The Evolution of the Human Head

Author: Daniel Lieberman

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674046366

Category: Science

Page: 756

View: 2400

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Dan Lieberman has written an innovative, exhaustively researched and carefully argued book dealing with the evolution of the human head. In it he addresses three interrelated questions. First, why does the human head look the way it does? Second, why did these transformations occur? And third, how is something as complex and vital as the head so variable and evolvable? This book addresses these questions in three sections. The first set of chapters review how human and ape heads grow, both in terms of individual parts (organs and regions) and as an integrated whole. The second section reviews how the head performs its major functions: housing the brain, chewing, swallowing, breathing, vocalizing, thermoregulating, seeing, hearing, tasting, smelling, and balancing during locomotion. The final set of chapters review the fossil evidence for major transformations of the head during human evolution from the divergence of the human and ape lineages through the origins of Homo sapiens. These chapters use developmental and functional insights from the first two sections to speculate on the developmental and selective bases for these transformations.
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The Story of the Human Body

Evolution, Health, and Disease

Author: Daniel Lieberman

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 0307907414

Category: Science

Page: 480

View: 6540

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In this landmark book of popular science, Daniel E. Lieberman—chair of the department of human evolutionary biology at Harvard University and a leader in the field—gives us a lucid and engaging account of how the human body evolved over millions of years, even as it shows how the increasing disparity between the jumble of adaptations in our Stone Age bodies and advancements in the modern world is occasioning this paradox: greater longevity but increased chronic disease. The Story of the Human Body brilliantly illuminates as never before the major transformations that contributed key adaptations to the body: the rise of bipedalism; the shift to a non-fruit-based diet; the advent of hunting and gathering, leading to our superlative endurance athleticism; the development of a very large brain; and the incipience of cultural proficiencies. Lieberman also elucidates how cultural evolution differs from biological evolution, and how our bodies were further transformed during the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions. While these ongoing changes have brought about many benefits, they have also created conditions to which our bodies are not entirely adapted, Lieberman argues, resulting in the growing incidence of obesity and new but avoidable diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. Lieberman proposes that many of these chronic illnesses persist and in some cases are intensifying because of “dysevolution,” a pernicious dynamic whereby only the symptoms rather than the causes of these maladies are treated. And finally—provocatively—he advocates the use of evolutionary information to help nudge, push, and sometimes even compel us to create a more salubrious environment. (With charts and line drawings throughout.)
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Human Evolution

An Introduction to Mans Adaptations

Author: Bernard Grant Campbell

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 9780202366623

Category: Social Science

Page: 523

View: 6321

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In this new fourth edition, Campbell has revised and updated his classic introduction to the field. Human Evolution synthesizes the major findings of modern research and theory and presents a complete and integrated account of the evolution of human beings. New developments in microbiology and recent fossil records are incorporated into the enormous range of this volume, with the resulting text as lucid and comprehensive as earlier editions. The fourth edition retains the thematic structure and organization of the third, with its cogent treatment of human variability and speciation, primate locomotion, and nonverbal communication and the evolution of language, supported by more than 150 detailed illustrations and an expanded and updated glossary and bibliography. As in prior editions, the book treats evolution as a concomitant development of the main behavioral and functional complexes of the genus Homo among them motor control and locomotion, mastication and digestion, the senses and reproduction. It analyzes each complex in terms of its changing function, and continually stresses how the separate complexes evolve interdependently over the long course of the human journey. All these aspects are placed within the context of contemporary evolutionary and genetic theory, analyses of the varied extensions of the fossil record, and contemporary primatology and comparative morphology. The result is a primary text for undergraduate and graduate courses, one that will also serve as required reading for anthropologists, biologists, and nonspecialists with an interest in human evolution. "Synthesizes the conventional academic thought into a textbook or detailed account for lay readers. Along the chronological narrative are discussions of progress in homeostasis, the primate radiation, locomotion and the hindlimb, function and structure of the head, reproduction and social structure, and culture and society." Book News Bernard Campbell has been a visiting lecturer at Harvard and Cambridge, and has taught and conducted research in Eastern and Southern Africa. He was professor of anthropology at the University of California, Los Angeles, from 1970-76. Dr. Campbell is author/coauthor of Sexual Selection and the Descent of Man; Human Ecology (second edition, Aldine); Humankind Emerging and the definitive three-volume Catalogue of Fossil Hominids.
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La trampa de la felicidad

Deja de sufrir, comienza a vivir

Author: Russ Harris

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9788408093947

Category: Self-Help

Page: 400

View: 9469

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¿Te sientes solo, aburrido, desdichado, inseguro o insatisfecho y, a pesar de todo, pones cara de felicidad, fingiendo que todo va bien? Si tu respuesta es afirmativa, tranquilo, ¡no eres el único! Los últimos estudios científicos sugieren que vivimos prisioneros en una trampa invisible: un círculo vicioso en el que cuanto más luchamos por alcanzar la felicidad, más sufrimos a largo plazo. Por fortuna, escapar de «la trampa de la felicidad» es posible gracias a una nueva e innovadora psicoterapia conocida como Terapia de Compromiso y Aceptación (ACT). A través de seis poderosos principios, la ACT permite lidiar con el dolor, vencer los temores y construir una vida rica, plena y llena de sentido.
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Evolution of the Primate Brain

From Neuron to Behavior

Author: N.A

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0444538674

Category: Science

Page: 496

View: 8692

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This volume of Progress in Brain Research provides a synthetic source of information about state-of-the-art research that has important implications for the evolution of the brain and cognition in primates, including humans. This topic requires input from a variety of fields that are developing at an unprecedented pace: genetics, developmental neurobiology, comparative and functional neuroanatomy (at gross and microanatomical levels), quantitative neurobiology related to scaling factors that constrain brain organization and evolution, primate palaeontology (including paleoneurology), paleo-anthropology, comparative psychology, and behavioural evolutionary biology. Written by internationally-renowned scientists, this timely volume will be of wide interest to students, scholars, science journalists, and a variety of experts who are interested in keeping track of the discoveries that are rapidly emerging about the evolution of the brain and cognition. Written by internationally renowned scientists, this timely volume will be of wide interest to students, scholars, science journalists, and a variety of experts who are interested in keeping track of the discoveries that are rapidly emerging about the evolution of the brain and cognition
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The Evolution of Human Sociability

Desires, Fears, Sex and Society

Author: Ron Vannelli

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316404749

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 5249

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How do desires and fears motivate human sociability? What effect do these motivators have on reproductive, social and political behaviour? And, crucially, how might we understand them separate from preconceived notions of design or higher morality? Taking these questions as a focus, this book examines human evolution with the emphasis on sexual selection and the evolution of a number of human psychological processes. Exploring evolutionary, sexual and maturational processes, along with primate, fossil and geological evidence, Vannelli argues that human nature can be conceptualised as species-typical desires and fears, derived from sexual selection during human evolution, and that these are major motivators of behaviour. Presenting additional evidence from the anthropology of band societies, along with material from group behaviour, Vannelli highlights the importance of pair-bonding, friendship, alliance behaviour, vengeance seeking and interpersonal politics in social behaviour, providing a unique interdisciplinary framework for understanding human nature and the evolution of human sociability.
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The Evolution of Consciousness

As Revealed Through Initiation Knowledge

Author: Rudolf Steiner

Publisher: Rudolf Steiner Press

ISBN: 1855843153

Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Page: 304

View: 8251

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According to the initiate-research of Rudolf Steiner, humanity is in a continual process of transformation and evolution. Modern-day consciousness, based as it is on sense perception and abstract logic, differs considerably from the consciousness of ancient humanity. At that time, says Steiner, the human being was seen to be a microcosm, a concentration of the laws and activities of the cosmos. The loss of such knowledge today has led to the existential quest for meaning, and even the cul-de-sac of atheism. In these comprehensive lectures, delivered to an English audience, Rudolf Steiner indicates how it is possible for people to rediscover their connection to the cosmos. He describes how one develops higher faculties of consciousness - what he calls Imagination, Inspiration and Intuition - and gives a vivid description of life after death and the individual's progress through the planetary spheres. It is in these spheres, he explains, where tasks and goals for future incarnations are prepared in cooperation with the spiritual beings of the heavenly hierarchies. The lectures culminate in a call for mankind to take its own destiny in hand through conscious and free development of spiritual capacities. The edition of this fundamental work features a revised translation as well as previously-unavailable addresses and question-and-answer sessions.
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Masters of the Planet

The Search for Our Human Origins

Author: Ian Tattersall

Publisher: St. Martin's Press

ISBN: 1137000384

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 764

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50,000 years ago – merely a blip in evolutionary time – our Homo sapiens ancestors were competing for existence with several other human species, just as their own precursors had been doing for millions of years. Yet something about our species separated it from the pack, and led to its survival while the rest became extinct. So just what was it that allowed Homo sapiens to become Masters of the Planet? Curator Emeritus at the American Museum of Natural History, Ian Tattersall takes us deep into the fossil record to uncover what made humans so special. Surveying a vast field from initial bipedality to language and intelligence, Tattersall argues that Homo sapiens acquired a winning combination of traits that was not the result of long term evolutionary refinement. Instead it emerged quickly, shocking their world and changing it forever.
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Born to Walk

Myofascial Efficiency and the Body in Movement

Author: James Earls

Publisher: North Atlantic Books

ISBN: 1583947833

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 216

View: 5034

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The ability to walk upright on two legs is one of the major traits that define us as humans; yet, scientists still aren't sure why we evolved to walk as we do. In Born to Walk, author James Earls explores the mystery of our evolution by describing in depth the mechanisms that allow us to be efficient in bipedal gait. Viewing the whole body as an interconnected unit, Earls explains how we can regain a flowing efficiency within our gait--an efficiency which, he argues, is part of our natural design. This book is designed for movement therapy practitioners, physiotherapists, osteopaths, chiropractors, massage therapists, and any bodyworker wishing to help clients by incorporating an understanding of gait and its mechanics. It will also appeal to anyone with an interest in evolution and movement. Drawing on recent research from paleoanthropology, sports science, and anatomy, Earls proposes a complete model of how the whole body cooperates in this three dimensional action. His work is based on Thomas Myers's Anatomy Trains model of human anatomy, a holistic view of the human body that emphasizes fascial and myofascial connections. Earls distills the complex action of walking into a simple sequence of "essential events" or actions that are necessary to engage the myofascia and utilize its full potential in the form of elastic energy. He explains the "stretch-shortening cycle"--the mechanism that is the basis for many normal human activities--and discusses how humans take advantage of isometric contractions, viscoelastic response, and elastic recoil to minimize calorie usage. This streamlined efficiency is what enabled our first ancestors to begin to migrate not only seasonally but also permanently to new lands, thereby expanding the natural resources available to us as a species.
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