The Need for Green Covenants. Regulating the Green Bond Market

Author: Markus Hoffmann

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 3668251967

Category: Law

Page: 36

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Master's Thesis from the year 2015 in the subject Law - Miscellaneous, grade: B, London School of Economics (Department of Law), course: Environmental Law, language: English, abstract: Green Bonds are a novel form of long term debt financing instruments enabling continued and sustainable economic growth in a finite physical world. The market for green bonds or Climate Bonds comprises of debt instruments, the proceeds of which are Earmarked for use in environmentally friendly projects. Introduced by the European Investment Bank (EIB) in 2007, the market for green bonds has been growing rapidly, reaching the record volume of USD 36.6 billion in 2014. Rapidly growing markets offer a myriad of opportunities for investors, but those opportunities come with certain risks attached. The risk addressed by this paper is a twofold one. Firstly, there is a risk to the environment if the proceeds of earmarked bonds are used for projects that do not actually benefit the environment. Secondly, there is a legal and financial risk to bondholders that arises when issuers of green bonds use funds for purposes other than those set out in the bond indenture. There are two steps that need to be taken in order to address these risks at the same time. First, a uniform standard of what defines a green bond or a specified range of Shades of Green has to be found and implemented. Second, a green bond needs to state explicitly, in its indenture, what purposes the funds will be used for and of what shade of green those purposes are, in order to empower bondholders to take legal action if covenants are broken. These clauses will be referred to as Green Covenants. This paper will start by briefly setting out the threat posed by climate change before continuing to introduce green bonds, explaining how they operate and why they will become part of the solution to climate change. Four varieties of green bonds, issued by four very different entities, will then be examined and it will be shown that there are certain shortcomings they all have in common. This paper goes on by suggesting that these shortcomings can be addressed by introducing stricter and, most importantly, legally enforceable covenants that determine what proceeds of green bonds can be used for. This will be proven by comparing instruments of English Law and United States (US) Federal Law that are currently available to bondholders, with powers a stronger set of covenants will make available to bondholders in the future.
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Making Housing Happen, 2nd Edition

Faith-Based Affordable Housing Models

Author: Jill Suzanne Shook

Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers

ISBN: 1621894525

Category: Social Science

Page: 334

View: 8563

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The growing housing crisis cries out for solutions that work. As many as 3.5 million Americans experience homelessness each year, half of them women and children. One in four renters spends more than half of their income on rent and utilities (more than 30 percent is considered unaffordable). With record foreclosures and 28 percent of homes underwater, middle and low-income homeowners are suffering. Many congregations want to address this daunting problem yet feel powerless and uncertain about what to do. The good news is that churches are effectively addressing the housing crisis from Washington State to New York City--where an alliance of sixty churches has built five thousand homes for low-income homeowners, with virtually no government funding or foreclosures. This book not only presents solid theological thinking about housing, but also offers workable solutions to the current crisis: true stories by those who have made housing happen. Each story features a different Christian denomination, geographic area, and model: adaptive reuse, cohousing, cooperative housing, mixed-income, mixed-use, inclusionary zoning, second units, community land trusts, sweat equity, and more. Making Housing Happen is about vision and faith, relationships, and persistence. Its remarkable stories will inspire and challenge you to action. This new edition includes significant new material, especially in light of the ongoing mortgage crisis.
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The Role of Law and Regulation in Sustaining Financial Markets

Author: Niels Philipsen,Guangdong Xu

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317750403

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 368

View: 5776

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This book explores the role of law and regulation in sustaining financial markets in both developed and developing countries, particularly the European Union, United States and China. The central argument of this book is that law matters for the operation of financial markets, which, in turn, significantly influences the performance of firms, industries, and economies. The Role of Law and Regulation in Sustaining Financial Markets is divided into four parts. Part one addresses the connection between law, financial development, and economic growth. Part two deals with the role of financial regulation, which can be used to correct market failures, such as negative externalities, information asymmetries, and monopolies. Part three focuses on the design, functioning, and performance of different financial instruments. Part four examines the topic of Corporate Social Responsibility. This book contributes to the ‘law and finance’ literature by studying certain conventional issues, such as the relationship between finance and economic growth, and the effects of regulatory quality on financial development, from new perspectives and/or with new evidence, data, and cases. It also explores novel topics, such as project finance contracts, insurance and climate change, the shadow banking system, that have been overlooked in current literature. This book is meaningful not only for the EU and the US, which have suffered considerably from the financial crisis of 2008, but also for China, which is struggling to build a sound institutional infrastructure to govern its increasingly complicated financial system. By comparing the regulatory philosophies and practices of the EU, the US and China, this book will help the reader to understand the diverse nature of the global ‘law and finance’ nexus and avoid succumbing to the myth of "one size fits all".
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Finances in International Arbitration

Liber Amicorum Patricia Shaughnessy

Author: Sherlin Tung,Fabricio Fortese,Crina Baltag

Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.

ISBN: 9403506423

Category: Law

Page: 512

View: 1655

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Finances in International Arbitration Liber Amicorum Patricia Shaughnessy Edited by Sherlin Tung, Fabricio Fortese & Crina Baltag Costs of arbitration has always been a main concern in international arbitration. It is a topic most often discussed and analyzed. In spite of the recent developments in thirdparty funding regulations as well as other mechanisms made available to users of arbitration to reduce costs, the topic remains a key focus for users of arbitration. As the founder of the world’s leading international commercial arbitration Master’s programme, Dr Patricia Shaughnessy is a huge advocate of communicating recent and important developments in international arbitration and has written and spoken extensively on such matters. Over twenty-five renowned practitioners and academics worldwide, who have been influenced by Dr Shaughnessy, explore this much-debated topic on the occasion of her 65th birthday. The contributions in this dedication to Dr Shaughnessy’s legacy look at issues such as the following: costs arising out of Third-Party Funding; costs of court proceedings versus arbitration proceedings; fee arrangements with legal counsel; costs of commercial versus investment arbitration; how to deal with in-house costs in international arbitration; impact of tribunal secretaries in international arbitration; cost sanctions in international arbitration; damages in international arbitration. The analysis and views offered by leading scholars and practitioners on current day issues arising out of costs of arbitration will offer readers a unique perspective on various aspects of the finances involved in arbitration. This book will provide insightful thoughts and practical guidance for academics and practitioners in the field of international arbitration.
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Green Growth, Green Profit

How Green Transformation Boosts Business

Author: Roland Berger Strategy Consultants GmbH

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230303870

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 269

View: 4968

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Green business is here. It is a multi billion business with enormous growth potential, driven by megatrends such as demographic change, climate change and urbanization. It is driving the transformation of existing businesses and changing the way customers and suppliers act, forcing them to rethink their business strategy.
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