The problem of defence in the nuclear age is of a different order from anything we
have known in the past. Formerly it was always possible, at least in theory, for a
nation to defend itself. If its own resources were insufficient, the balance could ...
Classic work once again available. Offers step-by-step guidelines for identifying and analyzing arguments. It outlines a theory of good argument to use for purposes of evaluating and constructing arguments. It contains guidelines for constructing arguments and for preparing and writing essays or briefs. Special methods for interpreting and assessing longer arguments are provided. It gives guidelines to help filter out the more reliable information from newspapers and television news. Offers an array of devices to deal with the tricks and deceits of so much of today's advertising. Helps students improve their ability to recognize, interpret, and evaluate arguments and to formulate clear, well-organized arguments themselves. Secondary and college students, debate coaches, classroom instructors, community active people.
This book develops the formal and philosophical foundations of the theory, at a level accessible to a graduate student with some familiarity with mathematical notation.
Author: Jon Williamson
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Objective Bayesianism is a methodological theory that is currently applied in statistics, philosophy, artificial intelligence, physics and other sciences. This book develops the formal and philosophical foundations of the theory, at a level accessible to a graduate student with some familiarity with mathematical notation.
The transformation will affect not only the military structure but also defence industry, research agencies as well as the work of the Ministry of Defence as a whole.
The focus on a network based defence (NBD) is one of the most fundamental changes in the Swedish armed forces since the days of Carolus XII in the early eighteenth century. The transformation will affect not only the military structure but also defence industry, research agencies as well as the work of the Ministry of Defence as a whole. With a network centric approach it will in future be possible to act in new environments and places with new partners and with new behaviours. The reasoning supporting NBD is built on flexibility and increased degrees of freedom. One goal is to use current and future resources and technologies in new ways and combinations in order to gain greater operational effects and advantages at a lower total cost than before. The ability to innovate will be the key success factor in the introduction of network based defence. As there will always be scarce resources available for defence, it is more important than ever to optimise the outcomes and effects. The prerequisite for the new logic is multi finality, i.e. there are several opportunities and possible paths to achieve goals, which is also forms the basis for flexibility. A fruitful way to study the change of military structure is to use a theoretical framework based on innovation and multi finality. The questions to be addressed are: what is really new with NBD in relation to earlier concepts and what would a method built on network centric logic look like? This paper first discusses the relationship between innovation and the network centric logic and then goes on to discuss an analytical approach built on combinatorial methods with value chains which is used to explain the idea of multi finality. In conclusion, different aspects of the combinatorial method are discussed. The overall purpose of using such an approach is to transfer knowledge and experience from the research arena into the military arena in order to exploit the full potential of future defence systems.
2015 Reprint of 1962 Edition. Full facsimile of the original edition. Not reproduced with Optical Recognition Software. "The Metalogicon", completed in 1159, is recognized as a milestone in the history of educational theory.
Author: John of Salisbury
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
2015 Reprint of 1962 Edition. Full facsimile of the original edition. Not reproduced with Optical Recognition Software. "The Metalogicon," completed in 1159, is recognized as a milestone in the history of educational theory. Undertaken to defend the thorough study of the Trivium against attack at the hands of those who wished less attention accorded to grammar, logic, and rhetoric, it is a treasure of information about twelfth-century pedagogy as well as an enduring classic in its own right. John of Salisbury, a leading medieval scholar, summarizes the essential lineaments of existing twelfth-century education and affords glimpses of contemporaries such as Peter Abelard, Gilbert de la Porree, and Theirry of Chartres. The present translation is the first to appear in any modern language.
Strategy and Defence Planning: Meeting the Challenge of Uncertainty explores and examines why and how security communities prepare purposefully for their future defence.
Author: Colin S. Gray
Publisher: Oxford University Press (UK)
Category: Political Science
Strategy and Defence Planning: Meeting the Challenge of Uncertainty explores and examines why and how security communities prepare purposefully for their future defence. The author explains that defence planning is the product of interplay among political process, historical experience, and the logic of strategy. The theory of strategy best reveals both the nature and the working of defence planning. Political 'ends', strategic 'ways', and military 'means' all fed by reigning, if not always recognized, assumptions, organize the subject well with a template that can serve any time, place, and circumstance. The book is designed to help understanding of what can appear to be a forbiddingly complex as well as technical subject. A good part of the problem for officials charged with defence planning duties is expressed in the second part of the book's title. The real difficulty, which rarely is admitted by those tasked with defence planning duty, is that defence planning can only be guesswork. But, because defence preparation is always expensive, not untypically is politically unpopular, yet obviously can be supremely important, claims to knowledge about the truly unknowable persist. In truth, we cannot do defence planning competently, because our ignorance of the future precludes understanding of what our society will be shown by future events to need. The challenge faced by the author was to identify ways in which our problems with the inability to know the future in any detail in advance-the laws of nature, in other words-may best be met and mitigated. Professor Gray argues that our understanding of human nature, of politics, and of strategic history, does allow us to make prudent choices in defence planning that hopefully will prove 'good enough'.
The book is primarily directed at researchers and graduate students working on the philosophy of time or temporal logic, but is of interest to metaphysicians and philosophical logicians more generally.
Author: Fabrice Correia
This monograph is a detailed study, and systematic defence, of the Growing Block Theory of time (GBT), first conceived by C.D. Broad. The book offers a coherent, logically perspicuous and ideologically lean formulation of GBT, defends it against the most notorious objections to be found in the extant philosophical literature, and shows how it can be derived from a more general theory, consistent with relativistic spacetime, on the pre-relativistic assumption of an absolute and total temporal order. The authors devise axiomatizations of GBT and its competitors which, against the backdrop of a shared quantified tense logic, significantly improves the prospects of their comparative assessment. Importantly, neither of these axiomatizations involves commitment to properties of presentness, pastness or futurity. The authors proceed to address, and defuse, a number of objections that have been marshaled against GBT, including the so-called epistemic objection according to which the theory invites skepticism about our temporal location. The challenge posed by relativistic physics is met head-on, by replacing claims about temporal variation by claims about variation across spacetime. The book aims to achieve the greatest possible rigor. The background logic is set out in detail, as are the principles governing the notions of precedence and temporal location. The authors likewise devise a novel spacetime logic suited for the articulation, and comparative assessment, of relativistic theories of time. The book comes with three technical appendices which include soundness and completeness proofs for the systems corresponding to GBT and its competitors, in both their pre-relativistic and relativistic forms. The book is primarily directed at researchers and graduate students working on the philosophy of time or temporal logic, but is of interest to metaphysicians and philosophical logicians more generally.
The logical character of French thought is universally admitted , and in
considering the principles and causes of French progress in the past , nothing is
more striking than the logical sequence of the principles enunciated and for
which blood ...
Impactingon this environment, the EU's decision in 1999 to develop its own military capacities for crisis management - taken together with other ongoing shifts in Western security agendas and US-Europe relations - has created complex ...
Author: Alyson J. K. Bailes
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Category: Political Science
In 1999 the EU decided to develop its own military capacities for crisis management. This book brings together a group of experts to examine the consequences of this decision on Nordic policy establishments, as well as to shed new light on the defence and security issues that matter for Europe as a whole.
First, he detects clear evidence that the EDA has been making significant efforts to transcend the logic of defence sovereignty by introducing a raft of ...
Author: Jolyon Howorth
Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education
Category: Political Science
In this updated and revised new edition the author examines recent developments to the European Union's Common Security and Defence Policy and assesses its systems, processes and limitations. He situates events in a clear historical context and provides wide-ranging theoretical approaches to aid understanding.
Thus , a single defence market could save defence ministries up to 6 billion euro
a year . The European Defence Agency Europe's six main arms - producing
states ( France , Germany , Italy , Spain , Sweden and the UK ) recognised the logic ...
Author: Erkki Aalto
Category: Arms transfers
EU governments are gradually coming around to the idea that they need to open up their defence markets, especialy at a time when growing budgetary constraints clash with the increasing need for sophisticated equipment. Governments have alreadyi agreed to the Code of Conduct on Defence Procurement introduced by the European Defence Agency in July 2006, but the EDA cannot force governments to comply with the code. Also, the protectionist attitude of Member States derives from the fact that they regard defence procurement as an area that overlaps with national sovereignty. The European Commission is currently proposing new procurement and trade directives aimed at streamlining defence market legislation, and it is to be hoped that Member States will respond positively to this initiative. The proposed directives would open up the defence market, improve European cooperation on armaments and lead to a more competitive European defence industry. Plus, in the ongoing debate about the European defence market, the transatlantic defence market should not be forgotten, especially given the increasingly important role that American and European companies play in this arena on both sides of the pond--P.  of cover.
Rule 1 : If the current gate output is not a primary output , find the input vectors
targeting the logical state of the current gate , such that any of the primary output
gets toggled . If the current gate is a primary output , backtrack to find the input ...
The Labour Party leadership has not , so far , accepted this logic – arguing that ,
like Norway or Luxembourg , Britain can ... American bases from British territory
while the American government and people continued to bear the 148 Defence
Author: Alun Jones Baron Chalfont
Category: Great Britain
Englands sikkerhedspolitiske situation analyseres og forfatteren understreger betydningen af den nukleare afskrækkelse, men fremhæver også vigtigheden af stærke konventionelle styrker.
The Principles of Anti-Nuclearism The supporting case for non-nuclear defence
options has been set out in detail in Chapters 5 and 6. There are variations in the
policies that issue from the thinking, but they share a common logic. The majority