The Nature of Computation

Author: Cristopher Moore,Stephan Mertens

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191620807

Category: Science

Page: 1004

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Computational complexity is one of the most beautiful fields of modern mathematics, and it is increasingly relevant to other sciences ranging from physics to biology. But this beauty is often buried underneath layers of unnecessary formalism, and exciting recent results like interactive proofs, phase transitions, and quantum computing are usually considered too advanced for the typical student. This book bridges these gaps by explaining the deep ideas of theoretical computer science in a clear and enjoyable fashion, making them accessible to non-computer scientists and to computer scientists who finally want to appreciate their field from a new point of view. The authors start with a lucid and playful explanation of the P vs. NP problem, explaining why it is so fundamental, and so hard to resolve. They then lead the reader through the complexity of mazes and games; optimization in theory and practice; randomized algorithms, interactive proofs, and pseudorandomness; Markov chains and phase transitions; and the outer reaches of quantum computing. At every turn, they use a minimum of formalism, providing explanations that are both deep and accessible. The book is intended for graduate and undergraduate students, scientists from other areas who have long wanted to understand this subject, and experts who want to fall in love with this field all over again.
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The Nature of Computation: Logic, Algorithms, Applications

9th Conference on Computability in Europe, CiE 2013, Milan, Italy, July 1-5, 2013, Proceedings

Author: Paola Bonizzoni,Vasco Brattka,Benedikt Löwe

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642390536

Category: Computers

Page: 446

View: 9605

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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 9th Conference on Computability in Europe, CiE 2013, held in Milan, Italy, in July 2013. The 48 revised papers presented together with 1 invited lecture and 2 tutorials were carefully reviewed and selected with an acceptance rate of under 31,7%. Both the conference series and the association promote the development of computability-related science, ranging over mathematics, computer science and applications in various natural and engineering sciences such as physics and biology, and also including the promotion of related non-scientific fields such as philosophy and history of computing.
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Boolean Functions and Computation Models

Author: Peter Clote,Evangelos Kranakis

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3662049430

Category: Computers

Page: 602

View: 1686

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The two internationally renowned authors elucidate the structure of "fast" parallel computation. Its complexity is emphasised through a variety of techniques ranging from finite combinatorics, probability theory and finite group theory to finite model theory and proof theory. Non-uniform computation models are studied in the form of Boolean circuits; uniform ones in a variety of forms. Steps in the investigation of non-deterministic polynomial time are surveyed as is the complexity of various proof systems. Providing a survey of research in the field, the book will benefit advanced undergraduates and graduate students as well as researchers.
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Report of a Workshop on the Pedagogical Aspects of Computational Thinking

Author: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Computer Science and Telecommunications Board,Committee for the Workshops on Computational Thinking

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309214742

Category: Education

Page: 176

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In 2008, the Computer and Information Science and Engineering Directorate of the National Science Foundation asked the National Research Council (NRC) to conduct two workshops to explore the nature of computational thinking and its cognitive and educational implications. The first workshop focused on the scope and nature of computational thinking and on articulating what "computational thinking for everyone" might mean. A report of that workshop was released in January 2010. Drawing in part on the proceedings of that workshop, Report of a Workshop of Pedagogical Aspects of Computational Thinking, summarizes the second workshop, which was held February 4-5, 2010, in Washington, D.C., and focuses on pedagogical considerations for computational thinking. This workshop was structured to gather pedagogical inputs and insights from educators who have addressed computational thinking in their work with K-12 teachers and students. It illuminates different approaches to computational thinking and explores lessons learned and best practices. Individuals with a broad range of perspectives contributed to this report. Since the workshop was not intended to result in a consensus regarding the scope and nature of computational thinking, Report of a Workshop of Pedagogical Aspects of Computational Thinking does not contain findings or recommendations.
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The Nature of Meaningfulness

Representing, Powers, and Meaning

Author: Robert K. Shope

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9780847692873

Category: Philosophy

Page: 327

View: 4732

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Shope presents a unified perspective on meaningfulness, spanning such varied topics as the meaningfulness of linguistic expressions and conventional signs, Freud's conception of the meaningfulness of various mental phenomena and instances of behavior, a person's meaning to do something, meaning in the arts, and even life's having a meaning. Shope's perspective is based upon a 'constitutive' analysis of what it is for one item to represent another. Criticizing the views of philosophers who attempt to analyze such representing in causal terms, or merely in epistemological terms, he shows that a successful analysis needs to invoke both types of considerations.
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The Seasoned Schemer

Author: Daniel P. Friedman,Matthias Felleisen

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262561006

Category: Computers

Page: 210

View: 5999

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"drawings by Duane Bibby" foreword and afterword by Guy L. Steele Jr. "I learned more about LISP from this book than I have from any of the other LISP books I've read over the years. . . . While other books will tell you the mechanics of LISP, they can leave you largely uninformed on the style of problem-solving for which LISP is optimized. The Little LISPer teaches you how to think in the LISP language. . . an inexpensive, enjoyable introduction." -- Gregg Williams, Byte The notion that "thinking about computing is one of the most exciting things the human mind can do" sets both "The Little Schemer" (formerly known as "The Little LISPer" ) and its new companion volume, "The Seasoned Schemer," apart from other books on LISP. The authors' enthusiasm for their subject is compelling as they present abstract concepts in a humorous and easy-to-grasp fashion. Together, these books will open new doors of thought to anyone who wants to find out what computing is really about. "The Little Schemer" introduces computing as an extension of arithmetic and algebra -- things that everyone studies in grade school and high school. It introduces programs as recursive functions and briefly discusses the limits of what computers can do. The authors use the programming language Scheme, and interesting foods to illustrate these abstract ideas. "The Seasoned Schemer" informs the reader about additional dimensions of computing: functions as values, change of state, and exceptional cases. "The Little LISPer" has been a popular introduction to LISP for many years. It had appeared in French and Japanese. "The Little Schemer" and"The Seasoned Schemer" are worthy successors and will prove equally popular as textbooks for Scheme courses as well as companion texts for any complete introductory course in Computer Science. Download DrScheme - a graphical environment for developing Scheme programs
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Nature of Computation and Communication

International Conference, ICTCC 2014, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, November 24-25, 2014, Revised Selected Papers

Author: Phan Cong Vinh,Emil Vassev,Mike Hinchey

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319153927

Category: Computers

Page: 371

View: 8132

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This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the International Conference on Nature of Computation and Communication, ICTCC 2014, held in November 2014 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The 34 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from over 100 submissions. The papers cover formal methods for self-adaptive systems and discuss natural approaches and techniques for computation and communication.
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Storage and Computation in the Language Faculty

Author: S.G. Nooteboom,F. Weerman,F.N.K Wijnen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401003556

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 356

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Every now and again I receive a lengthy manuscript from a kind of theoretician known to psychiatrists as the "triangle people" - kooks who have independently discovered that everything in the universe comes in threes (solid , liquid, gas; protons, neutrons, electrons; the Father, the Son, the Holy Ghost ; Moe, Larry, Curly; and so on) . At the risk of sounding like a triangle person, let me explain why I think that the topic of this volume - - storage and computation in the language fac ulty - though having just two sides rather than three, is the key to understanding every interesting issue in the study of language. I will begin with the fundamental scientific problem in linguistics: explaining the vast expressive power of language. What is the trick behind our ability to filleach others' heads with so many different ideas? I submit there is not one trick but two, and they have been emphasized by different thinkers throughout the history of linguistics.
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Physical Computation and Cognitive Science

Author: Nir Fresco

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642413757

Category: Computers

Page: 229

View: 6967

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This book presents a study of digital computation in contemporary cognitive science. Digital computation is a highly ambiguous concept, as there is no common core definition for it in cognitive science. Since this concept plays a central role in cognitive theory, an adequate cognitive explanation requires an explicit account of digital computation. More specifically, it requires an account of how digital computation is implemented in physical systems. The main challenge is to deliver an account encompassing the multiple types of existing models of computation without ending up in pancomputationalism, that is, the view that every physical system is a digital computing system. This book shows that only two accounts, among the ones examined by the author, are adequate for explaining physical computation. One of them is the instructional information processing account, which is developed here for the first time. "This book provides a thorough and timely analysis of differing accounts of computation while advancing the important role that information plays in understanding computation. Fresco’s two-pronged approach will appeal to philosophically inclined computer scientists who want to better understand common theoretical claims in cognitive science.” Marty J. Wolf, Professor of Computer Science, Bemidji State University “An original and admirably clear discussion of central issues in the foundations of contemporary cognitive science.” Frances Egan, Professor of Philosophy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
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Computers and Cognition: Why Minds are not Machines

Author: J.H. Fetzer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401009732

Category: Computers

Page: 352

View: 3746

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An important collection of studies providing a fresh and original perspective on the nature of mind, including thoughtful and detailed arguments that explain why the prevailing paradigm - the computational conception of language and mentality - can no longer be sustained. An alternative approach is advanced, inspired by the work of Charles S. Peirce, according to which minds are sign-using (or `semiotic') systems, which in turn generates distinctions between different kinds of minds and overcomes problems that burden more familiar alternatives. Unlike conceptions of minds as machines, this novel approach has obvious evolutionary implications, where differences in semiotic abilities tend to distinguish the species. From this point of view, the scope and limits of computer and AI systems can be more adequately appraised and alternative accounts of consciousness and cognition can be more thoroughly criticised. Readership: Intermediate and advanced students of computer science, AI, cognitive science, and all students of the philosophy of the mind.
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