The Epistemology of Indicative Conditionals

The Epistemology of Indicative Conditionals

Addresses central questions concerning conditionals by combining the methods of formal epistemology with those of cognitive psychology.

Author: Igor Douven

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781107111455

Category: Computers

Page: 220

View: 263

Addresses central questions concerning conditionals by combining the methods of formal epistemology with those of cognitive psychology.
Categories: Computers

Epistemic Modality

Epistemic Modality

Let fJ be the selection function relevant to interpreting Jack's conditional
statements, let P be the proposition that Pete ... indicative conditionals, all
selection functions compatible with the epistemic and contextual constraints are
admissible, ...

Author: Andy Egan

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199591596

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 335

View: 543

There's a lot we don't know, which means that there are a lot of possibilities that are, epistemically speaking, open. What these epistemic possibilities are, and how we understand the semantics of epistemic modals, are explored here through a variety of philosophical approaches.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Oxford Studies in Epistemology

Oxford Studies in Epistemology

Whatever fighting is going on in epistemology takes place amidst considerable
agreement on a large number of fundamental issues. ... As a preliminary
disclaimer, I note that the present paper deals exclusively with indicative
conditionals.

Author: Tamar Szabó Gendler

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191653322

Category: Philosophy

Page: 368

View: 374

Oxford Studies in Epistemology is a biennial publicaton which offers a regular snapshot of state-of-the-art work in this important field. Under the guidance of a distinguished editorial board composed of leading philosophers in North America, Europe and Australasia, it publishes exemplary papers in epistemology, broadly construed. Topics within its purview include: *traditional epistemological questions concerning the nature of belief, justification, and knowledge, the status of scepticism, the nature of the a priori, etc; *new developments in epistemology, including movements such as naturalized epistemology, feminist epistemology, social epistemology, and virtue epistemology, and approaches such as contextualism; *foundational questions in decision-theory; *confirmation theory and other branches of philosophy of science that bear on traditional issues in epistemology; *topics in the philosophy of perception relevant to epistemology; *topics in cognitive science, computer science, developmental, cognitive, and social psychology that bear directly on traditional epistemological questions; and *work that examines connections between epistemology and other branches of philosophy, including work on testimony and the ethics of belief. Anyone wanting to understand the latest developments at the leading edge of the discipline can start here.
Categories: Philosophy

Foundations and Philosophy of Epistemic Applications of Probability Theory

Foundations and Philosophy of Epistemic Applications of Probability Theory

In previous papers I have attempted to develop a probabilistic 'logic' of indicative
conditionals, the basic ideas of which are essential to the present work.2 The
three fundamental theses of this theory are as follows. (1) Bivalent truth values ...

Author: W.L. Harper

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9027706174

Category: Philosophy

Page: 308

View: 568

Proceedings of an International Research Colloquium held at the University of Western Ontario, 10-13 May 1973.
Categories: Philosophy

Rationality and Reflection

Rationality and Reflection

They use and reflect on what I will call epistemic conditionals. We define an
acceptable baselevel epistemic conditional as the (ordinary, indicative)
conditional we get when an epistemic norm is stripped of its enabling clause and
epistemic ...

Author: Jonathan L. Kvanvig

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191025754

Category: Philosophy

Page: 224

View: 654

Jonathan L. Kvanvig presents a conception of rationality which answers to the need arising out of the egocentric predicament concerning what to do and what to believe. He does so in a way that avoids, on the one hand, reducing rationality to the level of beasts, and on the other hand, elevating it so that only the most reflective among us are capable of rational beliefs. Rationality and Reflection sets out a theory of rationality—a theory about how to determine what to think—which defends a significant degree of optionality in the story of what is reasonable for people to think, and thereby provides a framework for explaining what kinds of rational disagreement are possible. The theory is labelled Perspectivalism and it offers a unique account of rationality, one that cuts across the usual distinctions between Foundationalism and Coherentism and between Internalism and Externalism. It also differs significantly from Evidentialism, maintaining that, to the extent that rationality is connected to the notion of evidence, it is a function both of the evidence one has and what one makes of it.
Categories: Philosophy

The Logic of Conditionals

The Logic of Conditionals

Before the election it was possible to affirm the indicative conditionals " If Jones
wins then Smith will retire " and " If Smith dies before the election then Jones will
win " , but it would be absurd to deduce " If Smith dies before the election then he
 ...

Author: E.W. Adams

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 902770631X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 155

View: 442

Of the four chapters in this book, the first two discuss (albeit in consider ably modified form) matters previously discussed in my papers 'On the Logic of Conditionals' [1] and 'Probability and the Logic of Conditionals' [2], while the last two present essentially new material. Chapter I is relatively informal and roughly parallels the first of the above papers in discussing the basic ideas of a probabilistic approach to the logic of the indicative conditional, according to which these constructions do not have truth values, but they do have probabilities (equal to conditional probabilities), and the appropriate criterion of soundness for inferences involving them is that it should not be possible for all premises of the inference to be probable while the conclusion is improbable. Applying this criterion is shown to have radically different consequences from the orthodox 'material conditional' theory, not only in application to the standard 'fallacies' of the material conditional, but to many forms (e. g. , Contraposition) which have hitherto been regarded as above suspi cion. Many more applications are considered in Chapter I, as well as certain related theoretical matters. The chief of these, which is the most important new topic treated in Chapter I (i. e.
Categories: Philosophy

Attitudes and Changing Contexts

Attitudes and Changing Contexts

37 Now we can determine what proposition is expressed by the indicative
conditional If A , then B in context K , A > K B ... of Lewis ' and Stalnaker ' s
original similarity account , indicative conditionals are more closely related to the
epistemic ...

Author: Robert van Rooij

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402041764

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 273

View: 845

In this book, the author defends a unified externalists account of propositional attitudes and reference, and formalizes this view within possible world semantics. He establishes a link between philosophical analyses of intentionality and reference and formal semantic theories of discourse representation and context change. Stalnakerian diagonalization plays an important role here. Anaphora are treated as referential expressions, while presupposition is seen as a propositional attitude. The relation between belief change and the semantic analyses of conditional sentences and evidential (knowledge) and buletic (desire) propositional attitudes is discussed extensively. "Van Rooij has new and interesting things to say both about foundational issues in the philosophy of language, and about the details of specific analyses, f.e. about intensional identity, epistemic modals, propositional attitude attributions, presupposition accommodation, conditionals and belief change." Robert Stalnaker, MIT
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Modeling and Using Context

Modeling and Using Context

A theory of contextual propositions for indicative conditionals is presented. The
main challenge is to give a precise account of how the dynamics of possible
worlds depends on epistemic context. Robert Stalnaker suggested in [Stalnaker
84] ...

Author: Patrick Blackburn

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540403809

Category: Computers

Page: 532

View: 372

The refereed proceedings of the 4th International and Interdisciplinary Conference on Modeling and Using Context, CONTEXT 2003, held in Stanford, CA, USA in June 2003. The 31 full papers and 15 short papers presented were carefully reviewed, selected, and revised for inclusion in the book. The papers presented deal with the interdisciplinary topic of modeling and using context from various points of view, ranging through cognitive science, formal logic, artifical intelligence, computational intelligence, philosophical and psychological aspects, and information processing. Highly general philosophical and theoretical issues are complemented by specific applications in various fields.
Categories: Computers

Working with Spanish Corpora

Working with Spanish Corpora

... epistemic markers Table 4.1 (continued) Declarative Hypothetical Verb moods
Indicative Conditional Subjunctive. Declarative Hypothetical Epistemic saber (
know) (1st p. verbs singular and plural;3rd p. singular); affirmative and megative ...

Author: Giovanni Parodi

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 9780826438355

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 280

View: 639

The main focus of this book is the investigation of linguistic variation in Spanish, considering spoken and written, specialised and non-specialised registers from a corpus linguistics approach and employing computational updated tools. The ten chapters represent a range of research on Spanish using a number of different corpora drawn from, amongst others, research articles, student writing, formal conversation and technical reports. A variety of methodologies are brought to bear upon these corpora including multi-dimensional and multi-register analysis, latent semantics and lexical bundles. This in-depth analysis of using Spanish corpora will be of interest to researchers in corpus linguistics or Spanish language.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Epistemology

Epistemology

In some sense that requires clarification , the antecedent of the indicative
conditional ( OI ) supposes that my enemies actually tried to murder me , while
the antecedent of the ' subjunctive ' or ' counterfactual conditional ( 0 ) supposes
only that ...

Author: Anthony O'Hear

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521138582

Category: Philosophy

Page: 139

View: 516

This collection brings together essays from leading figures in a rapidly developing field of philosophy.
Categories: Philosophy

IFS

IFS

Many of these volumes resulted from colloguia and workshops held in con nection with the University of Western Ontario Graduate Programme in Philosophy of Science.

Author: W.L. Harper

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400991170

Category: Science

Page: 348

View: 488

With publication of the present volume, The University of Western Ontario Series in Philosophy of Science enters its second phase. The first fourteen volumes in the Series were produced under the managing editorship of Professor James J. Leach, with the cooperation of a local editorial board. Many of these volumes resulted from colloguia and workshops held in con nection with the University of Western Ontario Graduate Programme in Philosophy of Science. Throughout its seven year history, the Series has been devoted to publication of high quality work in philosophy of science con sidered in its widest extent, including work in philosophy of the special sciences and history of the conceptual development of science. In future, this general editorial emphasis will be maintained, and hopefully, broadened to include important works by scholars working outside the local context. Appointment of a new managing editor, together with an expanded editorial board, brings with it the hope of an enlarged international presence for the Series. Serving the publication needs of those working in the various subfields within philosophy of science is a many-faceted operation. Thus in future the Series will continue to produce edited proceedings of worthwhile scholarly meetings and edited collections of seminal background papers. How ever, the publication priorities will shift emphasis to favour production of monographs in the various fields covered by the scope of the Series. THE MANAGING EDITOR vii W. L. Harper, R. Stalnaker, and G. Pearce (eds.), lIs, vii.
Categories: Science

Context

Context

On the pure expressivist account of epistemic “might” sketched in the last chapter,
statements such as “Noam might be in his ... On the pure conditional assertion
account of indicative conditionals, statements such as “If Noam is not in his office,
 ...

Author: Robert Stalnaker

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191502811

Category: Philosophy

Page: 240

View: 445

Robert Stalnaker explores the notion of the context in which speech takes place, its role in the interpretation of what is said, and in the explanation of the dynamics of discourse. He distinguishes different notions of context, but the main focus is on the notion of context as common ground, where the common ground is an evolving body of background information that is presumed to be shared by the participants in a conversation. The common ground is the information that is presupposed by speakers and addressees, and a central concern of this book is with the notion of presupposition, and with the interaction of compositional structure with discourse dynamics in the explanation of presuppositional phenomena. Presupposed information includes background information both about the subject matter of a discourse and about the evolving discourse itself, and about the attitudes of the participants in the discourse, including who and where they are, and what they agree and disagree about. Stalnaker provides a way of representing self-locating information that helps to explain how it can be shared and communicated, and how it evolves over time. He discusses the semantic and pragmatics of conditionals and epistemic modals, and their role in representing agreement, disagreement, and the negotiation about how a context should evolve. The book concludes with a discussion of the relations between contextualism and semantic relativism. The Context and Content series is a forum for outstanding original research at the intersection of philosophy, linguistics, and cognitive science. The general editor is François Recanati (Institut Jean-Nicod, Paris).
Categories: Philosophy

Two Dimensional Semantics

Two Dimensional Semantics

Alternatively, one could ground epistemic necessitation in indicative conditionals:
D epistemically necessitates S when the indicative conditional 'if D is the case,
then S is the case' is intuitively acceptable on rational reflection. (See Chalmers ...

Author: Manuel Garcia-Carpintero

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: UOM:39015063335296

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 355

View: 338

According to two-dimensional semantics, the meaning of an expression involves two different "dimensions": one dimension involves reference and truth-conditions of a familiar sort, while the other dimension involves the way that reference and truth-conditions depend on the external world (for example, reference and truth-conditions might be held to depend on which individuals and substances are present in the world, or on which linguistic conventions are in place). A number ofdifferent two-dimensional frameworks have been developed, and these have been applied to a number of fundamental problems in philosophy: the nature of communication, the relation between the necessary and the a priori, the role of context in assertion, Frege's distinction between sense and reference, thecontents of thought, and the mind-body problem.Manuel Garcia-Carpintero and Josep Macia present a selection of new essays by an outstanding international team, shedding fresh light both on foundational issues regarding two-dimensional semantics and on its specific applications. The volume will be the starting-point for future work on this approach to issues in philosophy of language, epistemology, and metaphysics.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Forms of Thought

Forms of Thought

Conditionals. and. conditional. probability. As I made clear in the previous
chapter, my own view — which is contrary to mainstream opinion ... conditionals
the kind of modality involved is 'alethic', whereas in the case of indicative
conditionals it is 'epistemic'. As I say, this is far from being the most widely
accepted view, which is that indicative conditionals in natural language are
logically equivalent to ...

Author: E. J. Lowe

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781107001251

Category: Philosophy

Page: 213

View: 347

Lowe investigates the forms of thought, showing how this study is crucial to understanding the powers of the intellect.
Categories: Philosophy

Pragmatics of Conditional Marking

Pragmatics of Conditional Marking

speaker's epistemic stance as reflected by the choice of conjunction. ... For
example, in Spanish and other Romance languages, the choice of indicative or
subjunctive morphology on the verb in a temporal subordinate clause leads to
very ...

Author: Scott Schwenter

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781135681739

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 275

View: 271

First Published in 1999. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Epistemic Modality

Epistemic Modality

In this chapter it will be shown that, although in Italian there are no grammatical
epistemic forms strictu sensu (§2), if one ... of epistemic modality: • The modal
verbs dovere (must) and potere (can) used in their indicative or conditional forms
in ...

Author: Paola Pietrandrea

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9789027230843

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 232

View: 350

This volume offers an original theoretical and methodological approach to the hotly debated issue of epistemic modality. The analysis is conducted in a rigorous typological frame developed after a careful consideration of a wealth of cross-linguistic data, and focuses on Italian, a language often disregarded in comparative analyses. The complexity of the Italian epistemic system provides relevant information that will undoubtedly foster a better understanding of the topic. A new definition of epistemic modality is proposed on a functional basis and the structure of the Italian epistemic system is closely described. The morpho-syntactic characteristics of Italian epistemic forms are regarded as the result of the dialectic between universal functional pressures and peculiar system resistances. Shaped by the system, epistemic modality emerges as an intrinsically linguistic category, which cannot be downsized to a mere conceptual notion, as other approaches would propose.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Theoretical Aspects of Reasoning about Knowledge

Theoretical Aspects of Reasoning about Knowledge

Second , some have denied that indicative conditionals express propositions at
all ” , arguing that a conditional ... clear that indicative conditional sentences are
normally used to express something about the speaker's epistemic situation
rather ...

Author: Yoram Ofer Moses

Publisher: Morgan Kaufmann Pub

ISBN: UOM:39015029448431

Category: Philosophy

Page: 329

View: 303

Categories: Philosophy

Conditionals in Nonmonotonic Reasoning and Belief Revision

Conditionals in Nonmonotonic Reasoning and Belief Revision

The relationship between conditionals, epistemic states and beliefs is studied,
and we develop the formal means to ... Conditionals may be given a lot of
different interpretations, for instance, as counterfactuals, as indicative,
subjunctive or ...

Author: Gabriele Kern-Isberner

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540423676

Category: Computers

Page: 190

View: 164

This book covers lymphoproliferative disorders in patients with congenital or acquired immunodeficiencies. Acquired immunodeficiencies are caused by infections with the human immunodeficiency virus or arise following immunosuppressive therapy administered after organ transplantation or to treat connective tissue diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. It was recently discovered that various diseases or therapeutic modalities that induce a state of immunosuppression may cause virally driven lymphoproliferations. This book summarizes for the first time this group of immunodeficiency-associated lymphoproliferations.
Categories: Computers

Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy Descartes to gender and science

Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy  Descartes to gender and science

... Werner Hell Hellenistic medical epistemology Hellenistic philosophy Helmholtz
, Hermann von Helmont , Franciscus ... and Tibetan philosophy Indicative
conditionals Indirect discourse Induction , epistemic issues in Inductive
definitions and ...

Author: Edward Craig

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 0415187087

Category: Philosophy

Page: 33

View: 658

Review: "Depth and breadth of coverage, clarity of presentation, impressive bibliographies, excellent use of cross references, and an extensive index combine to make this an impressive reference work. The contributors have addressed both current and past scholarship on world philosophy and religion and have produced a worthy successor to Macmillan's 1967 Encyclopedia of Philosophy. It will be read and understood by the educated public as well as scholars and will be a fine addition to academic and large public library reference collections."--"Outstanding Reference Sources : the 1999 Selection Sources Committee, RUSA, ALA.
Categories: Philosophy

If

If

These points suggest to some philosophers that at least some indicative
conditionals , like 7.2 , are epistemic in essential nature and used to express
epistemic states ( Bennett , 2003 ) . Many philosophers would say that the
counterfactual 7.3 ...

Author: Jonathan St. B. T. Evans

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0198525125

Category: Philosophy

Page: 190

View: 297

This title includes the following features: The first book to integrate both the psychological and philosophical literature on conditional thinking, enabling those in both disciplines to gain a fuller understanding of the work in this area; Presents a brand new theoretical approach tounderstanding conditionals, one that will greatly benefit those studying rationality and human reasoning
Categories: Philosophy