Author: Darlene L. Brooks HedstromPublish On: 2017
Darlene L. Brooks Hedstrom offers a new history of the field of Egyptian monastic archaeology.
Author: Darlene L. Brooks Hedstrom
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Category: Christian antiquities
Darlene L. Brooks Hedstrom offers a new history of the field of Egyptian monastic archaeology. It is the first study in English to trace how scholars identified a space or site as monastic within the Egyptian landscape and how such identifications impacted perceptions of monasticism. Brooks Hedstrom then provides an ecohistory of Egypt's tripartite landscape to offer a reorientation of the perception of the physical landscape. She analyzes late-antique documentary evidence, early monastic literature, and ecclesiastical history before turning to the extensive archaeological evidence of Christian monastic settlements. In doing so, she illustrates the stark differences between idealized monastic landscape and the actual monastic landscape that was urbanized through monastic constructions. Drawing upon critical theories in landscape studies, materiality and phenomenology, Brooks Hedstrom looks at domestic settlements of non-monastic and monastic settlements to posit what features makes monastic settlements unique, thus offering a new history of monasticism in Egypt.
It has been assumed that he preferred the monastic landscape on the west bank
to the town because of his ascetic lifestyle , but recently Ewa Wipszycka
suggested that this might be due to the double church hierarchy in Egypt : while
Author: Johan Leemans
Publisher: de Gruyter
The election of a new bishop was a defining moment for local Christian communities in Late Antiquity. This volume contributes to a reassessment of the phenomenon of episcopal elections from the broadest possible perspective, examining the varied combination of factors, personalities, rules and habits that played a role in the process. Building on the state of the art regarding late antique bishops and episcopal election, this interdisciplinary volume of collected studies by leading scholars offers fresh perspectives by focussing on specific case-studies and opening up new approaches.
This book offers a new model for envisioning the process of Christianization by looking at the construction of Christianity in the various social and creative worlds active in Egyptian culture during late antiquity.
Author: David Frankfurter
Publisher: Princeton University Press
How does a culture become Christian, especially one that is heir to such ancient traditions and spectacular monuments as Egypt? This book offers a new model for envisioning the process of Christianization by looking at the construction of Christianity in the various social and creative worlds active in Egyptian culture during late antiquity. As David Frankfurter shows, members of these different social and creative worlds came to create different forms of Christianity according to their specific interests, their traditional idioms, and their sense of what the religion could offer. Reintroducing the term “syncretism” for the inevitable and continuous process by which a religion is acculturated, the book addresses the various formations of Egyptian Christianity that developed in the domestic sphere, the worlds of holy men and saints’ shrines, the work of craftsmen and artisans, the culture of monastic scribes, and the reimagination of the landscape itself, through processions, architecture, and the potent remains of the past. Drawing on sermons and magical texts, saints’ lives and figurines, letters and amulets, and comparisons with Christianization elsewhere in the Roman empire and beyond, Christianizing Egypt reconceives religious change—from the “conversion” of hearts and minds to the selective incorporation and application of strategies for protection, authority, and efficacy, and for imagining the environment.
Author: Jennifer Taylor WesterfeldPublish On: 2019-11-01
Westerfeld examines the ways in which hieroglyphs are deployed in the works of Eusebius and Augustine, to debate biblical chronology; in Greek, Roman, and patristic sources, to claim that hieroglyphs encoded the mysteries of the Egyptian ...
Author: Jennifer Taylor Westerfeld
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
Throughout the pharaonic period, hieroglyphs served both practical and aesthetic purposes. Carved on stelae, statues, and temple walls, hieroglyphic inscriptions were one of the most prominent and distinctive features of ancient Egyptian visual culture. For both the literate minority of Egyptians and the vast illiterate majority of the population, hieroglyphs possessed a potent symbolic value that went beyond their capacity to render language visible. For nearly three thousand years, the hieroglyphic script remained closely bound to indigenous notions of religious and cultural identity. By the late antique period, literacy in hieroglyphs had been almost entirely lost. However, the monumental temples and tombs that marked the Egyptian landscape, together with the hieroglyphic inscriptions that adorned them, still stood as inescapable reminders that Christianity was a relatively new arrival to the ancient land of the pharaohs. In Egyptian Hieroglyphs in the Late Antique Imagination, Jennifer Westerfeld argues that depictions of hieroglyphic inscriptions in late antique Christian texts reflect the authors' attitudes toward Egypt's pharaonic past. Whether hieroglyphs were condemned as idolatrous images or valued as a source of mystical knowledge, control over the representation and interpretation of hieroglyphic texts constituted an important source of Christian authority. Westerfeld examines the ways in which hieroglyphs are deployed in the works of Eusebius and Augustine, to debate biblical chronology; in Greek, Roman, and patristic sources, to claim that hieroglyphs encoded the mysteries of the Egyptian priesthood; and in a polemical sermon by the fifth-century monastic leader Shenoute of Atripe, to argue that hieroglyphs should be destroyed lest they promote a return to idolatry. She argues that, in the absence of any genuine understanding of hieroglyphic writing, late antique Christian authors were able to take this powerful symbol of Egyptian identity and manipulate it to serve their particular theological and ideological ends.
THE CHANGING SACRED LANDSCAPE AT SYENE AND ELEPHANTINE IN LATE ANTIQUITY In the previous two chapters , we discussed the expansion of
Christianity in the First Cataract region on the basis of three developments , the ...
Author: Jitse H. F. Dijkstra
Publisher: Peeters Pub & Booksellers
The famous island of Philae, on Egypt's southern frontier, can be considered the last major temple site where Ancient Egyptian religion was practiced. According to the Byzantine historian Procopius, in 535-537 CE the Emperor Justinian ordered one of his generals to end this situation by destroying the island's temples. This account has usually been accepted as a sufficient explanation for the end of the Ancient Egyptian cults at Philae. Yet it is by no means unproblematic. This book shows that the event of 535-537 has to be seen in a larger context of religious transformation at Philae, which was more complex and gradual than Procopius describes it. Not only are the various Late Antique sources from and on Philae taken into account, for the first time the religious developments at Philae are also placed in a regional context by analyzing the sources from the other major towns in the region, Syene (Aswan) and Elephantine. "[T]he author situates his material into its wider historical context, and does this so effectively that what begins as a very specific study of a local problem expands to consider the transitions from paganism to Christianity in Egypt as a whole, and stands as one of the most important studies of this topic to date. This well written and deeply learned book is a tour de force of regional religious history that will also be essential reading for anyone interested in indigenous religion and early Christianity in this time of transition." -- Terry Wilfong, in Bulletin of the American Society of Papyrologists
Author: Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.)Publish On: 2012
In Textile Messages : Inscribed Fabrics from Roman to Abbasid Egypt , edited by
Cäcilia Fluck and Gisela Helmecke , pp . ... Transforming Monumental Landscapes in Late Antique Egypt : Monastic Dwellings in Legal Documents from
Author: Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.)
Publisher: Metropolitan Museum of Art New York
A groundbreaking investigation of the extraordinary art and material culture of the southern provinces of the Byzantine Empire during the momentous 7th to 9th century
Das Ziel der Sektion "Byzantinistik" im Rahmen des 32. Deutschen Orientalistentages war es, den Blick auf Verflechtungen zwischen dem oströmischen/byzantinischen Reich und seinen östlichen unmittelbareren oder ferneren Nachbarn zu werfen.
Author: Michael Grünbart
Publisher: LIT Verlag Münster
Das Ziel der Sektion "Byzantinistik" im Rahmen des 32. Deutschen Orientalistentages war es, den Blick auf Verflechtungen zwischen dem oströmischen/byzantinischen Reich und seinen östlichen unmittelbareren oder ferneren Nachbarn zu werfen. Byzanz wirkte in vielen Bereichen prägend, es übernahm aber auch Einflüsse (und Anregungen aus anderen Kulturen). Nicht nur Seide und Papier kamen aus dem Osten nach Byzanz, auch Stoffe der Literatur wanderten in die mittelgriechische/byzantinische Tradition ein. Im vorliegenden Band werden sowohl Forschungsansätze (Orientalismus, studies of the crusades) als auch soziologische Phänomene (Eunuchentum in Byzanz und China) sowie Überlieferungen im arabisch- und jüdisch-byzantinischen Kontext untersucht.
Monastic Reuse of Monumental Funerary Architecture in Late Antique Egypt
Elisabeth R.. O'Connell. respectively . 59 The monumental landscape of Sakkara
is commensurate with its status as one of the great royal necropoleis of the
Author: Elisabeth R.. O'Connell
The characterization of Egyptian monasticism as a desert movement arises primarily from the success of certain fourth century literary texts circulated outside of Egypt. Yet recent historical research has demonstrated a whole range of choices for ascetic dwelling in late antique Egypt, where men and women might practice their discipline in households in cities and towns, in abandoned villages, in the outer or inner desert. Archaeological (including papyrological, epigraphical and representational) sources evidence another widely practiced option, which has been surprisingly under-recognized by historians of early Christianity: the reuse of monumental funerary architecture for habitation. In this context, it is crucial to recognize that both Greek oros and Coptic toou can mean not only “mountain” and “desert,” but also “cemetery” and “monastery.” Thus, textual sources can easily mislead historians unaware of the archaeological context of a given “desert” monastery. Using a combination of archaeological sources together with literary texts transmitted through the manuscript tradition, I explore the practical and ideological motivations for monastic occupation of monumental funerary architecture in one geographically circumscribed region--Western Thebes. As the necropolis of ancient Egypt's great southern capital, Western Thebes provides an unparalleled corpus of archaeological material evidencing the establishment of churches, saints' shrines, monasteries and hermitages in adapted pharaonic tombs and mortuary temples. The contents of excavated Greek and Coptic documentary (e.g., legal texts, letters, magical/medical texts) and literary papyri (e.g., saints' Lives) allow multiple points of access to both the physical description and conceptual construction of the ancient Necropolis in Late Antiquity. Texts transmitted through the manuscript tradition record the Lives of saints said to have occupied the region and vividly depict ancient tombs (and their mummified inhabitants). My analysis demonstrates that perceptions might not always be fixed. In texts, the representation of the ancient Necropolis and its ascetic occupants might differ depending on subject, audience, occasion and circumstance. Nevertheless, even in the most “everyday” texts, authors recognized the Necropolis as a place apart from the mundane world; and, I argue, reusing the funerary monuments of the past conferred authority and status upon its Christian residents.
ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly.
Author: Stephen J. Davis
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Monasticism is a social and religious phenomenon which originated in antiquity and which still remains relevant in the twenty-first century. But what, exactly, is it, and how is it distinguished from other kinds of religious and non-religious practice? In this Very Short Introduction Stephen J. Davis discusses the history of monasticism, from our earliest evidence for it, and the different types which have developed from antiquity to the present day. He considers where monasteries are located, from East Asia to North America, and everywhere in between, and how their settings impact the everyday life and worldview of the monks and nuns who dwell there. Exploring how monastic communities are organized, he also looks at how aspects of life like food, sleep, sex, work, and prayer are regimented. Finally, Davis discusses what the stories about saints communicate about monastic identity and ethics, and considers what place there is for monasticism in the modern world. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Alexandria was one of the most important cities of the ancient world, with achievements in the arts, sciences, and religion.
Author: Niall Finneran
Publisher: Tempus Pub Limited
Alexandria was one of the most important cities of the ancient world, with achievements in the arts, sciences, and religion. Niall Finneran seeks to understand the wider picture, the longer period of evolution as a city, as both an urban concept and a literary and historical ideal. He does this by bringing together the disciplines of archaeology, anthropology, history, geography, oral history, art, and literature. As a result, Alexandria is seen as a unique example of African urbanism, an Egyptian city facing the wider Mediterranean world, which became an archetype for social, religious, and cultural cosmopolitanism.
THE DEVELOPMENT AND USAGE OF TERMS FOR » MONK « IN LATE ANTIQUE EGYPT The modern study of late ... from their first appearance in the
late third century AD , came to be a major force in the religious and social landscape .
Das Thomasevangelium gehört zu den umstrittensten Zeugnissen des frühen Christentums.
Author: Jörg Frey
Publisher: De Gruyter
Das Thomasevangelium, eine Schrift aus Codex II der Nag-Hammadi-Schriften, gehört zu dem umstrittensten Zeugnissen des frühen Christentums. Während einige Forscher darin eine Schrift sehen, die sehr alte Überlieferungen von Jesus bewahrt hat und deshalb näher an Jesus heranführen könnte als die neutestamentlichen Evangelien, wird es von anderen für einen Text gehalten, der bereits theologiegeschichtliche Entwicklungen des ersten Jahrhunderts voraussetzt und auf sie in eigener Weise reagiert. Die Beiträge des vorliegenden Sammelbandes sind vor dem Hintergrund dieser Diskussion entstanden. Sie gehen zurück auf eine Tagung, auf der Vertreter dieser Auslegungstraditionen ihre unterschiedlichen Interpretationsansätze und methodischen Zugangsweisen vorgestellt und miteinander ins Gespräch gebracht haben. Die Zusammenstellung der Beiträge gewährt deshalb einerseits einen Einblick in das facettenreiche Spektrum der gegenwärtigen Forschungsdiskussion zur Entstehung und zum theologischen Profil dieses Werkes. Andererseits zeigt sie neue Zugangsweisen auf, durch welche die Einordnung des Thomasevangeliums in das Spektrum der frühchristlichen Literatur- etwa im Blick auf sein Verhältnis zu anderen Nag-Hammadi-Schriften und zur Gnosis- auf eine neue Grundlage gestellt wird.
This new edition has been updated to include: additional documentary material, including newly published papyri an expanded chapter on the emperor Constantine greater attention to church controversies in the fourth and fifth centuries ...
Author: A. D. Lee
In Pagans and Christians in Late Antiquity, A.D. Lee documents the transformation of the religious landscape of the Roman world from one of enormous diversity of religious practices and creeds in the 3rd century to a situation where, by the 6th century, Christianity had become the dominant religious force. Using translated extracts from contemporary sources he examines the fortunes of pagans and Christians from the upheavals of the 3rd Century, through the dramatic events associated with the emperors Constantine, Julian and Theodosius in the 4th, to the increasingly tumultuous times of the 5th and 6th centuries, while also illustrating important themes in late antique Christianity such as the growth of monasticism, the emerging power of bishops and the development of pilgrimage, as well as the fate of other significant religious groups including Jews and Manichaeans. This new edition has been updated to include: additional documentary material, including newly published papyri an expanded chapter on the emperor Constantine greater attention to church controversies in the fourth and fifth centuries thoroughly updated references and further reading, taking into account developments in modern scholarship during the past fifteen years. Pagans and Christians in Late Antiquity is an invaluable resource for students of the late antique world, and of early Christianity and the early Church.
Between fasting and feasting : the literary and archaeobotanical evidence for monastic diet in Late Antique Egypt ' , Antiquity 75 , 758-768 . Harries , J. , 1992. '
Christianity and the city in late Roman Gaul in J. Rich ( ed . ) , The City in Late ...
Author: Dr. Sam Turner
From the rocky isolation of the Cornish coast to the rolling hills of Devon, from the marshy Somerset Levels to the chalk downlands of eastern Wiltshire and the gentler clay vales of north Wiltshire and Dorset, the countryside of south-west Britain is strikingly varied.
Author: Osbert Guy Stanhope CrawfordPublish On: 2001
As a result of the inclusion of archaeobotanical sampling at Kom el - Nana , it is
now possible to propose that monastic diet was varied and potentially quite
flavourful . This theory can be tested easily through further archaeobotanical
study at other Late Antique monasteries in Egypt . ... Egyptian agricultural landscape are so well attested , it seems plausible that this component of the
food crops found at ...
documentary evidence of monastic food crops have been located above the flood
plain , formin Late Antique Egypt . ... fact that the other sectors of the Egyptian
agribut clearly referred to any area set aside for at cultural landscape are so well
... body , or the material world , was emblematic of a “ neurosis , an index of
intense and widespread guilt - feelings ” present in the late antique world . ... the
very recent examinations by James Goehring who draws attention to the desert landscape as a literary archetype of monastic topography . ... Whether the Egyptian desert presented resembled what was found in actuality was of little
Author: David R. Blanks
Publisher: Brill's Series in Church Histo
These essays examine the ideas that were important to monks and the intersections between the monks and the secular world. The volume explores the ideas and realities that shaped the lives of monks over the medieval millennium.
The volume aims to address the dearth of archaeobotanical data available for late antique Egypt, complementing the largely historically based corpus of studies on the subject. To the extent that plant remains have been collected in the past excavations, data were rarely analysed systematically and in line with modern methodologies. Smith's study employs evidence from the Kom el-Nana enclosure at Amarna, where rich and well-preserved plant remains were found during excavations in 1989 and 1993/94. It provides evidence for agricultural practice and the economy of this late antique monastic site.