics are re-derived making use of a unifying principle, that is Hamilton’s Principle of Least Action. The equations are analyzed within the framework of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics for continuous systems. The analysis of the equations’ symmetries and the resulting conservation laws, from Noether’s Theorem, represent the core of the description. Central to this work is the analysis of particle relabeling symmetry, which is unique for fluid dynamics and results in the conservation of potential vorticity. Different special approximations and relations, ranging from the semi-geostrophic approximation to the conservation of wave activity, are derived and analyzed. Thanks to a complete derivation of all relationships, this book is accessible for students at both undergraduate and graduate levels, as well for researchers. Students of theoretical physics and applied mathematics will recognize the existence of theoretical challenges behind the applied field of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, while students of applied physics, meteorology and oceanography will be able to find and appreciate the fundamental relationships behind equations in this field.
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The Dirichlet Problem for Elliptic-Hyperbolic Equations of Keldysh Type

Author: Thomas H. Otway

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642244157

Category: Mathematics

Page: 214

View: 6634

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Partial differential equations of mixed elliptic-hyperbolic type arise in diverse areas of physics and geometry, including fluid and plasma dynamics, optics, cosmology, traffic engineering, projective geometry, geometric variational theory, and the theory of isometric embeddings. And yet even the linear theory of these equations is at a very early stage. This text examines various Dirichlet problems which can be formulated for equations of Keldysh type, one of the two main classes of linear elliptic-hyperbolic equations. Open boundary conditions (in which data are prescribed on only part of the boundary) and closed boundary conditions (in which data are prescribed on the entire boundary) are both considered. Emphasis is on the formulation of boundary conditions for which solutions can be shown to exist in an appropriate function space. Specific applications to plasma physics, optics, and analysis on projective spaces are discussed. (From the preface)
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Metric Theories of Gravity

Perturbations and Conservation Laws

Author: Alexander N. Petrov,Sergei M. Kopeikin,Robert R. Lompay,Bayram Tekin

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 3110351781

Category: Science

Page: 621

View: 8163

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By focusing on the mostly used variational methods, this monograph aspires to give a unified description and comparison of various ways of constructing conserved quantities for perturbations and to study symmetries in general relativity and modified theories of gravity. The main emphasis lies on the field-theoretical covariant formulation of perturbations, the canonical Noether approach and the Belinfante procedure of symmetrisation. The general formalism is applied to build the gauge-invariant cosmological perturbation theory, conserved currents and superpotentials to describe physically important solutions of gravity theories. Meticulous attention is given to the construction of conserved quantities in asymptotically-flat spacetimes as well as in asymptotically constant curvature spacetimes such as the Anti-de Sitter space. Significant part of the book can be used in graduate courses on conservation laws in general relativity. THE SERIES: DE GRUYTER STUDIES IN MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS The series is devoted to the publication of monographs and high-level texts in mathematical physics. They cover topics and methods in fields of current interest, with an emphasis on didactical presentation. The series will enable readers to understand, apply, and develop further, with sufficient rigor, mathematical methods to given problems in physics. The works in this series are aimed at advanced students and researchers in mathematical and theoretical physics. They can also serve as secondary reading for lectures and seminars at advanced levels.
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Groups and Symmetries

From Finite Groups to Lie Groups

Author: Yvette Kosmann-Schwarzbach

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387788662

Category: Mathematics

Page: 196

View: 8700

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- Combines material from many areas of mathematics, including algebra, geometry, and analysis, so students see connections between these areas - Applies material to physics so students appreciate the applications of abstract mathematics - Assumes only linear algebra and calculus, making an advanced subject accessible to undergraduates - Includes 142 exercises, many with hints or complete solutions, so text may be used in the classroom or for self study
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Gesammelte Abhandlungen - Collected Papers

Author: Emmy Noether

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783540115045

Category: Mathematics

Page: 777

View: 2374

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Emmy Noether (1882-1935) was one of the most influential mathematicians of the 20th century. The development of abstract algebra, which is one of the most distinctive innovations of 20th century mathematics, can largely be traced back to her - in her published papers, lectures and her personal influence on her contemporaries. By now her contributions have become so thoroughly absorbed into our mathematical culture that only rarely are they specifically attributed to her. This book presents an extensive collection of her work. Albert Einstein wrote in a letter to the New York Times of May 1st, 1935: "In the judgment of the most competent living mathematicians, Fräulein Noether was the most significant creative mathematical genius thus far produced since the higher education of women began. In the realm of algebra, in which the most gifted mathematicians have been busy for centuries, she discovered methods which have proved of enormous importance in the development of the present-day younger generation of mathematicians."
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