The Molecular Theory of Gases and Liquids

The Molecular Theory of Gases and Liquids

Appropriate for graduate students and working scientists alike, this book details advanced concepts without sacrificing depth of coverage or technical detail.

Author: Joseph O. Hirschfelder

Publisher: Wiley-Interscience

ISBN: UCAL:B3763905

Category: Science

Page: 1219

View: 414

An essential cross-disciplinary reference for molecular interactions Molecular Theory of Gases and Liquids offers a rigorous, comprehensive treatment of molecular characteristics and behaviors in the gaseous and fluid states. A unique cross-disciplinary approach provides useful insight for students of chemistry, chemical engineering, fluid dynamics, and a variety of related fields, with thorough derivations and in-depth explanations throughout. Appropriate for graduate students and working scientists alike, this book details advanced concepts without sacrificing depth of coverage or technical detail.
Categories: Science

A Kinetic Theory of Gases and Liquids

A Kinetic Theory of Gases and Liquids

Originally published in 1920. PREFACE: THE object of writing this book is to formulate a Kinetic Theory of certain properties of matter, which shall apply equally well to matter in any state.

Author: Richard D. Kleeman

Publisher: Crastre Press

ISBN: 9781443724166

Category: Science

Page: 300

View: 409

A KINETIC THEORY OF GASES AND LIQUIDS by RICHARD D. KLEEMAN. Originally published in 1920. PREFACE: THE object of writing this book is to formulate a Kinetic Theory of certain properties of matter, which shall apply equally well to matter in any state. The desirability of such a development need not be emphasized. The difficulty hitherto experienced in applying the results obtained in the case of the Kinetic Theory of Gases in the well-known form to liquids and intermediary states of matter has been pri marily due to the difficulty of properly interpretating molec ular interaction. In the case of gases this difficulty is in most part overcome by the introduction of the assumption that a molecule consists of a perfectly elastic sphere not surrounded by any field of force. But since such a state of affairs does not exist, the results obtained in the case of gases hold only in a general way, and the numerical constants involved are therefore of an indefinite nature, while in the case of dense gases and liquids this procedure does not lead to anything that is of use in explaining the facts. Instead of an atom, or molecule, consisting of a per fectly elastic sphere, it is more likely that each may be regarded simply as a center of forces of attraction and repulsion. If the exact nature of the field of force sur rounding atoms and molecules were known, it would be a definite mathematical problem to determine the resulting properties of matter. But our knowledge in this connection is at present not sufficiently extensive to permit a develop ment of the subject along these lines. But in whatever way the subject is developed fundamental progress will have been made only if molecular interaction is not, as is usually the case, represented by the collision of elastic spheres. It will be shown in this book that the subject may be developed to a considerable extent along sound mathe matical lines yielding important results without knowing the exact nature and immediate result of molecular interaction. Thus it will be found, for example, that the definition of the free path of a molecule in connection with viscosity, con duction of heat, diffusion, etc., may be given a form in each case not involving the exact nature of molecular interaction, which is mathematically quite definite, and which therefore applies equally well to the liquid and gaseous states. Since in the gaseous state each kind of path is proportional to the volume of the gas, its interest is then mainly associated with the characteristic factor of the volume which makes the product numerically equal to the path. A direct physical meaning may be given to this factor. In constructing a general Kinetic Theory the problem that presents itself first for investigation is the dependence of the velocity of translation of a molecule in a substance on its density and temperature. It is often assumed that this velocity is the same in the liquid as in the gaseous state at the same temperature. It can be shown, however, that this holds only for each molecule at the instant it passes through a point in the substance at which the forces of the surrounding molecules neutralize each other. The total average velocity corresponding to the whole path of a mole cule is usually much greater than the foregoing velocity in a liquid and dense gas on account of the effect of the molecular forces of attraction and repulsion...
Categories: Science

A Kinetic Theory of Gases and Liquids

A Kinetic Theory of Gases and Liquids

This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can usually download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1920 edition.

Author: Richard Daniel Kleeman

Publisher: Theclassics.Us

ISBN: 1230447873

Category: Kinetic theory of gases

Page: 68

View: 690

This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can usually download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1920 edition. Excerpt: ... of gas from which the molecule comes, and thus increases with decrease of pressure. The difference between Va and Vc therefore also increases with decrease of pressure, which increases the value of the ratio Tj/iji according to the foregoing equation. This corresponds to a decrease of?, and thus the effect of slipping becomes the greater the lower the pressure. The dynamical mechanism underlying the result that the viscosity of a gas is independent of its density may be GASEOUS VISCOSITY AND THE TEMPERATURE 127 illustrated by the following considerations. A molecule transfers a certain amount of momentum to the gas at the end of each transfer distance on migrating at right angles to the motion of the gas in the direction of the decrease of motion. If the concentration of the gas is halved the length of each transfer distance is doubled, while the momentum transferred at the end of each transfer distance is also doubled since the velocity gradient of the gas remains the same. Since a change in molecular concentration of a gas does not alter the molecular velocities, the momentum transferred per second by a molecule moving between two parallel plates of material one of which is at rest while the other moves parallel to itself is in the latter case double that in the former. But since the number of molecules per cubic cm. available for momentum transference in the former case is half the number in the latter, the total momentum transferred is in each case the same, or the viscosity of the gas has not been altered by altering its density. The quantity K, is a function of the temperature. This is shown by the calculated values of K, contained in Table X for a number of gases at different temperatures. These values are not corrected for...
Categories: Kinetic theory of gases

A Kinetic Theory of Gases and Liquids Classic Reprint

A Kinetic Theory of Gases and Liquids  Classic Reprint

About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com This book is a reproduction of an important historical work.

Author: Richard D. Kleeman

Publisher: Forgotten Books

ISBN: 0266485316

Category: Science

Page: 292

View: 109

Excerpt from A Kinetic Theory of Gases and Liquids In constructing a general Kinetic Theory the problem that presents itself first for investigation is the dependence of the velocity of translation of a molecule in a substance on its density and temperature. It is often assumed that this velocity is the same in the liquid as in the gaseous state at the same temperature. It can be shown, however, that this holds only for each molecule at the instant it passes through a point in the substance at which the forces of the surrounding molecules neutralize each other. The total average velocity corresponding to the whole path of a mole cule is usually much greater than the foregoing velocity in a liquid and dense gas on account of the effect of the molecular forces of attraction and repulsion. About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.
Categories: Science

Kinetic Theory of Gases

Kinetic Theory of Gases

Monograph and text supplement for first-year students of physical chemistry focuses chiefly on the molecular basis of important thermodynamic properties of gases, including pressure, temperature, and thermal energy. 1966 edition.

Author: Walter Kauzmann

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 9780486273433

Category: Science

Page: 272

View: 256

Monograph and text supplement for first-year students of physical chemistry focuses chiefly on the molecular basis of important thermodynamic properties of gases, including pressure, temperature, and thermal energy. 1966 edition.
Categories: Science

Osmosis The Molecular Theory

Osmosis  The Molecular Theory

Many other solutions have been proposed, no others fully explain the process and the many applications. This book introduces a new understanding of osmosis, solids, liquids, and vapor pressure and more.

Author: Larry Howlett

Publisher: eBookIt.com

ISBN: 9781628473759

Category: Science

Page: 94

View: 552

Finally: After 250 years, a solution to this intriguing and important phenomena of osmosis has been found. Many other solutions have been proposed, no others fully explain the process and the many applications. This book introduces a new understanding of osmosis, solids, liquids, and vapor pressure and more.... For those that already understand osmosis, we suggest that you begin with the last chapter. The first chapters may sound like heresy. For others, beginning with the first chapter will take you through the many levels of understanding that we followed to develop the Molecular Theory of Osmosis
Categories: Science

International Symposium New Directions for the Molecular Theory of Gases and Liquids Held at Madison Wisconsin on 18 20 June 1981 Program and Poster Session Abstracts

International Symposium  New Directions for the Molecular Theory of Gases and Liquids Held at Madison  Wisconsin on 18 20 June 1981  Program and Poster Session Abstracts

Presentations given at the 1981 symposium include the following: New Directions for the Molecular Theory of Gases and Liquids; The Use of Intense Laser Radiation to Probe and Alter Gas-Phase Chemical Dynamics; Multiphoton Ionization and ...

Author: WISCONSIN UNIV-MADISON THEORETICAL CHEMISTRY INST.

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:227678626

Category:

Page: 37

View: 345

Presentations given at the 1981 symposium include the following: New Directions for the Molecular Theory of Gases and Liquids; The Use of Intense Laser Radiation to Probe and Alter Gas-Phase Chemical Dynamics; Multiphoton Ionization and Fragmentation of Polyatomic Molecules; Large Molecules in Coherent Laser Fields: Selective Bond Dynamics and Dephasing; Triatomic Hydrogen and Similar Free Radicals; Rotational and Vibrational Transitions in Molecular Collisions; Anisotropy of Interactions of Octahedral Molecules with Atoms; The Role of Polarization in Reaction Dynamics; The Structure of van der Waals Molecules; Theory, Potential Surfaces and Vibrational Predissociation of van der Waals Molecules; Stochastic Solution of the Schroedinger Equation; Light Scattering in Electric Fields. Poster section abstracts are also included in this report.
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