The Machine Question

Critical Perspectives on AI, Robots, and Ethics

Author: David J. Gunkel

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262304511

Category: Philosophy

Page: 270

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One of the enduring concerns of moral philosophy is deciding who or what is deserving of ethical consideration. Much recent attention has been devoted to the "animal question" -- consideration of the moral status of nonhuman animals. In this book, David Gunkel takes up the "machine question": whether and to what extent intelligent and autonomous machines of our own making can be considered to have legitimate moral responsibilities and any legitimate claim to moral consideration. The machine question poses a fundamental challenge to moral thinking, questioning the traditional philosophical conceptualization of technology as a tool or instrument to be used by human agents. Gunkel begins by addressing the question of machine moral agency: whether a machine might be considered a legitimate moral agent that could be held responsible for decisions and actions. He then approaches the machine question from the other side, considering whether a machine might be a moral patient due legitimate moral consideration. Finally, Gunkel considers some recent innovations in moral philosophy and critical theory that complicate the machine question, deconstructing the binary agent--patient opposition itself. Technological advances may prompt us to wonder if the science fiction of computers and robots whose actions affect their human companions (think of HAL in 2001: A Space Odyssey) could become science fact. Gunkel's argument promises to influence future considerations of ethics, ourselves, and the other entities who inhabit this world.
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Machine Medical Ethics

Author: Simon Peter van Rysewyk,Matthijs Pontier

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331908108X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 369

View: 6859

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The essays in this book, written by researchers from both humanities and science, describe various theoretical and experimental approaches to adding medical ethics to a machine, what design features are necessary in order to achieve this, philosophical and practical questions concerning justice, rights, decision-making and responsibility in medical contexts, and accurately modeling essential physician-machine-patient relationships. In medical settings, machines are in close proximity with human beings: with patients who are in vulnerable states of health, who have disabilities of various kinds, with the very young or very old and with medical professionals. Machines in these contexts are undertaking important medical tasks that require emotional sensitivity, knowledge of medical codes, human dignity and privacy. As machine technology advances, ethical concerns become more urgent: should medical machines be programmed to follow a code of medical ethics? What theory or theories should constrain medical machine conduct? What design features are required? Should machines share responsibility with humans for the ethical consequences of medical actions? How ought clinical relationships involving machines to be modeled? Is a capacity for empathy and emotion detection necessary? What about consciousness? This collection is the first book that addresses these 21st-century concerns.
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Robot Rights

Author: David J. Gunkel

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262038625

Category: Philosophy

Page: 256

View: 3615

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A provocative attempt to think about what was previously considered unthinkable: a serious philosophical case for the rights of robots. We are in the midst of a robot invasion, as devices of different configurations and capabilities slowly but surely come to take up increasingly important positions in everyday social reality—self-driving vehicles, recommendation algorithms, machine learning decision making systems, and social robots of various forms and functions. Although considerable attention has already been devoted to the subject of robots and responsibility, the question concerning the social status of these artifacts has been largely overlooked. In this book, David Gunkel offers a provocative attempt to think about what has been previously regarded as unthinkable: whether and to what extent robots and other technological artifacts of our own making can and should have any claim to moral and legal standing. In his analysis, Gunkel invokes the philosophical distinction (developed by David Hume) between “is” and “ought” in order to evaluate and analyze the different arguments regarding the question of robot rights. In the course of his examination, Gunkel finds that none of the existing positions or proposals hold up under scrutiny. In response to this, he then offers an innovative alternative proposal that effectively flips the script on the is/ought problem by introducing another, altogether different way to conceptualize the social situation of robots and the opportunities and challenges they present to existing moral and legal systems.
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Roboethics

A Navigating Overview

Author: Spyros G. Tzafestas

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319217143

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 204

View: 3157

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This volume explores the ethical questions that arise in the development, creation and use of robots that are capable of semiautonomous or autonomous decision making and human-like action. It examines how ethical and moral theories can and must be applied to address the complex and critical issues of the application of these intelligent robots in society. Coverage first presents fundamental concepts and provides a general overview of ethics, artificial intelligence and robotics. Next, the book studies all principal ethical applications of robots, namely medical, assistive, socialized and war roboethics. It looks at such issues as robotic surgery, children-robot and elderly-robot therapeutical/social interactions and the use of robots, especially autonomous lethal ones, in warfare. In addition, a chapter also considers Japanese roboethics as well as key intercultural and robot legislation issues. Overall, readers are provided with a thorough investigation into the moral responsibility (if any) of autonomous robots when doing harm. This volume will serve as an ideal educational source in engineering and robotics courses as well as an introductory reference for researchers in the field.
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Sociable Robots and the Future of Social Relations

Proceedings of Robo-Philosophy 2014

Author: J. Seibt,M. Nørskov,R. Hakli

Publisher: IOS Press

ISBN: 1614994803

Category: Computers

Page: 380

View: 8969

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The robotics industry is growing rapidly, and to a large extent the development of this market sector is due to the area of social robotics – the production of robots that are designed to enter the space of human social interaction, both physically and semantically. Since social robots present a new type of social agent, they have been aptly classified as a disruptive technology, i.e. the sort of technology which affects the core of our current social practices and might lead to profound cultural and social change. Due to its disruptive and innovative potential, social robotics raises not only questions about utility, ethics, and legal aspects, but calls for “robo-philosophy” – the comprehensive philosophical reflection from the perspectives of all philosophical disciplines. This book presents the proceedings of the first conference in this new area, “Robo-Philosophy 2014 – Sociable Robots and the Future of Social Relations, held in Aarhus, Denmark, in August 2014. The short papers and abstracts collected here address questions of social robotics from the perspectives of philosophy of mind, social ontology, ethics, meta-ethics, political philosophy, aesthetics, intercultural philosophy, and metaphilosophy. Social robotics is still in its early stages, but it is precisely now that we need to reflect its possible cultural repercussions. This book is accessible to a wide readership and will be of interest to everyone involved in the development and use of social robotics applications, from social roboticists to policy makers.
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The International Encyclopedia of Communication Theory and Philosophy, 4 Volume Set

Author: Robert T. Craig

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118290739

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 2368

View: 3307

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The International Encyclopedia of Communication Theory and Philosophy is the definitive single-source reference work on the subject, with state-of-the-art and in-depth scholarly reflection on key issues from leading international experts. It is available both online and in print. A state-of-the-art and in-depth scholarly reflection on the key issues raised by communication, covering the history, systematics, and practical potential of communication theory Articles by leading experts offer an unprecedented level of accuracy and balance Provides comprehensive, clear entries which are both cross-national and cross-disciplinary in nature The Encyclopedia presents a truly international perspective with authors and positions representing not just Europe and North America, but also Latin America and Asia Published both online and in print Part of The Wiley Blackwell-ICA International Encyclopedias of Communication series, published in conjunction with the International Communication Association
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Pflegeroboter

Author: Oliver Bendel

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3658226986

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 267

View: 961

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Dieses Open-Access-Buch bündelt technische, wirtschaftliche, medizinische und ethische Reflexionen über Pflegeroboter. Pflegeroboter, im Moment noch mehrheitlich Prototypen, unterstützen oder ersetzen menschliche Pflegekräfte bzw. Betreuer. Sie bringen Kranken und Alten die benötigten Medikamente und Nahrungsmittel, helfen beim Hinlegen und Aufrichten oder alarmieren den Notdienst. Vorteile von Pflegerobotern sind durchgehende Verwendbarkeit und gleichbleibende Qualität der Dienstleistung. Nachteile sind Kostenintensität (bei möglicher Amortisation) und Komplexität der Anforderungen. Unter der wissenschaftlichen Leitung von Prof. Dr. Oliver Bendel trafen sich im September 2017 Vertreter verschiedener wissenschaftlicher Disziplinen im Rahmen eines Ladenburger Diskurses der Daimler und Benz Stiftung, um über den aktuellen und künftigen Einsatz von Pflegerobotern zu sprechen und Forschungspotenziale zu identifizieren. Die Autoren gehen in ihren Beiträgen auch Fragen aus Wirtschafts-, Medizin- und Informationsethik nach: Wer trägt die Verantwortung bei einer fehlerhaften Betreuung und Versorgung durch die Maschine? Inwieweit kann diese die persönliche und informationelle Autonomie des Patienten unterstützen oder gefährden? Ist der Roboter eine Entlastung oder ein Konkurrent für Pflegekräfte? Antworten müssen von Wissenschaft und Gesellschaft gefunden werden.
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Of Remixology

Ethics and Aesthetics After Remix

Author: David J. Gunkel

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262033933

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 240

View: 8125

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A new theory of moral and aesthetic value for the age of remix, going beyond the usual debates over originality and appropriation.
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How to Survive a Robot Invasion

Rights, Responsibility, and Ai

Author: David J. Gunkel

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781138370715

Category:

Page: 84

View: 4954

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In this short introduction, David Gunkel examines the shifting world of artificial intelligence, mapping it on to everyday 21st century life and probing the consequences of this ever-growing industry and movement. The book investigates the significance and consequences of the robot invasion in an effort to map the increasingly complicated social terrain of the 21st century. Whether we recognize it as such or not, we are in the midst of a robot invasion. What matters most in the face of this machine incursion is not resistance, but how we decide to make sense of and respond to the social opportunities and challenges that autonomous machines make available. How to Survive a Robot Invasion is a fascinating and accessible volume for students and researchers of new media, philosophy of technology, and their many related fields. It aims both to assist readers' efforts to understand a changing world, and to provide readers with the critical insight necessary for grappling with our science fiction-like future.
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Gaming the System

Deconstructing Video Games, Games Studies, and Virtual Worlds

Author: David J. Gunkel

Publisher: Indiana University Press

ISBN: 0253035732

Category: Games & Activities

Page: 264

View: 7033

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Gaming the System takes philosophical traditions out of the ivory tower and into the virtual worlds of video games. In this book, author David J. Gunkel explores how philosophical traditions—put forth by noted thinkers such as Plato, Descartes, Kant, Heidegger, and Žižek—can help us explore and conceptualize recent developments in video games, game studies, and virtual worlds. Furthermore, Gunkel interprets computer games as doing philosophy, arguing that the game world is a medium that provides opportunities to model and explore fundamental questions about the nature of reality, personal identity, social organization, and moral conduct. By using games to investigate and innovate in the area of philosophical thinking, Gunkel shows how areas such as game governance and manufacturers’ terms of service agreements actually grapple with the social contract and produce new postmodern forms of social organization that challenge existing modernist notions of politics and the nation state. In this critically engaging study, Gunkel considers virtual worlds and video games as more than just "fun and games," presenting them as sites for new and original thinking about some of the deepest questions concerning the human experience.
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