The Evolutionary Biology of Flies

Author: David K. Yeates,Brian M. Wiegmann

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231127006

Category: Science

Page: 430

View: 8528

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Flies ( Dipteria) have had an important role in deepening scientists'understanding of modern biology and evolution. The study of flies has figured prominently in major advances in the fields of molecular evolution, physiology, genetics, phylogenetics, and ecology over the last century. This volume, with contributions from top scientists and scholars in the field, brings together diverse aspects of research and will be essential reading for entomologists and fly researchers.
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Fruit Flies (Tephritidae)

Phylogeny and Evolution of Behavior

Author: Martin Aluja,Allen Norrbom

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420074468

Category: Science

Page: 984

View: 4468

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Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are among the most destructive agricultural pests in the world, eating their way through acres and acres of citrus and other fruits at an alarming rate and forcing food and agriculture agencies to spend millions of dollars in control and management measures. But until now, the study of fruit flies has been traditionally biased towards applied aspects (e.g., management, monitoring, and mass rearing)-understandable, given the tremendous economic impact of this species. This work is the first that comprehensively addresses the study of the phylogeny and the evolution of fruit fly behavior. An international group of highly renowned scientists review the current state of knowledge and include considerable new findings on various aspects of fruit fly behavior, phylogeny and related subjects. In the past, the topics of phylogeny and evolution of behavior were barely addressed, and when so, often superficially. Fruit Flies (Tephritidae): Phylogeny and Evolution of Behavior is a definitive treatment, covering all behaviors in a broad range of tephritids. This volume is divided into eight sections:
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The Evolutionary Biology of Colonizing Species

Author: Peter Angas Parsons

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521252478

Category: Science

Page: 262

View: 6794

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In The Evolutionary Biology of Colonizing Species, Professor Parsons uses the colonizing species as a case study in the dynamics of microevolution at work in living systems.
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Evolutionary Biology of Parasites

Author: Peter W. Price

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691082578

Category: Science

Page: 237

View: 613

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In spite of the fact that parasites represent more than half of all living species of plants and animals, their role in the evolution of life on earth has been substantially underestimated. Here, for the first time within an evolutionary and ecological framework, Peter Price integrates the biological attributes that characterize parasites ranging from such diverse groups as viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and fungi, to helminths, mites, insects, and parasitic flowering plants. Synthesizing systematics, ecology, behavioral biology, genetics, and biogeography, the author outlines the success of parasitism as a mode of life, the common features of the wide range of organisms that adopt such a way of life, the reasons for parasites' extraordinary potential for continued adaptive radiation, and their role in molding community structure by means of their impact on the evolution of host species. In demonstrating the importance of parasitic interactions for determining population patterns and geographical distributions, Dr. Price generates further discussion and suggests new areas for research.
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Biology of Snail-Killing Sciomyzidae Flies

Author: Lloyd Vernon Knutson,Jean-Claude Vala

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521867851

Category: Science

Page: 506

View: 1817

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An analysis of all of the major biological aspects of the Sciomyzidae flies, including behaviour, ecology, life-cycles, morphology, and identification.
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Methuselah Flies

A Case Study in the Evolution of Aging

Author: Michael R Rose,Hardip B Passananti,Margarida Matos

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814483354

Category: Science

Page: 496

View: 4506

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Methuselah Flies presents a trailblazing project on the biology of aging. It describes research on the first organisms to have their lifespan increased, and their aging slowed, by hereditary manipulation. These organisms are fruit flies from the species Drosophila melanogaster, the great workhorse of genetics. Michael Rose and his colleagues have been able to double the lifespan of these insects, and improved their health in numerous respects as well. The study of these flies with postponed aging is one of the best means we have of understanding, and ultimately achieving, the postponement of aging in humans. As such, the carefully presented detail of this book will be of value to research devoted to the understanding and control of aging. Methuselah Flies: • is a tightly edited distillation of twenty years of work by many scientists • contains the original publications regarding the longer-lived fruit flies • offers commentaries on each of the topics covered — new, short essays that put the individual research papers in a wider context • gives full access to the original data • captures the scientific significance of postponed aging for a wide academic audience Contents: Creation and Long-term Evolution of Methuselah FliesStress, Resistance, Physiology, and AgingReproduction, Nutrition, and AgingGenetics and Molecular Biology of Methuselah FliesReverse Evolution of Methuselah FliesAging, Development, and Crowding Readership: Biologists and doctors interested in the study of aging. Keywords:Aging;Evolution;Drosophila;Postponed Senescence;Fruit Flies
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The Long Tomorrow

How Advances in Evolutionary Biology Can Help Us Postpone Aging

Author: Michael R. Rose

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198039860

Category: Science

Page: 192

View: 8515

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The conquest of aging is now within our grasp. It hasn't arrived yet, writes Michael R. Rose, but a scientific juggernaut has started rolling and is picking up speed. A long tomorrow is coming. In The Long Tomorrow, Rose offers us a delightfully written account of the modern science of aging, spiced with intriguing stories of his own career and leavened with the author's engaging sense of humor and rare ability to make contemporary research understandable to nonscientists. The book ranges from Rose's first experiments while a graduate student--counting a million fruit fly eggs, which took 3,000 hours over the course of a year--to some of his key scientific discoveries. We see how some of his earliest experiments helped demonstrate that "the force of natural selection" was key to understanding the aging process--a major breakthrough. Rose describes how he created the well-known Methuselah Flies, fruit flies that live far longer than average. Equally important, Rose surveys the entire field, offering colorful portraits of many leading scientists and shedding light on research findings from around the world. We learn that rodents given fifteen to forty percent fewer calories live about that much longer, and that volunteers in Biosphere II, who lived on reduced caloric intake for two years, all had improved vital signs. Perhaps most interesting, we discover that aging hits a plateau and stops. Popular accounts of Rose's work have appeared in The New Yorker, Time magazine, and Scientific American, but The Long Tomorrow is the first full account of this exciting new science written for the general reader. "Among his peers, Rose is considered a brilliantly innovative scientist, who has almost single-handedly brought the evolutionary theory of aging from an abstract notion to one of the most exciting topics in science."--Malcolm Gladwell, The New Yorker
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The Chironomidae

Biology and ecology of non-biting midges

Author: P.D. Armitage,L.C. Pinder,Peter Cranston

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780412452604

Category: Science

Page: 572

View: 6188

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The dipteran family Chironomidae is the most widely distributed and frequently the most abundant group of insects in freshwater, with rep resentatives in both terrestrial and marine environments. A very wide range of gradients of temperature, pH, oxygen concentration, salinity, current velocity, depth, productivity, altitude and latitude have been exploited, by at least some chironomid species, and in grossly polluted environments chironomids may be the only insects present. The ability to exist in such a wide range of conditions has been achieved largely by behavioural and physiological adaptations with relatively slight morphological changes. It has been estimated that the number of species world-wide may be as high as 15000. This high species diversity has been attributed to the antiquity of the family, relatively low vagility leading to isolation, and evolutionary plasticity. In many aquatic ecosystems the number of chironomid species present may account for at least 50% of the total macroinvertebrate species recorded. This species richness, wide distribution and tolerance to adverse conditions has meant that the group is frequently recorded in ecological studies but taxonomic difficulties have in the past prevented non-specialist identification beyond family or subfamily level. Recent works, including genetic studies, have meant that the family is receiving much more attention globally.
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