Challenging many sacrosanct notions about the relationship between Native Americans and nature, the author discusses the possible role of Pleistocene-era humans in eradicating the mastodon, over-irrigation of crops among the Hohokam of ...
Author: Shepard Krech
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
Challenging many sacrosanct notions about the relationship between Native Americans and nature, the author discusses the possible role of Pleistocene-era humans in eradicating the mastodon, over-irrigation of crops among the Hohokam of Arizona, and slash-and-burn farming techniques. Reprint. 10,000 first printing.
Often cited as one of the most decisive campaigns in military history, the Seven Days Battles were the first campaign in which Robert E. Lee led the Army of Northern Virginia-as well as the first in which Lee and Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson ...
Author: Michael Eugene Harkin
Publisher: U of Nebraska Press
Often cited as one of the most decisive campaigns in military history, the Seven Days Battles were the first campaign in which Robert E. Lee led the Army of Northern Virginia-as well as the first in which Lee and Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson worked together.
It is with this wider sense in mind that the history of ecology has been treated in this volume.
Author: Irfan Habib
Publisher: Tulika Books
Increasing interest has been shown in recent decades in matters relating to ecology, especially under the influence of the debate on climate change. The scope of ecology is, of course, much wider than that of climate alone, and involves in addition not only human relation with all species of animals and plants but also those conditions of human societies (material and intellectual) that influence our responses to the opportunities and challenges posed by nature. It is with this wider sense in mind that the history of ecology has been treated in this volume. Extensive extracts from sources have been provided; and there are special notes on ecology, climatology, zooarchaeology, natural history, and forestry.
I argue that the use of Indian identity to advance environmental causes is a form
of cultural imperialism, what Larry Lohmann has called “green orientalism.” That
is, the ecological Indian stereotype not only appropriates Native American ...
Author: Sarah Jaquette Ray
Publisher: University of Arizona Press
With roots in eugenics and other social-control programs, modern American environmentalism is not always as progressive as we would like to think. In The Ecological Other, Sarah Jaquette Ray examines the ways in which environmentalism can create social injustice through discourses of the body. Ray investigates three categories of ecological otherness: people with disabilities, immigrants, and Native Americans. Extending recent work in environmental justice ecocriticism, Ray argues that the expression of environmental disgust toward certain kinds of bodies draws problematic lines between ecological “subjects”—those who are good for and belong in nature—and ecological “others”—those who are threats to or out of place in nature. Ultimately, The Ecological Other urges us to be more critical of how we use nature as a tool of social control and to be careful about the ways in which we construct our arguments to ensure its protection. The book challenges long-standing assumptions in environmentalism and will be of interest to those in environmental literature and history, American studies, disability studies, and Native American studies, as well as anyone concerned with issues of environmental justice.
Author: Christopher Arris OakleyPublish On: 2005-01-01
Philip J. Deloria,Playing Indian (New Haven:Yale University Press, 1998), 154–
68; Bordewich,White Man's Indian, 204–39. 51. Great debate surrounds Krech's
work. For more on his conclusions, see Shepard Krech III, The Ecological Indian:
Author: Christopher Arris Oakley
Publisher: U of Nebraska Press
"Keeping the Circle presents an overview of the modern history and identity of the Native peoples in twentieth-century North Carolina, including the Lumbees, the Tuscaroras, the Waccamaw Sioux, the Occaneechis, the Meherrins, the Haliwa-Saponis, and the Coharies. From the late 1800s until the 1930s, Native peoples in the eastern part of the state lived and farmed in small isolated communities. Although relatively insulated, they were acculturated, and few fit the traditional stereotype of an Indian. They spoke English, practiced Christianity, and in general lived and worked like other North Carolinians. Nonetheless, Indians in the state maintained a strong sense of "Indianness."" "The political, social, and economic changes effected by the New Deal and World War II forced Native Americans in eastern North Carolina to alter their definition of Indianness. The paths for gaining recognition of their Native identity in recent decades have varied: for some, identity has been achieved and expressed on a local stage; for others, sense of self is linked inextricably to national issues and concerns. Using a combination of oral history and archival research, Christopher Arris Oakley traces the strategic response of these Native groups in North Carolina to postwar society and draws broader conclusions about Native American identity in the late twentieth and early twenty-first century."--BOOK JACKET.
Indians, Colonists, and the Ecology of New England William Cronon. cal
adjustments in a far from ideal setting. Being overpowered is not a sign of
passivity: however large the ecological forces that drove Indian communities
toward change, ...
Author: William Cronon
Publisher: Hill and Wang
Winner of the Francis Parkman Prize Changes in the Land offers an original and persuasive interpretation of the changing circumstances in New England's plant and animal communities that occurred with the shift from Indian to European dominance. With the tools of both historian and ecologist, Cronon constructs an interdisciplinary analysis of how the land and the people influenced one another, and how that complex web of relationships shaped New England's communities.
In his 1999 book, The Ecological Indian: Myth and History, Shepard Krech III
dissects the popular modern image of Native American as environmental prophet
, living in special harmony with land, plants, and animals. The idea that Indians,
as a ...
Author: Stephen Depoe
Category: Social Science
Voice and Environmental Communication explores how people give voice to, and listen to the voices of, the environment. This foundational book introduces the relationship between these two fundamental aspects of human existence and extends our knowledge of the role of voice in the study of environmental communication.
The debate has not as of this writing been resolved. Both sides have over time
made some persuasive cases. The ''good ecological'' native arguments are,
simplified, based on two threads. The first thread is the ecological knowledge and
Author: Helaine Selin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Nature Across Cultures: Views of Nature and the Environment in Non-Western Cultures consists of about 25 essays dealing with the environmental knowledge and beliefs of cultures outside of the United States and Europe. In addition to articles surveying Islamic, Chinese, Native American, Aboriginal Australian, Indian, Thai, and Andean views of nature and the environment, among others, the book includes essays on Environmentalism and Images of the Other, Traditional Ecological Knowledge, Worldviews and Ecology, Rethinking the Western/non-Western Divide, and Landscape, Nature, and Culture. The essays address the connections between nature and culture and relate the environmental practices to the cultures which produced them. Each essay contains an extensive bibliography. Because the geographic range is global, the book fills a gap in both environmental history and in cultural studies. It should find a place on the bookshelves of advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, and scholars, as well as in libraries serving those groups.
Ecofeminism and the Indian Novel tests the theories of ecofeminism against the background of India’s often different perceptions of environmental problems, challenging the hegemony of Western culture in thinking about human problems.
Author: Sangita Patil
Category: Literary Criticism
Ecofeminism and the Indian Novel tests the theories of ecofeminism against the background of India’s often different perceptions of environmental problems, challenging the hegemony of Western culture in thinking about human problems. This book moves beyond a simple application of the concepts of ecofeminism, instead explaining the uniqueness of Indian novels as narratives of ecofeminism and how they can contribute to the development of the theory of ecofeminism. In examining a selection of novels, the author argues that Indian texts conceptualize the ecological crisis more as a human problem than as a gender problem. The book proposes that we should think of ecofeminism as ecohumanism instead, seeing human beings and nature as a part of a complex web. Novels analysed within the text include Kamala Markandaya’s Nectar in a Sieve (1954), Shivram Karanth’s Return to Earth (2002) and Na D’Souza’s Dweepa (2013). Ecofeminism and the Indian Novel will be of great interest to students and scholars of ecofeminism, ecocriticism, ecological feminism, environmental humanities, gender studies, ecological humanities, feminist studies and Indian literature.
A crowning work drawing on Krech's distinguished career in anthropology and natural history, Spirits of the Air recovers vanished worlds and shows us our own anew.
Author: Shepard Krech
Publisher: University of Georgia Press
Category: Social Science
Before the massive environmental change wrought by the European colonization of the South, hundreds of species of birds filled the region's flyways in immeasurable numbers. Before disease, war, and displacement altered the South's earliest human landscape, Native Americans hunted and ate birds and made tools and weapons from their beaks, bones, and talons. More significant to Shepard Krech III, Indians adorned themselves with feathers, invoked avian powers in ceremonies and dances, and incorporated bird imagery on pottery, carvings, and jewelry. Krech, a renowned authority on Native American interactions with nature, reveals as never before the omnipresence of birds in Native American life. From the time of the earliest known renderings of winged creatures in stone and earthworks through the nineteenth century, when Native southerners took part in decimating bird species with highly valued, fashionable plumage, Spirits of the Air examines the complex and changeable influences of birds on the Native American worldview. We learn of birds for which places and people were named; birds common in iconography and oral traditions; birds important in ritual and healing; and birds feared for their links to witches and other malevolent forces. Still other birds had no meaning for Native Americans. Krech shows us these invisible animals too, enriching our understanding of both the Indian-bird dynamic and the incredible diversity of winged life once found in the South. A crowning work drawing on Krech's distinguished career in anthropology and natural history, Spirits of the Air recovers vanished worlds and shows us our own anew.
The Wealth of Nature captures the fruit of what Worster calls "my own intellectual turning to the land." History, he writes, represents a dialogue between humanity and nature--though it is usually reported as if it were simple dictation.
Author: Donald Worster
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Category: Social Science
Hailed as "one of the most eminent environmental historians of the West" by Alan Brinkley in The New York Times Book Review, Donald Worster has been a leader in reshaping the study of American history. Winner of the prestigious Bancroft Prize for his book Dust Bowl, Worster has helped bring humanity's interaction with nature to the forefront of historical thinking. Now, in The Wealth of Nature, he offers a series of thoughtful, eloquent essays which lay out his views on environmental history, tying the study of the past to today's agenda for change. The Wealth of Nature captures the fruit of what Worster calls "my own intellectual turning to the land." History, he writes, represents a dialogue between humanity and nature--though it is usually reported as if it were simple dictation. Worster takes as his point of departure the approach expressed early on by Aldo Leopold, who stresses the importance of nature in determining human history; Leopold pointed out that the spread of bluegrass in Kentucky, for instance, created new pastures and fed the rush of American settlers across the Appalachians, which affected the contest between Britain, France, and the U.S. for control of the area. Worster's own work offers an even more subtly textured understanding, noting in this example, for instance, that bluegrass itself was an import from the Old World which supplanted native vegetation--a form of "environmental imperialism." He ranges across such areas as agriculture, water development, and other questions, examining them as environmental issues, showing how they have affected--and continue to affect--human settlement. Environmental history, he argues, is not simply the history of rural and wilderness areas; cities clearly have a tremendous impact on the land, on which they depend for their existence. He argues for a comprehensive approach to understanding our past as well as our present in environmental terms. "Nostalgia runs all through this society," Worster writes, "fortunately, for it may be our only hope of salvation." These reflective and engaging essays capture the fascination of environmental history--and the beauty of nature lost or endangered--underscoring the importance of intelligent action in the present.
Although there are other books that examine questions of culture and environment, this is the first book to employ a global feminist environmental justice analysis to focus on how racial inequality, gendered patterns of work, and ...
Author: No‘l Sturgeon
Publisher: University of Arizona Press
In this thoughtful and highly readable book, Noël Sturgeon illustrates the myriad and insidious ways in which American popular culture depicts social inequities as “natural” and how our images of “nature” interfere with creating solutions to environmental problems that are just and fair for all. Why is it, she wonders, that environmentalist messages in popular culture so often “naturalize” themes of heroic male violence, suburban nuclear family structures, and U.S. dominance in the world? And what do these patterns of thought mean for how we envision environmental solutions, like “green” businesses, recycling programs, and the protection of threatened species? Although there are other books that examine questions of culture and environment, this is the first book to employ a global feminist environmental justice analysis to focus on how racial inequality, gendered patterns of work, and heteronormative ideas about the family relate to environmental questions. Beginning in the late 1980s and moving to the present day, Sturgeon unpacks a variety of cultural tropes, including ideas about Mother Nature, the purity of the natural, and the allegedly close relationships of indigenous people with the natural world. She investigates the persistence of the “myth of the frontier” and its extension to the frontier of space exploration. She ponders the popularity (and occasional controversy) of penguins (and penguin family values) and questions assumptions about human warfare as “natural.” The book is intended to provoke debates—among college students and graduate students, among their professors, among environmental activists, and among all citizens who are concerned with issues of environmental quality and social equality.
The volume will be useful as either a textbook in introductory courses in Native American studies or as secondary reading. Summing Up: Highly recommended." —C. R. King, Washington State University, in Choice
Author: Paul Jentz
Publisher: Hackett Publishing
"Misconceptions continue to shape public perceptions of American Indians. Deeply ingrained cultural fictions, what Jentz (history, North Hennepin Community College) refers to as myths, have had a lasting hold on popular understanding of Native Americans. In this readable and engaging overview, Jentz provides an important corrective, one that not only catalogs key stories and stereotypes but also lays a foundation for challenging them. As the title indicates, Jentz seeks to demystify seven fundamental ideas about American Indians through critical histories. Following a helpful introductory discussion, he devotes a chapter to each myth. Specifically, he unpacks (1) the noble savage, (2) the ignoble savage, (3) wilderness and wildness, (4) the vanishing native, (5) the authentic Indian, (6) the ecological Indian, and (7) the mystical native. Throughout, Jentz employs clear language and tangible examples to clarify each myth and its significance. [T]his work will greatly benefit nonspecialists, including high school teachers and students. The volume will be useful as either a textbook in introductory courses in Native American studies or as secondary reading. Summing Up: Highly recommended." —C. R. King, Washington State University, in Choice
Cronon, Changes in the Land, 45, 151–52. 27. See Shepard Krech, The Ecological Indian: History and Myth (New York: Norton, 2000), as well as Michael
E. Harkin and David Lewis, eds. Native Americans and the Environment:
Author: Nancy C. Unger
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Category: Social Science
From pre-Columbian times to the environmental justice movements of the present, women and men frequently responded to the environment and environmental issues in profoundly different ways. Although both environmental history and women's history are flourishing fields, explorations of the synergy produced by the interplay between environment and sex, sexuality, and gender are just beginning. Offering more than biographies of great women in environmental history, Beyond Nature's Housekeepers examines the intersections that shaped women's unique environmental concerns and activism and that framed the way the larger culture responded. Women featured include Native Americans, colonists, enslaved field workers, pioneers, homemakers, municipal housekeepers, immigrants, hunters, nature writers, soil conservationists, scientists, migrant laborers, nuclear protestors, and environmental justice activists. As women, they fared, thought, and acted in ways complicated by social, political, and economic norms, as well as issues of sexuality and childbearing. Nancy C. Unger reveals how women have played a unique role, for better and sometimes for worse, in the shaping of the American environment.
Conclusion The conservation and preservation impulses—as complicated and
sometimes convoluted as they ... For more recent coverage of the debate, see
chapter one, 'Pleistocene extinctions', in Shepard Krech, The Ecological Indian: ...
Author: Marco Armiero
Publisher: A&C Black
'Think globally, act locally' has become a call to environmentalist mobilization, proposing a closer connection between global concerns, local issues and individual responsibility. A History of Environmentalism explores this dialectic relationship, with ten contributors from a range of disciplines providing a history of environmentalism which frames global themes and narrates local stories. Each of the chapters in this volume addresses specific struggles in the history of environmental movements, for example over national parks, species protection, forests, waste, contamination, nuclear energy and expropriation. A diverse range of environments and environmental actors are covered, including the communities in the Amazonian Forest, the antelope in Tibet, atomic power plants in Europe and oil and politics in the Niger Delta. The chapters demonstrate how these conflicts make visible the intricate connections between local and global, the body and the environment, and power and nature. A History of Environmentalism tells us much about transformations of cultural perceptions and ways of production and consuming, as well as ecological and social changes. More than offering an exhaustive picture of the entire environmentalist movement, A History of Environmentalism highlights the importance of the experience of environmentalism within local communities. It offers a worldwide and polyphonic perspective, making it key reading for students and scholars of global and environmental history and political ecology.
As John Walton suggests, she takes on the “favorable stereotype” of the earth
mother, the “Ecological Indian,” and the sexually attractive love interest.16 As
mentioned above, Maggie's character is based on the American Indian
Author: M. Elise Marubbio
Publisher: University Press of Kentucky
Killing the Indian Maiden examines the fascinating and often disturbing portrayal of Native American women in film. Through discussion of thirty-four Hollywood films from the silent period to the present, M. Elise Marubbio examines the sacrificial role of what she terms the "Celluloid Maiden" -- a young Native woman who allies herself with a white male hero and dies as a result of that choice. Marubbio intertwines theories of colonization, gender, race, and film studies to ground her study in sociohistorical context all in an attempt to define what it means to be an American. As Marubbio charts the consistent depiction of the Celluloid Maiden, she uncovers two primary characterizations -- the Celluloid Princess and the Sexualized Maiden. The archetype for the exotic Celluloid Princess appears in silent films such as Cecil B. DeMille's The Squaw Man (1914) and is thoroughly established in American iconography in Delmer Daves's Broken Arrow (1950). Her more erotic sister, the Sexualized Maiden, emerges as a femme fatale in such films as DeMille's North West Mounted Police (1940), King Vidor's Duel in the Sun (1946), and Charles Warren's Arrowhead (1953). The two characterizations eventually combine to form a hybrid Celluloid Maiden who first appears in John Ford's The Searchers (1956) and reappears in the 1970s and the 1990s in such films as Arthur Penn's Little Big Man (1970) and Michael Apted's Thunderheart (1992). Killing the Indian Maiden reveals a cultural iconography about Native Americans and their role in the frontier embedded in the American psyche. The Native American woman is a racialized and sexualized other -- a conquerable body representing both the seductions and the dangers of the frontier. These films show her being colonized and suffering at the hands of Manifest Destiny and American expansionism, but Marubbio argues that the Native American woman also represents a threat to the idea of a white America. The complexity and longevity of the Celluloid Maiden icon -- persisting into the twenty-first century -- symbolizes an identity crisis about the composition of the American national body that has played over and over throughout different eras and political climates. Ultimately, Marubbio establishes that the ongoing representation of the Celluloid Maiden signals the continuing development and justification of American colonialism.
The underlying assumptions of these models relate to a mono - centric city with the centripetal pull of the city centre , competition for ... OVERVIEW OF THE
ESSAYS The first ecological commentary on an Indian city in which the classic
Author: Daniel G. DeffenbaughPublish On: 2006-12-25
Children of the Earth The Ecological Indian Anyone who grew up in the late
sixties will remember the promotion that started it all. A lone Indian dressed in
buckskin paddles his birch-bark canoe across a tranquil lake. Coming to shore,
he pulls ...
Author: Daniel G. Deffenbaugh
Publisher: Cowley Publications
Deffenbaugh calls us to “live in a reciprocal relationship” with our biotic communities-the plants, animals, and other non-human cultures that share our particular places in the world. By rerooting our global lifestyles in the ecological knowledge of our homes, we may truly begin to mend the health of our planet. Deffenbaugh marries Christian theology and spiritual disciplines with Native American mythology and the practice of organic gardening to deepen our engagement with the places in which we live.
An Ecological Appraisal for the Indian Subcontinent J. R. Bhatt ... Invasive alien
weeds in India are either intentional or unintentional introductions, mostly from the neo-tropical regions of the world, and have tremendous potential to establish,
Author: J. R. Bhatt
Invasive alien species are a major threat to biodiversity and ecosystems throughout the world. In India, a country with four of the world's most important 'biodiversity hotspots', the invasion of alien plants means risking a national ecological disaster with major social and economic consequences. Currently, there is insufficient information about invasive alien plants; their distribution, rate of spread and adaptability to new environments. This book reveals existing and potential invaders, evaluates the level of risk they pose to native species and suggests steps to manage spread and limit damage. Invaluable to policy-makers, this book is also required reading for researchers of invasive plants worldwide.