The Life of Tintoretto and of His Children Domenico and Marietta

The Life of Tintoretto  and of His Children Domenico and Marietta

This volume also contains Ridolfi's biographical sketches of two of Tintoretto's children: Domenico, who worked with his father for many years and played an important role in the completion of his later works, and Marietta, the favorite ...

Author: Carlo Ridolfi

Publisher: University Park : Pennsylvania State University Press

ISBN: UOM:39015017060818

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 103

View: 961

Carlo Ridolfi's biography of Tintoretto is the single most important primary source on the life and works of the famous Venetian painter. Originally printed separate in 1642, it was later included, with minor modifications, in Ridolfi's two-volume Lives of the Venetian Painters. Combining an account of the artist's life with discussions of his major works, Ridolfi provides fascinating details about the painter's working methods and the strategy he employed in securing many of his most important commissions. Ridolfi describes the paintings with precision and analyzes accurately the unusual and recondite themes within them, but his major contribution is the image he gives us of Tintoretto as an artist obsessed with the act of painting, an aggressive competitor whose goal was not wealth, but fame. This volume also contains Ridolfi's biographical sketches of two of Tintoretto's children: Domenico, who worked with his father for many years and played an important role in the completion of his later works, and Marietta, the favorite child whose considerable artistic promise was left unfulfilled by her early death. Ridolfi's account of Marietta includes a spirited defense of the talents and abilities of women, as well as an attack on those who would place restrictions on them--features that must surely have startled his seventeenth-century readers but are sure to please his twentieth-century audience.
Categories: Biography & Autobiography

Life Stories of Women Artists 1550 1800

Life Stories of Women Artists  1550 1800

There is as yet no complete English translation of the work, but Ridolfi's life stories of Tintoretto and his children Marietta and Domenico have been ...

Author: JuliaK. Dabbs

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351560221

Category: Art

Page: 504

View: 821

The struggles and achievements of forty-six notable women artists of the early modern period, as documented by their contemporaries, are uniquely brought together in this anthology. The life stories presented here are foundational texts for the history of art, but since most are found only in rare volumes and few have been translated into English, until now they have been generally inaccessible to many scholars. Originally published in biographical compendia such as Vasari's Lives of the Artists, the writings included here document not only the lives of relatively well known women artists such as Artemisia Gentileschi and Sofonisba Anguissola, but also those who have languished in obscurity, like Anna Waser and Li Yin. Each life story is preceded by a brief introduction to the artist as well as to her biographer, and the texts themselves are annotated to provide necessary clarification. Beyond their documentary value, these stories provide fascinating insight as to how men commonly characterized women artists as exceptions to their sex, and attempted to explain their presence in the male-dominated realm of art. The introductory chapter to the book explores this intriguing gender dynamic and elucidates some of the strategies and historical context that factored into the composition of these lives. The volume includes an appended index to women artists' life stories in biographical compendia of the period
Categories: Art

Tintoretto

Tintoretto

10 12 13 14 15 In addition to Vasari's Lives, the most significant contributors to ... The Life of Tintoretto and his Children Domenico and Marietta, p. 77.

Author: Tom Nichols

Publisher: Reaktion Books

ISBN: 9781780234816

Category: Art

Page: 400

View: 371

Jacopo Tintoretto (1518–94) is an ambiguous figure in the history of art. His radically unorthodox paintings are not readily classifiable, and although he was a Venetian by birth, his standing as a member of the Venetian school is constantly contested. But he was also a formidable maverick, abandoning the humanist narratives and sensuous color palette typical of the great Venetian master, Titian, in favor of a renewed concentration on core Christian subjects painted in a rough and abbreviated chiaroscuro style. This generously illustrated book offers an extensive analysis of Tintoretto’s greatest paintings, charting his life and work in the context of Venetian art and the culture of the Cinquecento. Tom Nichols shows that Tintoretto was an extraordinarily innovative artist who created a new manner of painting, which, for all of its originality and sophistication, was still able to appeal to the shared emotions of the widest possible audience. This compact, pocket edition features sixteen additional illustrations and a new afterword by the author, and it will continue to be one of the definitive treatments of this once grossly overlooked master.
Categories: Art

The Late Paintings of Vel uez

The Late Paintings of Vel uez

Carlo Ridolfi, The Life of Tintoretto and of His Children Domenico and Marietta, trans. Catherine Enggass and Robert Enggass (University Park, 1984), p.

Author: Giles Knox

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351543101

Category: Art

Page: 208

View: 750

The startling conclusion of The Late Paintings of Vel?uez is that Diego Vel?uez painted two of his most famous works, The Spinners and Las Meninas, as theoretically informed manifestos of painterly brushwork. As a pair, Giles Knox argues, the two paintings form a learned retort to the prevailing critical disdain for the painterly. Knox presents a Vel?uez who was much more aware of the art theory of his era than previously acknowledged, leading him to reinterpret Las Meninas and The Spinners as representing together a polemically charged celebration of the "handedness" of painting. Knox removes Vel?uez from his Iberian isolation and seeks to recover his highly self-conscious attempt to carve out a place for himself within the history of European painting as a whole. The Late Paintings of Vel?uez presents an artist who, like Annibale Carracci, Poussin, Rembrandt, and Vermeer was not only aware of contemporary theoretical writings on art, but also able to translate that knowledge and understanding into a distinctive and personal theory of painting. In Las Meninas and The Spinners, Vel?uez propounded this theory with paint, not words. Knox's rethinking of the dynamic relationship between text and image presents a case, not of writing influencing painting, or vice versa, but of the two realms being inextricably bound together. Painterly brushwork presented a challenge to writers on art not just because it was connected too intimately with the base actions of the hand; it was also devilishly hard to describe. By reading Vel?uez's painterly performance as text, Knox deciphers how Vel?uez was able to craft theoretical arguments more compelling and more vivid than any written counterparts.
Categories: Art

Musical Voices of Early Modern Women

Musical Voices of Early Modern Women

For succinct summaries of her life and artistic achievements, see Galli, ... in: The Life of Tintoretto and of his Children Domenico and Marietta, transl.

Author: Thomasin LaMay

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351916271

Category: Music

Page: 470

View: 151

Recent scholarship has offered a veritable landslide of studies about early modern women, illuminating them as writers, thinkers, midwives, mothers, in convents, at home, and as rulers. Musical Voices of Early Modern Women adds to the mix of early modern studies a volume that correlates women's musical endeavors to their lives, addressing early modern women's musical activities across a broad spectrum of cultural events and settings. The volume takes as its premise the notion that while women may have been squeezed to participate in music through narrower doors than their male peers, they nevertheless did so with enthusiasm, diligence, and success. They were there in many ways, but as women's lives were fundamentally different and more private than men's were, their strategies, tools, and appearances were sometimes also different and thus often unstudied in an historical discipline that primarily evaluated men's productivity. Given that, many of these stories will not necessarily embrace a standard musical repertoire, even as they seek to expand canonical borders. The contributors to this collection explore the possibility of a larger musical culture which included women as well as men, by examining early modern women in "many-headed ways" through the lens of musical production. They look at how women composed, assuming that compositional gender strategies may have been used differently when applied through her vision; how women were composed, or represented and interpreted through music in a larger cultural context, and how her presence in that dialog situated her in social space. Contributors also trace how women found music as a means for communicating, for establishing intellectual power, for generating musical tastes, and for enhancing the quality of their lives. Some women performed publicly, and thus some articles examine how this impacted on their lives and families. Other contributors inquire about the economics of music and women, and how in different situations some women may have been financially empowered or even in control of their own money-making. This collection offers a glimpse at women from home, stage, work, and convent, from many classes and from culturally diverse countries - including France, Spain, Italy, England, Austria, Russia, and Mexico - and imagines a musical history centered in the realities of those lives.
Categories: Music

Raffaello Borghini s Il Riposo

Raffaello Borghini s Il Riposo

See also Carlo Ridolfi, The Life of Tintoretto and of His Children Domenico and Marietta, trans. Catherine and Robert Enggass (University Park: Pennsylvania ...

Author: Raffaello Borghini

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

ISBN: 9780802097439

Category: Art

Page: 384

View: 793

Raffaello Borghini's Il Riposo (1584) is the most widely known Florentine document on the subject of the Counter-Reformation content of religious paintings. Despite its reputation as an art-historical text, this is the first English-language translation of Il Riposo to be published. A distillation of the art gossip that was a feature of the Medici Grand Ducal court, Borghini's treatise puts forth simple criteria for judging the quality of a work of art. Published sixteen years after the second edition of Giorgio Vasari's Vite, the text that set the standard for art-historical writing during the period, Il Riposo focuses on important issues that Vasari avoided, ignored, or was oblivious to. Picking up where Vasari left off, Borghini deals with artists who came after Michaelangelo and provides more comprehensive descriptions of artists who Vasari only touched upon such as Tintoretto, Veronese, Barocci, and the artists of Francesco I's Studiolo. This text is also invaluable as a description of the mid-sixteenth century reaction against the style of the 'maniera,' which stressed the representation of self-consciously convoluted figures in complicated works of art. The first art treatise specifically directed toward non-practitioners, Il Riposo gives unique insight into the early stages of art history as a discipline, late Renaissance art and theory, and the Counter-Reformation in Italy.
Categories: Art

Saint Marks

Saint Marks

... Tintoretto Observed, 34–41; Catherine Enggass and Robert Enggass translate The Life of Tintoretto and His Children Domenico and Marietta (University ...

Author: Jonathan Goldberg

Publisher: Fordham Univ Press

ISBN: 9780823282098

Category: Art

Page: 240

View: 364

Saint Marks invokes and pluralizes the figure of Mark in order to explore relations between painting and writing. Emphasizing that the saint is not a singular biographical individual in the various biblical and hagiographic texts that involve someone so named, the book takes as its ultimate concern the kinds of material life that outlive the human subject. From the incommensurate, anachronic instances in which Saint Mark can be located—among them, as Evangelist or as patron saint of Venice—the book traces Mark’s afterlives within art, sacred texts, and literature in conversation with such art historians and philosophers as Aby Warburg, Giorgio Agamben, Georges Didi-Huberman, T. J. Clark, Adrian Stokes, and Jean-Luc Nancy. Goldberg begins in sixteenth-century Venice, with a series of paintings by Gentile and Giovanni Bellini, Tintoretto, and others, that have virtually nothing to do with biblical texts. He turns then to the legacy of John Ruskin’s Stones of Venice and through it to questions about what painting does as painting. A final chapter turns to ancient texts, considering the Gospel of St. Mark together with its double, the so-called Secret Gospel that has occasioned controversy for its homoerotic implications. The posthumous persistence of a life is what the gospel named Mark calls the Kingdom of God. Saints have posthumous lives; but so too do paintings and texts. This major interdisciplinary study by one of our most astute cultural critics extends what might have been a purely theological subject to embrace questions central to cultural practice from the ancient world to the present.
Categories: Art

Tintoretto

Tintoretto

Pietro Malombra was the son of the learned Bartolomeo , author of devotional
poems and , according to Ridolfi , a friend of Tintoretto : C. and R. Enggass , The
Life of Tintoretto and his Children Domenico and Marietta , p . 77. For Contarini's
 ...

Author: Professor of National Security Affairs Tom Nichols

Publisher: Reaktion Books

ISBN: UOM:39076001989362

Category: Art

Page: 278

View: 544

Elizabeth A. Kaye specializes in communications as part of her coaching and consulting practice. She has edited Requirements for Certification since the 2000-01 edition.
Categories: Art

Cassell Dictionary Italian Literature

Cassell Dictionary Italian Literature

In order to show his work to be “accurate,” Ridolfi insisted that he had ... 1646); The Life of Tintoretto and of His Children Domenico and Marietta, ...

Author: Peter Bondanella

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 9780304704644

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 732

View: 952

Categories: Literary Criticism

Titian And Venetian Painting 1450 1590

Titian And Venetian Painting  1450 1590

This quote is cited from C. Ridolfi, The Life of Tintoretto and of His Children Domenico and Marietta, trans. C. and R. Enggass, University Park, 1984: 15.

Author: Bruce Cole

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9780429975264

Category: Art

Page: 288

View: 273

This up-to-date, well-illustrated, and thoughtful introduction to the life and works of one of the giants of Western Painting also surveys the golden age of Venetian Painting from Giovanni Bellini to Veronese and its place in the history of Western art. Bruce Cole, Distinguished Professor of Fine Arts at Indiana University and author of numerous books on Italian Renaissance art, begins with the life and work of Giovanni Bellini, the principal founder of Venetian Renaissance painting. He continues with the paintings of Giorgione and the young Titian whose work embodied the new Venetian style. Cole discusses and explains all of Titian's major works--portraits, religious paintings, and nudes--from various points of view and shows how Venetian painting of this period differed from painting in Florence and elsewhere in Italy and became a distinct and fully-developed style of its own.
Categories: Art

Art of Renaissance Venice 1400 1600

Art of Renaissance Venice  1400 1600

The Life of Tintoretto, and of His Children Domenico and Marietta, trans. Catherine Enggass and Robert Enggass (University Park: Pennsylvania State ...

Author: Loren Partridge

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520281790

Category: Art

Page: 372

View: 201

"A comprehensive and richly illustrated survey of Venetian Renaissance architecture, sculpture, and painting created between 1400 and 1600 addressed to students, travellers, and the general public. The works of art are analysed within Venice's cultural circumstances--political, economic, intellectual, and religious--and in terms of function, style, iconography, patronage, classical sources, gender, art theories, and artist's innovations, rivalries, and social status. The text has been divided into two parts--the fifteenth century and the sixteenth century--each part preceded by an introduction that recounts the history of Venice to 1500 and to 1600 respectively, including the city's founding, ideology, territorial expansion, social classes, governmental structure, economy, and religion. The twenty-six chapters have been organized to lead readers systematically through the major artistic developments within the three principal categories of art--governmental, ecclesiastic, and domestic--and have been arranged sequentially as follows: civic architecture and urbanism, churches, church decoration (ducal tombs and altarpieces), refectories and refectory decoration (section two only), confraternities (architecture and decoration), palaces, palace decoration (devotional works, portraits, secular painting, and halls of state), villas, and villa decoration. The conclusion offers an overview of the major types of Venetian art and architectural patronage and their funding sources"--Provided by publisher.
Categories: Art

Encyclopedia of Comparative Iconography

Encyclopedia of Comparative Iconography

... and Juliet Wilson, Goya: His Life and Work, London: Thames and Hudson, 1971; ... Tintoretto and of His Children, Domenico and Marietta, University Park: ...

Author: Helene E. Roberts

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781136787935

Category: History

Page: 1150

View: 275

First published in 1998. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
Categories: History

Lavinia Fontana s Mythological Paintings

Lavinia Fontana   s Mythological Paintings

... Carlo, Life of Tintoretto and of His Children Domenico and Marietta, 45 Ripa, Cesare Iconology, 5–6 Pittura, 55 Risen Christ (Michelangelo), 82, ...

Author: Liana De Girolami Cheney

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing

ISBN: 9781527558274

Category: Art

Page: 318

View: 427

This volume investigates emblematic and art-historical issues in Lavinia Fontana’s mythological paintings. Fontana is the first female painter of the sixteenth century in Italy to depict female nudes, as well as mythological and emblematic paintings associated with concepts of beauty and wisdom. Her paintings reveal an appropriation of the antique, a fusion between patronage and culture, and a humanistic pursuit of Mannerist conceits. Fontana’s secular imagery provides a challenging paragone with the male tradition of history painting during the sixteenth century and paves the way for new subjects to be depicted and interpreted by female painters of the seventeenth century.
Categories: Art

Nineteenth and Twentieth century Paintings

Nineteenth  and Twentieth century Paintings

The Life of Tintoretto, and of His Children Domenico and Marietta. Translation of Vita di Giacopo Rohusti ditto il Tintoretto by Catherine Enggass and ...

Author: Richard R. Brettell

Publisher: Metropolitan Museum of Art

ISBN: 9781588393494

Category: Art

Page: 466

View: 171

Robert Lehman (1891{u2013}1969), one of the foremost art collectors of his generation, embraced the work of both traditional and modern masters. This volume catalogues 130 nineteenth- and twentieth-century paintings that are now part of the Robert Lehman Collection at The Metropolitan Museum of Art. The majority of the works are by artists based in France, but there are also examples from the United States, Latin America, and India, reflecting Lehman{u2019}s global interests. The catalogue opens with outstanding paintings by Ingres, Théodore Rousseau, and Corot, among other early nineteenth-century artists. They are joined by an exemplary selection of Impressionist and Post-Impressionist works by Degas, Renoir, Sisley, Pissarro, Seurat, Signac, Van Gogh, Cézanne, and Gauguin. Twentieth-century masters represented here include Bonnard, Matisse, Rouault, Dalí, and Balthus. There are also newly researched modern works by Vicente do Rego Monteiro, Kees van Dongen, Dietz Edzard, and D. G. Kulkarni (dizi). Robert Lehman{u2019}s cultivated taste for nineteenth-century French academic practitioners and his intuitive eye for emerging young artists of his own time are documented and discussed. Three hundred comparative illustrations supplement the catalogue entries, as do extensively researched provenance information, exhibition histories, and references. The volume also includes a bibliography and indexes.
Categories: Art

American Drawings and Watercolors in the Metropolitan Museum of Art

American Drawings and Watercolors in the Metropolitan Museum of Art

(Carlo Ridolfr, The Life qf Tintoretto and of His Children Domenico and Marietta, 1648, trans. Catherine Enggass and Robert Enggass, University Park, ...

Author: Stephanie L. Herdrich

Publisher: Metropolitan Museum of Art

ISBN: 9780870999529

Category: Aquarelle - New York (État) - New York - Expositions

Page: 426

View: 722

"The Museum's collection illuminates all aspects of Sargent's career. The drawings and watercolors in particular reflect his activity outside the portrait studio: his sojourns in Spain, Morocco and elsewhere in North Africa, and in the Middle East; his enduring fascination with Venice; his holidays in the Italian lake district and the Alps; his tours of North America, including Florida and the Rocky Mountains; his visit as an official war artist to the western front in 1918; and his work as a muralist at the Boston Public Library, the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, and Harvard University's Widener Library."--BOOK JACKET.Title Summary field provided by Blackwell North America, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Categories: Aquarelle - New York (État) - New York - Expositions

On the Importance of Being an Individual in Renaissance Italy

On the Importance of Being an Individual in Renaissance Italy

The Life of Tintoretto and of His Children Domenico and Marietta. Trans. and intro. Catherine Enggass and Robert Enggass. University Park: Penn State ...

Author: Douglas Biow

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 9780812290509

Category: History

Page: 328

View: 216

In recent decades, scholars have vigorously revised Jacob Burckhardt's notion that the free, untrammeled, and essentially modern Western individual emerged in Renaissance Italy. Douglas Biow does not deny the strong cultural and historical constraints that placed limits on identity formation in the early modern period. Still, as he contends in this witty, reflective, and generously illustrated book, the category of the individual was important and highly complex for a variety of men in this particular time and place, for both those who belonged to the elite and those who aspired to be part of it. Biow explores the individual in light of early modern Italy's new patronage systems, educational programs, and work opportunities in the context of an increased investment in professionalization, the changing status of artisans and artists, and shifting attitudes about the ideology of work, fashion, and etiquette. He turns his attention to figures familiar (Benvenuto Cellini, Baldassare Castiglione, Niccolò Machiavelli, Jacopo Tintoretto, Giorgio Vasari) and somewhat less so (the surgeon-physician Leonardo Fioravanti, the metallurgist Vannoccio Biringuccio). One could excel as an individual, he demonstrates, by possessing an indefinable nescio quid, by acquiring, theorizing, and putting into practice a distinct body of professional knowledge, or by displaying the exclusively male adornment of impressively designed facial hair. Focusing on these and other matters, he reveals how we significantly impoverish our understanding of the past if we dismiss the notion of the individual from our narratives of the Italian and the broader European Renaissance.
Categories: History

The A to Z of Renaissance Art

The A to Z of Renaissance Art

The Life of Tintoretto, and of His Children Domenico and Marietta. Translated by Catherine Enggass and Robert Enggass. University Park: Pennsylvania State ...

Author: Lilian H. Zirpolo

Publisher: Scarecrow Press

ISBN: 0810870436

Category: Art

Page: 632

View: 264

The Renaissance era was launched in Italy and gradually spread to the Netherlands, Germany, Spain, France, and other parts of Europe and the New World, with figures like Robert Campin, Jan van Eyck, Rogier van der Weyden, Albrecht DYrer, and Albrecht Altdorfer. It was the era that produced some of the icons of civilization, including Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa and Last Supper and Michelangelo's Sistine Ceiling, Piet^, and David. Marked as one of the greatest moments in history, the outburst of creativity of the era resulted in the most influential artistic revolution ever to have taken place. The period produced a substantial number of notable masters, among them Caravaggio, Donato Bramante, Donatello, El Greco, Filippo Brunelleschi, Masaccio, Sandro Botticelli, Raphael, Titian, and Tintoretto. The result was an outstanding number of exceptional works of art and architecture that pushed human potential to new heights. The A to Z of Renaissance Art covers the years 1250 to 1648, the period most disciplines place as the Renaissance Era. A complete portrait of this remarkable period is depicted in this book through a chronology, an introductory essay, a bibliography, and over 500 hundred cross-referenced dictionary entries on major Renaissance painters, sculptors, architects, and patrons, as well as relevant historical figures and events, the foremost artistic centers, schools and periods, major themes and subjects, noteworthy commissions, technical processes, theoretical material, literary and philosophic sources for art, and art historical terminology.
Categories: Art

Historical Dictionary of Renaissance Art

Historical Dictionary of Renaissance Art

The Life of Tintoretto, and of His Children, Domenico and Marietta. Trans. Catherine Enggass and Robert Enggass. University Park: Pennsylvania State ...

Author: Lilian H. Zirpolo

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9781442264670

Category: Art

Page: 632

View: 100

This second edition of Historical Dictionary of Renaissance Art contains a chronology, an introduction, and a bibliography. The dictionary section has over 700 cross-referenced entries on artists from Italy, Flanders, the Netherlands, Germany, Spain, and Portugal, historical figures and events that impacted the production of Renaissance art.
Categories: Art

Italian Renaissance Art

Italian Renaissance Art

The Life of Tintoretto and of his Children Domenico and Marietta. Translated by Catherine Enggass and Robert Enggass. University Park, Pa., and London, ...

Author: Laurie Schneider Adams

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9780429963667

Category: Art

Page: 420

View: 522

"The chronology of the Italian Renaissance, its character, and context have long been a topic of discussion among scholars. Some date its beginnings to the fourteenthcentury work of Giotto, others to the generation of Masaccio, Brunelleschi, and Donatello that fl ourished from around 1400. The close of the Renaissance has also proved elusive. Mannerism, for example, is variously considered to be an independent (but subsidiary) late aspect of Renaissance style or a distinct style in its own right."
Categories: Art

Living with the Royal Academy

Living with the Royal Academy

Carlo Ridolfi, The Life of Tintoretto, and of his Children Domenico and Marietta, trans. Catherine Enggass and Robert Enggass (University Park ...

Author: Sarah Monks

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351559966

Category: Art

Page: 278

View: 348

Living with the Royal Academy: Artistic Ideals and Experiences in England, 1768-1848 offers a range of case studies which consider individual artists' personal, professional and artistic relationships with the Royal Academy during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, bringing together the research of leading historians of British artistic culture during this period. Over its introduction and nine essays, this collection considers the Academy as a lived organism whose most effective role, following its establishment in 1768, was as a reference point towards, around and against which artists operated in their relationships with each other and with artistic practice itself. In so doing, this collection also considers the relationship between Academic ideals and individual practice (as well as lived experience) during this period of art?s increasingly public manifestation at the Academy. Individual artists examined include Joshua Reynolds, Joseph Wright of Derby, Benjamin West and William Etty. Thinking beyond the dichotomy of loyalism and rebellion - and complicating notions of the Academy as a monolithic ossifying institution from which progressive artists would be ?liberated? in the wake of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood?s emergence in 1848 - this volume investigates the Academy?s varied impact upon the lives, experiences and ideals of its diverse artistic communities.
Categories: Art