From Aristotle to Darwin and Back Again

A Journey in Final Causality, Species, and Evolution

Author: Etienne Gilson

Publisher: Ignatius Press

ISBN: 1586171690

Category: Religion

Page: 254

View: 2916

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Darwin's theory of evolution remains controversial, even though most scientists, philosophers, and even theologians accept it, in some form, as an explanation for the variety of organisms. The controversy erupts when the theory is used to try to explain everything, including every aspect of human life, and to deny the role of a Creator or a purpose to life. The overreaching of many scientists into matters beyond the self-imposed limits of scientific method is perhaps explained in part by the loss of two important ideas in modern thinking--final causality or purpose, and formal causality. Scientists understandably bracket the idea out of their scientific thinking because they seek explanations on the level of material and efficient causes only. Yet many of them wrongly conclude from their selective study of the world that final and formal causes do not exist at all and that they have no place in the rational study of life. Likewise, many erroneously assume that philosophy cannot draw upon scientific findings, in light of final and formal causality, to better understand the world and man. The great philosopher and historian of philosophy, Etienne Gilson, sets out to show that final causality or purposiveness and formal causality are principles for those who think hard and carefully about the world, including the world of biology. Gilson insists that a completely rational understanding of organisms and biological systems requires the philosophical notion of teleology, the idea that certain kinds of things exist and have ends or purposes the fulfillment of which are linked to their natures--in other words, formal and final causes. His approach relies on philosophical reflection on the facts of science, not upon theology or an appeal to religious authorities such as the Church or the Bible.
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Aristotle

Genius Philosopher and Scientist

Author: Margaret J. Anderson,Karen F. Stephenson

Publisher: Enslow Publishing, LLC

ISBN: 0766065367

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 96

View: 8480

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Aristotle is one of the most significant figures in all of human history. Over the course of his life, he studied and wrote about every possible field of knowledge. He studied physics, zoology, botany, and chemistry before any of these fields of science even had names. Without the benefit of modern tools like the telescope or microscope, Aristotle still laid the foundation for nearly all later developments in Western science. In addition to his work in science, Aristotle contributed a great deal to our ideas about art, literature, ethics, and theology. Aristotle's influence is so deep, in fact, that many of his ideas have been absorbed into the very language of science and philosophy.
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Evolution

The First Four Billion Years

Author: Collin Allen,Garland Allen,Ron Amundson,Charles F. Baer,Steven J. Arnold,Ana Barahona

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674031753

Category: Science

Page: 979

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An introduction to evolutionary biology spans evolutionary science from its inception to its latest findings, covering discoveries, philosophy, and history.
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From Aristotle's Teleology to Darwin's Genealogy

The Stamp of Inutility

Author: M. Solinas

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137445777

Category: Science

Page: 182

View: 7249

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From Aristotle to Darwin, from ancient teleology to contemporary genealogies, this book offers an overview of the birth and then persistence of Aristotle's framework into modernity, until its radical overthrow by the evolutionary revolution.
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The Great Naturalists

Author: Robert Huxley

Publisher: Thames & Hudson

ISBN: 0500774862

Category: Nature

Page: N.A

View: 1417

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From Classical times to the 19th century, the great quest to discover and define the intoxicating diversity of the natural world attracted a host of intrepid thinkers and explorers. Aristotle and Linnaeus set out to classify nature; Joseph Banks and von Humboldt made perilous journeys to collect and record it. Antony van Leeuwenhoek discovered bacteria with a homemade microscope and James Hutton revealed the immense age of the Earth. Mary Anning hunted fossils; others insects, birds and plants. Georges Cuvier pondered extinction, and Charles Darwin proclaimed the origin of species. With their radical thinking and commitment to close observation, these pioneers laid foundations for the specialist scientists of today. Here thirty-nine of them are brought vividly to life by an array of experts, with illustrations from the unmatched archive of the Natural History Museum, London.
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The Book of Naturalists

An Anthology of the Best Natural History

Author: William Beebe

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691024080

Category: Nature

Page: 499

View: 5649

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Gather essays, from Aristotle to Rachel Carson, about whales, birds, ants, snakes, ponds, bees, penguins, sea otters, and octopuses
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21st Century Anthropology: A Reference Handbook

Author: H. James Birx

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1452266301

Category: Social Science

Page: 1144

View: 2339

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Request a free 30-day online trial at www.sagepub.com/freetrial Via 100 entries or "mini-chapters," 21st Century Anthropology: A Reference Handbook highlights the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates any student obtaining a degree in the field of anthropology ought to have mastered for effectiveness in the 21st century. This two-volume set provides undergraduate majors with an authoritative reference source that serves their research needs with more detailed information than encyclopedia entries but in a clear, accessible style, devoid of jargon, unnecessary detail or density. Key Features- Emphasizes key curricular topics, making it useful for students researching for term papers, preparing for GREs, or considering topics for a senior thesis, graduate degree, or career.- Comprehensive, providing full coverage of key subthemes and subfields within the discipline, such as applied anthropology, archaeology and paleontology, sociocultural anthropology, evolution, linguistics, physical and biological anthropology, primate studies, and more.- Offers uniform chapter structure so students can easily locate key information, within these sections: Introduction, Theory, Methods, Applications, Comparison, Future Directions, Summary, Bibliography & Suggestions for Further Reading, and Cross References.- Available in print or electronically at SAGE Reference Online, providing students with convenient, easy access to its contents.
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A History of Psychology in Western Civilization

Author: Bruce K. Alexander,Curtis P. Shelton

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139991833

Category: Psychology

Page: N.A

View: 5613

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This book is a re-introduction to psychology. It focuses on great scholarly thinkers, beginning with Plato, Marcus Aurelius and St Augustine, who gave the field its foundational ideas long before better known 'founders', such as Galton, Fechner, Wundt and Watson, appeared on the scene. Psychology can only achieve its full breadth and potential when we fully appreciate its scholarly legacy. Bruce Alexander and Curtis Shelton also argue that the fundamental contradictions built into psychology's history have never been resolved, and that a truly pragmatic approach, as defined by William James, can produce a 'layered' psychology that will enable psychologists to face the fearsome challenges of the twenty-first century. A History of Psychology in Western Civilization claims that contemporary psychology has overemphasized the methods of physical science and that psychology will need a broader scientific orientation alongside a scholarly focus in order to fully engage the future.
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Aristotle

Pioneering Philosopher and Founder of the Lyceum

Author: Mick Isle

Publisher: The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc

ISBN: 9781404204997

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 112

View: 768

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Biography of Greek philosopher and natural scientist Aristotle, describing his lasting influence on human understanding.
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