The volume provides an overview of physical, biochemical and functional studies on minimal cells, with emphasis to experimental approaches. 15 International experts report on their innovative contributions to the construction of minimal ...
Author: Pier Luigi Luisi
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
In the last ten years there has been a considerable increase of interest on the notion of the minimal cell. With this term we usually mean a cell-like structure containing the minimal and sufficient number of components to be defined as alive, or at least capable of displaying some of the fundamental functions of a living cell. In fact, when we look at extant living cells we realize that thousands of molecules are organized spatially and functionally in order to realize what we call cellular life. This fact elicits the question whether such huge complexity is a necessary condition for life, or a simpler molecular system can also be defined as alive. Obviously, the concept of minimal cell encompasses entire families of cells, from totally synthetic cells, to semi-synthetic ones, to primitive cell models, to simple biomimetic cellular systems. Typically, in the experimental approach to the construction of minimal the main ingredient is the compartment. Lipid vesicles (liposomes) are used to host simple and complex molecular transformations, from single or multiple enzymic reactions, to polymerase chain reactions, to gene expression. Today this research is seen as part of the broader scenario of synthetic biology but it is rooted in origins of life studies, because the construction of a minimal cell might provide biophysical insights into the origins of primitive cells, and the emergence of life on earth. The volume provides an overview of physical, biochemical and functional studies on minimal cells, with emphasis to experimental approaches. 15 International experts report on their innovative contributions to the construction of minimal cells.
This book provides a comprehensive overview of the design, generation and characterization of minimal cell systems.
Author: Alvaro R. Lara
Publisher: Springer Nature
This book provides a comprehensive overview of the design, generation and characterization of minimal cell systems. Written by leading experts, it presents an in-depth analysis of the current issues and challenges in the field, including recent advances in the generation and characterization of reduced-genome strains generated from model organisms with relevance in biotechnology, and basic research such as Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium glutamicum and yeast. It also discusses methodologies, such as bottom-up and top-down genome minimization strategies, as well as novel analytical and experimental approaches to characterize and generate minimal cells. Lastly, it presents the latest research related to minimal cells of serveral microorganisms, e.g. Bacillus subtilis. The design of biological systems for biotechnological purposes employs strategies aimed at optimizing specific tasks. This approach is based on enhancing certain biological functions while reducing other capacities that are not required or that could be detrimental to the desired objective. A highly optimized cell factory would be expected to have only the capacity for reproduction and for performing the expected task. Such a hypothetical organism would be considered a minimal cell. At present, numerous research groups in academia and industry are exploring the theoretical and practical implications of constructing and using minimal cells and are providing valuable fundamental insights into the characteristics of minimal genomes, leading to an understanding of the essential gene set. In addition, research in this field is providing valuable information on the physiology of minimal cells and their utilization as a biological chassis to which useful biotechnological functions can be added.
Another question ( unrelated to the foregoing ) arises from a comparison of the
number of cell lethals in higher organisms with the number of genes necessary
for the minimal cell that Dr. Morowitz outlined . In some organisms experiments
Author: University of Maryland, College Park. Laboratory of Chemical EvolutionPublish On: 1990
THE MINIMAL CONTEMPORARY CELL A recent example of the minimal cell
model (Margulis, 1981), based on the now-classic analysis of biological self-
replicating systems (Morowitz, 1967), is shown in Figure 1. Minimally-required
Author: University of Maryland, College Park. Laboratory of Chemical Evolution
two working directions modern living cell top - down approach reducing
complexity minimal cell ( minimal life ) bottom - up approach Molecular evolution
Simple molecules Figure 3 : Schematic illustration showing the basic
Author: United States. National Bioethics Advisory CommissionPublish On: 1999
The standard for research risks in the former case is “ only to the minimum extent
necessary to meet such needs ” and in the latter case the standard is “ minimal . "
82 Knowing that there would be difficult cases of investigative fetal research ...
Author: United States. National Bioethics Advisory Commission
(2) The height Of the minimal Cell size will dictate the type of radiant energy
source that will Satisfy the Spectral distribution and uniformity definitions Of this
Section. (3) Radiant emergy Specification S. (i) Simulated Solar radiant energy ...
Category: Administrative law
Special edition of the Federal Register, containing a codification of documents of general applicability and future effect ... with ancillaries.
Conversely , the pattern of shedding radioactive cells shown in Figure 7B
establishes the DNA synthesis pattern shown in Figure 7A . The data they
collected ( Figure 8 ) resembles the ideal . In the case of the minimal glucose
culture , one can ...
Author: Frederick Carl Neidhardt
Publisher: Sinauer Associates, Incorporated
Textbook for upper-division and graduate students in the biological and biochemical sciences introduces the properties of bacteria that have led to their success as colonizers of this planet. The major theme is the analysis of the molecular devices that have led to the ability of bacteria to grow rapidly in a variety of environments, to adapt quickly to changes in their surroundings, to withstand starvation and exposure to toxic agents, and to compete successfully with other organisms. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR
These two volumes contain a selection of updated articles from the acclaimed Meyers Encyclopedia of Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine, the most authoritative resource in cell and molecular biology, combined with new articles by ...
Let us consider in more detail the influence of the choice of the unit cell on the
results of the calculations. A fragment of the layer consisting of N* minimal cells (
Fig. 1a) contains 2N” atoms; the number of broken bonds at the boundary of the ...
Requirement of further processing of unfolded antigens ( CM - HEL and HEL 47-
61 ) for PC - H4.1 T hybridoma cell ... Stimulation of PC - H4.1 T hybridoma cells
by the peptides with an alanine substitution at each position of the minimal ...
What is the minimal permissible size of the mesh ? Minimal cell size for KCFD
schemes is the free length path 1 . For the quasihydrodynamic system of
equations ( 4 . 10 ) - ( 4 . 12 ) the minimal value of r is Tc - the time between
Author: B. N. Chetversuhkin
Publisher: John Wiley & Son Limited
Volume 2 of this significant work presents previously unpublished cutting-edge lectures from the Third French-Russian Workshop on Fluid Dynamics held in Tashkent in April 1995. Reflecting the Workshop?s main themes, this book particularly focuses on: expermental investigation of unsteady separated flow, 3D configurations, laminar and transitional flows, turbulent shock, shock interaction in hypersonic flow, pressure pulsation in separated flows and jets and high enthalpy flows using wind tunnels. modeling of free surface flows, natural gas combustion, vortical gas flows and acoustic processes in complex channels, non-equilibrium hypersonic viscous flows, wall law for fluids and compressible fluid jets with vortex zones. theoretical predictions of aerodynamic performances with analyses of supersonic combustion, detonation, and sumulation of reactive mixing layer. solution methods for quasilinear parabolic equations and other calculations including incompressible Navier Stokes equations and parabolic equations by Monte-Carlo methods. numerical algorithms for the simulation of atmospheric gas dynamics, kinetic schemes for viscous gas dynamic flows and evolutionary algorithms for complex optimization problems. This book will be of particular interest to all engineers and research scientists in Fluid Dynamics, Aeronautics, Aerospace and Mechanical or Applied Mathematics.
In some species a single cell will do ; in others many cells are needed to account
for the observed pattern . ... In plants such as the ferns with a minimal
constructional centre consisting of a single cell this cell would be totipotent in that
all kinds ...
Thus ( 3 ) represents the cells and considering each cell separately simplifies the
serial cell model for both fan - in and fan - out . reliability calculation significantly .
An approximate methMinimal Cut Set Reliability Model od has also been ...
The histogram of the mean curvature suggests that this surface can be minimal.
However, this is the only structure that cannot be minimized with respect to the
cell length. For all structures except this one we were able to find the minimal cell
Author: European Society of Animal Cell Technology. General MeetingPublish On: 1989
Cell number was measured in a Burker counting chamber , and viability was
determined with the Trypan Blue dye ... Compared tothe minimal additives ( basal
medium and MATISE ) both the growth rate and the maximum cell density
Author: European Society of Animal Cell Technology. General Meeting
Category: Technology & Engineering
Proceedings of the ESACT general meeting review the latest developments in animal cell technology of the production of novel molecules. General topics covered include: animal cell lines, regulatory issues in animal cell culture, new techniques, differentation in culture, physiology, developments in serum-free media, production systems, downstream processing, and advances in product generation. No index. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR
Author: Ohio State University. Engineering Experiment StationPublish On:
A discussion of cell design variables should begin with certain definitions .
Whereas SESR studies defined so - called “ minimal " surface cells in Bulletin
203 , this work explores the full range of proportions available to any given cell .
Author: Ohio State University. Engineering Experiment Station
The minimal cell dose producing at least 1 lung colony in 50 % of mice receiving
intravenous injections ( CDso ) was determined by assaying the colonizing
activities of graded numbers of cells ( 8 X 101 – 1 . 25 X 106 ) simultaneously .
DISCUSSION IN SESSION ON STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF TUMOUR CELLS ( I ) A . J . DALTON : I have both ... and I think , as you push the minimal
deviation hepatoma back further and further , you may come to what FURTH calls
... An ideal system for protein production would make use of the ' minimal cell '
concept described in the introduction to this ... Our ideal reactor would use
immobilized or entrapped cells under conditions of reduced growth , where the