The Minimal Cell

The Minimal Cell

The volume provides an overview of physical, biochemical and functional studies on minimal cells, with emphasis to experimental approaches. 15 International experts report on their innovative contributions to the construction of minimal ...

Author: Pier Luigi Luisi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9048199441

Category: Medical

Page: 298

View: 492

In the last ten years there has been a considerable increase of interest on the notion of the minimal cell. With this term we usually mean a cell-like structure containing the minimal and sufficient number of components to be defined as alive, or at least capable of displaying some of the fundamental functions of a living cell. In fact, when we look at extant living cells we realize that thousands of molecules are organized spatially and functionally in order to realize what we call cellular life. This fact elicits the question whether such huge complexity is a necessary condition for life, or a simpler molecular system can also be defined as alive. Obviously, the concept of minimal cell encompasses entire families of cells, from totally synthetic cells, to semi-synthetic ones, to primitive cell models, to simple biomimetic cellular systems. Typically, in the experimental approach to the construction of minimal the main ingredient is the compartment. Lipid vesicles (liposomes) are used to host simple and complex molecular transformations, from single or multiple enzymic reactions, to polymerase chain reactions, to gene expression. Today this research is seen as part of the broader scenario of synthetic biology but it is rooted in origins of life studies, because the construction of a minimal cell might provide biophysical insights into the origins of primitive cells, and the emergence of life on earth. The volume provides an overview of physical, biochemical and functional studies on minimal cells, with emphasis to experimental approaches. 15 International experts report on their innovative contributions to the construction of minimal cells.
Categories: Medical

Minimal Cells Design Construction Biotechnological Applications

Minimal Cells  Design  Construction  Biotechnological Applications

This book provides a comprehensive overview of the design, generation and characterization of minimal cell systems.

Author: Alvaro R. Lara

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030318970

Category: Science

Page: 230

View: 586

This book provides a comprehensive overview of the design, generation and characterization of minimal cell systems. Written by leading experts, it presents an in-depth analysis of the current issues and challenges in the field, including recent advances in the generation and characterization of reduced-genome strains generated from model organisms with relevance in biotechnology, and basic research such as Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium glutamicum and yeast. It also discusses methodologies, such as bottom-up and top-down genome minimization strategies, as well as novel analytical and experimental approaches to characterize and generate minimal cells. Lastly, it presents the latest research related to minimal cells of serveral microorganisms, e.g. Bacillus subtilis. The design of biological systems for biotechnological purposes employs strategies aimed at optimizing specific tasks. This approach is based on enhancing certain biological functions while reducing other capacities that are not required or that could be detrimental to the desired objective. A highly optimized cell factory would be expected to have only the capacity for reproduction and for performing the expected task. Such a hypothetical organism would be considered a minimal cell. At present, numerous research groups in academia and industry are exploring the theoretical and practical implications of constructing and using minimal cells and are providing valuable fundamental insights into the characteristics of minimal genomes, leading to an understanding of the essential gene set. In addition, research in this field is providing valuable information on the physiology of minimal cells and their utilization as a biological chassis to which useful biotechnological functions can be added.
Categories: Science

Proceedings

Proceedings

Another question ( unrelated to the foregoing ) arises from a comparison of the
number of cell lethals in higher organisms with the number of genes necessary
for the minimal cell that Dr. Morowitz outlined . In some organisms experiments
are ...

Author: George J. Jacobs

Publisher:

ISBN: UIUC:30112009907004

Category: Biology

Page: 188

View: 226

Categories: Biology

Prebiological Self Organization of Matter

Prebiological Self Organization of Matter

THE MINIMAL CONTEMPORARY CELL A recent example of the minimal cell
model (Margulis, 1981), based on the now-classic analysis of biological self-
replicating systems (Morowitz, 1967), is shown in Figure 1. Minimally-required
cell ...

Author: University of Maryland, College Park. Laboratory of Chemical Evolution

Publisher: A Deepak Pub

ISBN: UCSD:31822005133905

Category: Science

Page: 305

View: 645

Categories: Science

The Bridge Between the Big Bang and Biology

The Bridge Between the Big Bang and Biology

two working directions modern living cell top - down approach reducing
complexity minimal cell ( minimal life ) bottom - up approach Molecular evolution
Simple molecules Figure 3 : Schematic illustration showing the basic
experimental ...

Author: Franco Giovannelli

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015054420420

Category: Big bang theory

Page: 440

View: 473

Categories: Big bang theory

Ethical Issues in Human Stem Cell Research Commissioned papers

Ethical Issues in Human Stem Cell Research  Commissioned papers

The standard for research risks in the former case is “ only to the minimum extent
necessary to meet such needs ” and in the latter case the standard is “ minimal . "
82 Knowing that there would be difficult cases of investigative fetal research ...

Author: United States. National Bioethics Advisory Commission

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015043264772

Category: Bioethics

Page:

View: 992

Categories: Bioethics

Code of Federal Regulations

Code of Federal Regulations

(2) The height Of the minimal Cell size will dictate the type of radiant energy
source that will Satisfy the Spectral distribution and uniformity definitions Of this
Section. (3) Radiant emergy Specification S. (i) Simulated Solar radiant energy ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: OSU:32437123554400

Category: Administrative law

Page:

View: 799

Special edition of the Federal Register, containing a codification of documents of general applicability and future effect ... with ancillaries.
Categories: Administrative law

Physiology of the Bacterial Cell

Physiology of the Bacterial Cell

Conversely , the pattern of shedding radioactive cells shown in Figure 7B
establishes the DNA synthesis pattern shown in Figure 7A . The data they
collected ( Figure 8 ) resembles the ideal . In the case of the minimal glucose
culture , one can ...

Author: Frederick Carl Neidhardt

Publisher: Sinauer Associates, Incorporated

ISBN: UOM:39015032694443

Category: Science

Page: 506

View: 950

Textbook for upper-division and graduate students in the biological and biochemical sciences introduces the properties of bacteria that have led to their success as colonizers of this planet. The major theme is the analysis of the molecular devices that have led to the ability of bacteria to grow rapidly in a variety of environments, to adapt quickly to changes in their surroundings, to withstand starvation and exposure to toxic agents, and to compete successfully with other organisms. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR
Categories: Science

Synthetic Biology

Synthetic Biology

These two volumes contain a selection of updated articles from the acclaimed Meyers Encyclopedia of Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine, the most authoritative resource in cell and molecular biology, combined with new articles by ...

Author: Robert Allen Meyers

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9783527334827

Category:

Page:

View: 892

Categories:

Soviet Physics Crystallography

Soviet Physics  Crystallography

Let us consider in more detail the influence of the choice of the unit cell on the
results of the calculations. A fragment of the layer consisting of N* minimal cells (
Fig. 1a) contains 2N” atoms; the number of broken bonds at the boundary of the ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: UCSD:31822015361447

Category: Crystallography

Page:

View: 309

Categories: Crystallography

Influence of Hapten Conjugation on Carrier Epitope Recognition by T Cells in a Low responder Mouse Strain for the Carrier Molecule

Influence of Hapten Conjugation on Carrier Epitope Recognition by T Cells in a Low responder Mouse Strain for the Carrier Molecule

Requirement of further processing of unfolded antigens ( CM - HEL and HEL 47-
61 ) for PC - H4.1 T hybridoma cell ... Stimulation of PC - H4.1 T hybridoma cells
by the peptides with an alanine substitution at each position of the minimal ...

Author: Yong-Suk Jang

Publisher:

ISBN: NWU:35558002874457

Category:

Page: 186

View: 634

Categories:

Experimentation Modeling and Computation in Flow Turbulence and Combustion

Experimentation Modeling and Computation in Flow  Turbulence and Combustion

What is the minimal permissible size of the mesh ? Minimal cell size for KCFD
schemes is the free length path 1 . For the quasihydrodynamic system of
equations ( 4 . 10 ) - ( 4 . 12 ) the minimal value of r is Tc - the time between
collisions .

Author: B. N. Chetversuhkin

Publisher: John Wiley & Son Limited

ISBN: STANFORD:36105022852599

Category: Science

Page: 280

View: 391

Volume 2 of this significant work presents previously unpublished cutting-edge lectures from the Third French-Russian Workshop on Fluid Dynamics held in Tashkent in April 1995. Reflecting the Workshop?s main themes, this book particularly focuses on: expermental investigation of unsteady separated flow, 3D configurations, laminar and transitional flows, turbulent shock, shock interaction in hypersonic flow, pressure pulsation in separated flows and jets and high enthalpy flows using wind tunnels. modeling of free surface flows, natural gas combustion, vortical gas flows and acoustic processes in complex channels, non-equilibrium hypersonic viscous flows, wall law for fluids and compressible fluid jets with vortex zones. theoretical predictions of aerodynamic performances with analyses of supersonic combustion, detonation, and sumulation of reactive mixing layer. solution methods for quasilinear parabolic equations and other calculations including incompressible Navier Stokes equations and parabolic equations by Monte-Carlo methods. numerical algorithms for the simulation of atmospheric gas dynamics, kinetic schemes for viscous gas dynamic flows and evolutionary algorithms for complex optimization problems. This book will be of particular interest to all engineers and research scientists in Fluid Dynamics, Aeronautics, Aerospace and Mechanical or Applied Mathematics.
Categories: Science

Science progress

Science progress

In some species a single cell will do ; in others many cells are needed to account
for the observed pattern . ... In plants such as the ferns with a minimal
constructional centre consisting of a single cell this cell would be totipotent in that
all kinds ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: UCAL:B3835028

Category:

Page:

View: 948

Categories:

Distributed Computing Network Reliability

Distributed Computing Network Reliability

Thus ( 3 ) represents the cells and considering each cell separately simplifies the
serial cell model for both fan - in and fan - out . reliability calculation significantly .
An approximate methMinimal Cut Set Reliability Model od has also been ...

Author: Suresh Rai

Publisher: IEEE Computer Society

ISBN: UOM:39015017992093

Category: Computers

Page: 347

View: 224

Categories: Computers

Physical Review

Physical Review

The histogram of the mean curvature suggests that this surface can be minimal.
However, this is the only structure that cannot be minimized with respect to the
cell length. For all structures except this one we were able to find the minimal cell
 ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39076001725071

Category: Fluids

Page:

View: 393

Categories: Fluids

Advances in Animal Cell Biology and Technology for Bioprocesses

Advances in Animal Cell Biology and Technology for Bioprocesses

Cell number was measured in a Burker counting chamber , and viability was
determined with the Trypan Blue dye ... Compared tothe minimal additives ( basal
medium and MATISE ) both the growth rate and the maximum cell density
reached ...

Author: European Society of Animal Cell Technology. General Meeting

Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann

ISBN: UCAL:B5136504

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 585

View: 824

Proceedings of the ESACT general meeting review the latest developments in animal cell technology of the production of novel molecules. General topics covered include: animal cell lines, regulatory issues in animal cell culture, new techniques, differentation in culture, physiology, developments in serum-free media, production systems, downstream processing, and advances in product generation. No index. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Engineering Experiment Station Bulletin

Engineering Experiment Station Bulletin

A discussion of cell design variables should begin with certain definitions .
Whereas SESR studies defined so - called “ minimal " surface cells in Bulletin
203 , this work explores the full range of proportions available to any given cell .

Author: Ohio State University. Engineering Experiment Station

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015018422116

Category:

Page:

View: 600

Categories:

Invasion Metastasis

Invasion   Metastasis

The minimal cell dose producing at least 1 lung colony in 50 % of mice receiving
intravenous injections ( CDso ) was determined by assaying the colonizing
activities of graded numbers of cells ( 8 X 101 – 1 . 25 X 106 ) simultaneously .

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: UCAL:B4357032

Category: Cancer

Page:

View: 444

Categories: Cancer

Bioprocess Engineering

Bioprocess Engineering

... An ideal system for protein production would make use of the ' minimal cell '
concept described in the introduction to this ... Our ideal reactor would use
immobilized or entrapped cells under conditions of reduced growth , where the
cellular ...

Author: T. K. Ghose

Publisher: Chapman & Hall

ISBN: UOM:39015016940721

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 389

View: 652

Categories: Technology & Engineering