The Culture of Military Innovation

The Culture of Military Innovation

This book studies the impact of cultural factors on the course of military innovations.

Author: Dima Adamsky

Publisher: Stanford Security Studies

ISBN: 0804769524

Category: Political Science

Page: 248

View: 560

This book studies the impact of cultural factors on the course of military innovations. One would expect that countries accustomed to similar technologies would undergo analogous changes in their perception of and approach to warfare. However, the intellectual history of the Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) in Russia, the US, and Israel indicates the opposite. The US developed technology and weaponry for about a decade without reconceptualizing the existing paradigm about the nature of warfare. Soviet 'new theory of victory' represented a conceptualization which chronologically preceded technological procurement. Israel was the first to utilize the weaponry on the battlefield, but was the last to develop a conceptual framework that acknowledged its revolutionary implications. Utilizing primary sources that had previously been completely inaccessible, and borrowing methods of analysis from political science, history, anthropology, and cognitive psychology, this book suggests a cultural explanation for this puzzling transformation in warfare. The Culture of Military Innovation offers a systematic, thorough, and unique analytical approach that may well be applicable in other perplexing strategic situations. Though framed in the context of specific historical experience, the insights of this book reveal important implications related to conventional, subconventional, and nonconventional security issues. It is therefore an ideal reference work for practitioners, scholars, teachers, and students of security studies.
Categories: Political Science

The Culture of Military Innovation

The Culture of Military Innovation

military innovations, capitalizing on the intellectual history of the recent RMA. Using comparative and contrasting cases, this study produces more credible evidence for the infl uence of cultural factors than can an example in which ...

Author: Dima Adamsky

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 9780804769518

Category: Political Science

Page: 231

View: 836

This book studies the impact of cultural factors on the course of military innovations. One would expect that countries accustomed to similar technologies would undergo analogous changes in their perception of and approach to warfare. However, the intellectual history of the Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) in Russia, the US, and Israel indicates the opposite. The US developed technology and weaponry for about a decade without reconceptualizing the existing paradigm about the nature of warfare. Soviet 'new theory of victory' represented a conceptualization which chronologically preceded technological procurement. Israel was the first to utilize the weaponry on the battlefield, but was the last to develop a conceptual framework that acknowledged its revolutionary implications. Utilizing primary sources that had previously been completely inaccessible, and borrowing methods of analysis from political science, history, anthropology, and cognitive psychology, this book suggests a cultural explanation for this puzzling transformation in warfare. The Culture of Military Innovation offers a systematic, thorough, and unique analytical approach that may well be applicable in other perplexing strategic situations. Though framed in the context of specific historical experience, the insights of this book reveal important implications related to conventional, subconventional, and nonconventional security issues. It is therefore an ideal reference work for practitioners, scholars, teachers, and students of security studies.
Categories: Political Science

The Influence of Professional Culture on American Military Innovation in Counterinsurgency

The Influence of Professional Culture on American Military Innovation in Counterinsurgency

This dissertation critically explores military innovation in counterinsurgency in the American experience.

Author: Matthew Jacob Schmidt

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:867150941

Category: Military art and science

Page: 516

View: 843

This dissertation critically explores military innovation in counterinsurgency in the American experience. It examines innovations in the operational strategy of the U.S. military in the Philippines War from 1898-1902, and the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq from 2001 to present. The U.S., like most advanced militaries, has defined military professionalism in terms of the specialized knowledge and skills needed to wage major combat operations (MCO) in conventional war, against similarly armed and organized opponents. When faced with the problems of fighting insurgent groups that are neither similarly armed nor organized, the American military establishment has struggled to innovate quickly and effectively. I argue that American military culture is the primary explanation for why innovation in counterinsurgency has been so difficult. An institutional environment that defines the profession via a technology-driven framework of major combat has hampered the adoption of innovative approaches to counterinsurgency that lie outside the dominant institutional culture.
Categories: Military art and science

Military Culture and Transformation

Military Culture and Transformation

Innovation is a complex process that is neither linear nor always apparent. The interactions among intellectual, institutional, and political-economic forces are intricate and obscure.

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:640101059

Category:

Page: 5

View: 289

Innovation is a complex process that is neither linear nor always apparent. The interactions among intellectual, institutional, and political-economic forces are intricate and obscure. The historical and strategic context within which militaries transform compounds this complexity. Nevertheless, factors such as military culture, technological modernization, doctrinal development, and organizational and tactical innovation have influenced the ability to transform. Indeed, the inextricable confluence of these factors determines the success of transformation. The period between 1914 and 1945 shows the dynamic nature of military innovation and the difficulty military organizations face in adapting to the changing global strategic environment and evolving threats. This article highlights three case studies from this period and considers both successful and unsuccessful transformational efforts. These studies can clarify current problems and provide possible solutions for the U.S. military's own transformation.
Categories:

Military Innovation in Small States

Military Innovation in Small States

... in defense planning; identifying, predicting, and responding to military innovation, whether conceptual, organizational, or technological; and, in the long term, pursuing military innovation through changes in strategic culture.

Author: Michael Raska

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317661290

Category: History

Page: 234

View: 729

This book provides a comprehensive assessment of the global diffusion of the Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) and its impact on military innovation trajectories in small states. Although the 'Revolution in Military Affairs' (RMA) concept has enjoyed significant academic attention, the varying paths and patterns of military innovation in divergent strategic settings have been overlooked. This book seeks to rectify this gap by addressing the broad puzzle of how the global diffusion of RMA-oriented military innovation – the process of international transmission, communication, and interaction of RMA-related military concepts, organizations, and technologies - has shaped the paths, patterns, and scope of military innovation of selected small states. In a reverse mode, how have selected small states influenced the conceptualization and transmission of the RMA theory, processes, and debate? Using Israel, Singapore and South Korea as case studies, this book argues that RMA-oriented military innovation paths in small states indicate predominantly evolutionary trajectory, albeit with a varying patterns resulting from the confluence of three sets of variables: (1) the level of strategic, organizational, and operational adaptability in responding to shifts in the geostrategic and regional security environment; (2) the ability to identify, anticipate, exploit, and sustain niche military innovation – select conceptual, organizational, and technological innovation intended to enhance the military’s ability to prepare for, fight, and win wars, and (3) strategic culture. While the book represents relevant empirical cases for testing the validity of the RMA diffusion hypotheses, from a policy-oriented perspective, this book argues that these case studies offer lessons learned in coping with the security and defence management challenges posed by military innovation in general. This book will be of much interest for students of military innovation, strategic studies, defence studies, Asian politics, Middle Eastern politics and security studies in general.
Categories: History

The Culture of Military Organizations

The Culture of Military Organizations

powerful force that resists even the strongest pressures of renewal and innovation. Military organizations are particularly slow to evolve culturally. For organizations involved in armed conflicts, radical change is potentially ...

Author: Peter R. Mansoor

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781108485739

Category: History

Page: 450

View: 727

Examines how military culture forms and changes, as well as its impact on the effectiveness of military organizations.
Categories: History

A Transformation Gap

A Transformation Gap

This book assesses the extent and trajectory of military transformation across a range of European NATO member states, setting their transformation progress against that of the US, and examining the complex mix of factors driving military ...

Author: Theo Farrell

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 9780804781800

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 349

NATO member states are all undergoing some form of military transformation. Despite a shared vision, transformation has been primarily a US-led process centered on the exploitation of new information technologies in combination with new concepts for "networked organizations" and "effects-based operations." Simply put, European states have been unable to match the level of US investment in new military technologies, leading to the identification of a growing "transformation gap" between the US and the European allies. This book assesses the extent and trajectory of military transformation across a range of European NATO member states, setting their transformation progress against that of the US, and examining the complex mix of factors driving military transformation in each country. It reveals not only the nature and extent of the transatlantic gap, but also identifies an enormous variation in the extent and pace of transformation among the European allies, suggesting both technological and operational gaps within Europe.
Categories: Political Science

The Sources of Military Change

The Sources of Military Change

Culture, Politics, Technology Theo Farrell, Terry Terriff. Aircraft Carrier : The British , American , and Japanese Case Studies . " in Williamson Murray and Allan R. Millett ( eds . ) . Military Innovation in the Interwar Period ...

Author: Theo Farrell

Publisher: Lynne Rienner Publishers

ISBN: 1555879756

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 301

View: 665

In varying circumstances, military organizations around the world are undergoing major restructuring. This book explores why, and how, militaries change.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Military Innovation in the Interwar Period

Military Innovation in the Interwar Period

41 But there were problems with German military culture that robbed the Germans of their tactical and operational innovations . The most brilliant battlefield performance quite simply could not make up for logistic and intelligence ...

Author: Williamson R. Murray

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521637600

Category: History

Page: 428

View: 144

In 1914, the armies and navies that faced each other were alike, right down to the strengths of their companies and battalions and the designs of their battleships and cruisers. Differences were of degree rather than essence. During the interwar period, however, the armed forces grew increasingly asymmetrical, developing different approaches to the same problems. This study of major military innovations in the 1920s and 1930s explores differences in exploitation by the seven major military powers. The comparative essays investigate how and why innovation occurred or did not occur, and explain much of the strategic and operative performance of the Axis and Allies in World War II. The essays focus on several instances of how military services developed new technology and weapons and incorporated them into their doctrine, organization and styles of operations.
Categories: History

Enemy Civilian Casualties

Enemy Civilian Casualties

195. Adamsky, The Culture of Military Innovation, 2. 196. William Owens, “The American Revolution in Military Affairs,” Joint Force Quarterly 10 (1996): 37. 197. Ibid., 38. 198. Lock-Pullan, “U.S. Military Strategy,” 177. 199.

Author: Ofer Fridman

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9781498586924

Category: Political Science

Page: 256

View: 819

This book traces political, cultural, and technological aspects of the problem of enemy civilian casualties. By looking at the sociopolitical environment in the United States, Russia, and Israel, Ofer Fridman analyses the systematic failure of their military organizations to integrate technologies meant to minimize enemy civilian casualties.
Categories: Political Science

Uncovering Ways of War

Uncovering Ways of War

Using formerly classified sources - in particular, the reports of military attaches and other diplomat-officers - Thomas G. Mahnken sheds light on the shadowy world of U.S. intelligence gathering, tracing how America learned of military ...

Author: Thomas G. Mahnken

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801439868

Category: History

Page: 190

View: 657

Using formerly classified sources - in particular, the reports of military attaches and other diplomat-officers - Thomas G. Mahnken sheds light on the shadowy world of U.S. intelligence gathering, tracing how America learned of military developments in Japan, Germany, and Great Britain in the period between the two world wars. The interwar period witnessed both a considerable shift in the balance of power in Europe and Asia and the emergence of new ways of war, such as carrier aviation, amphibious operations, and combined-arms armored warfare. American attempts to follow these developments, Mahnken says, illustrate the problems that intelligence organizations face in their efforts to bridge the gulf between prewar expectations and wartime reality. He finds three reasons for intelligence's relative lack of success: intelligence agencies are more inclined to monitor established weapons systems than to search for new ones; their attention is more likely to focus on technology and doctrine already demonstrated in combat; and they have more success identifying innovation in areas their own country is testing.
Categories: History

Transforming Military Power since the Cold War

Transforming Military Power since the Cold War

Unlike most studies of military innovation, we have not set out to test rival theories of innovation. Nonetheless, our book does have much to contribute to the theory of military innovation. The principal contribution is to demonstrate ...

Author: Theo Farrell

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781107044326

Category: History

Page: 318

View: 610

An empirically rich account of how the West's main war-fighting armies have transformed since the end of the Cold War.
Categories: History

Israel s Long War with Hezbollah

Israel s Long War with Hezbollah

With Hezbollah playing an ongoing role in the civil war in Syria and the simmering hostilities on the Israel-Lebanon border, students, scholars, diplomats, and military practitioners with an interest in Middle Eastern security issues, ...

Author: Raphael D. Marcus

Publisher: Georgetown University Press

ISBN: 9781626166127

Category: Political Science

Page: 320

View: 670

The ongoing conflict between Israel and the Lebanese militant group Hezbollah is now in its fourth decade and shows no signs of ending. Raphael D. Marcus examines this conflict since the formation of Hezbollah during Israel’s occupation of Lebanon in the early 1980s. He critically evaluates events including Israel’s long counterguerrilla campaign throughout the 1990s, the Israeli withdrawal in 2000, the 2006 summer war, and concludes with an assessment of current tensions on the border between Israel and Lebanon related to the Syrian civil war. Israel’s Long War with Hezbollah is both the first complete military history of this decades-long conflict and an analysis of military innovation and adaptation. The book is based on unique fieldwork in Israel and Lebanon, extensive research into Hebrew and Arabic primary sources, and dozens of interviews Marcus conducted with Israeli defense officials, high-ranking military officers of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF), United Nations personnel, a Hezbollah official, and Western diplomats. As an expert on organizational learning, Marcus analyzes ongoing processes of strategic and operational innovation and adaptation by both the IDF and Hezbollah throughout the long guerrilla conflict. His conclusions illuminate the dynamics of the ongoing conflict and illustrate the complexity of military adaptation under fire. With Hezbollah playing an ongoing role in the civil war in Syria and the simmering hostilities on the Israel-Lebanon border, students, scholars, diplomats, and military practitioners with an interest in Middle Eastern security issues, Israeli military history, and military innovation and adaptation can ill afford to neglect this book.
Categories: Political Science

Learning to Fight

Learning to Fight

The first institutional examination of the British army's learning and innovation process during the First World War.

Author: Aimée Fox

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781107190795

Category: History

Page: 278

View: 574

Learning, innovation and adaptation are not concepts that we necessarily associate with the British army of the First World War. Yet the need to learn from mistakes, to exploit new opportunities and to adapt to complex situations are enduring and timeless. This revealing work is the first institutional examination of the army's process for learning during the First World War. Drawing on organisational learning and management theories, Aimée Fox critiques existing approaches to military learning in wartime. Focused around a series of case studies, the book ranges across multiple operational theatres and positions the army within a broader context in terms of its relationships with allies and civilians to reveal that learning was more complex and thoroughgoing than initially thought. It grapples with the army's failings and shortcomings, explores its successes and acknowledges the inherent difficulties of learning in a desperate and lethally competitive environment.
Categories: History

Global Perspectives on Military Entrepreneurship and Innovation

Global Perspectives on Military Entrepreneurship and Innovation

In addition to the strategic product development and production demand for the armed forces' products that every country ... The culture of military innovation: The impact of cultural factors on the Revolution in Military Affairs in ...

Author: Ojo, Sanya

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 9781799866572

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 357

View: 296

Like other organizations across the world, military establishments apply the concept of entrepreneurship to day-to-day activities. However, literature on the topic runs thin, creating a gap in the research on this area of military involvement in entrepreneurship. These studies focus heavily on three topics: ex-military officers in entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial-minded individuals still in the military, and military spouses as successful entrepreneurs. It is essential that researchers interrogate these three areas across different locational contexts for a clear representation and understanding of the many forms of military entrepreneurship. This research focuses on outcomes, the entrepreneurial process, economic activities, and ontological directions. Military entrepreneurship is cross-cultural; spans varied locations; and is linked to retired, retiring, serving military personnel, and military spouses. Global Perspectives on Military Entrepreneurship and Innovation builds on existing theoretical and empirical studies in the areas of entrepreneurship and military business and enterprise to interrogate the concepts of military entrepreneurship, veteran entrepreneurship, military spouse entrepreneurship (or military women entrepreneurship), and retirees’ entrepreneurship. The book is a collection of studies on military entrepreneurship, treating the subject with emphasis on metacognition, and interrogates differences in metacognitive processing across cultures and values relating to military entrepreneurship. The chapters cover various concepts in military entrepreneurship and promote entrepreneurship research within the military ecosystem. This book is ideal for military personnel, entrepreneurs, managers, practitioners, researchers, academicians, and students interested in the concept of military entrepreneurship and innovation narratives.
Categories: Business & Economics

US Intervention Policy and Army Innovation

US Intervention Policy and Army Innovation

Due regard has to be paid to how a nation's military innovates , and the potential this has for the future of US strategic culture . Military innovation The changes that the Army initiated after the Vietnam War , based upon its ...

Author: Richard Lock-Pullan

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 0714657190

Category: History

Page: 291

View: 662

This book examines how the US Army rebuilt itself after the Vietnam War and how this has effected US intervention policy after the Cold War.
Categories: History

Reconsidering American Civil Military Relations

Reconsidering American Civil Military Relations

Jeff Donnithorne, “Air Force Culture and American Civil- Military Relations,” Strategic Studies Quarterly (Winter 2010): ... Dima Adamsky, The Culture of Military Innovation: The Impact of Cultural Factors on the Revolution in Military ...

Author: Lionel Beehner

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780197535516

Category: Political Science

Page:

View: 501

This book explores contemporary civil-military relations in the United States. Much of the canonical literature on civil-military relations was either written during or references the Cold War, while other major research focuses on the post-Cold War era, or the first decade of the twenty-first century. A great deal has changed since then. This book considers the implications for civil-military relations of many of these changes. Specifically, it focuses on factors such as breakdowns in democratic and civil-military norms and conventions; intensifying partisanship and deepening political divisions in American society; as well as new technology and the evolving character of armed conflict. Chapters are organized around the principal actors in civil-military relations, and the book includes sections on the military, civilian leadership, and the public. It explores the roles and obligations of each. The book also examines how changes in contemporary armed conflict influence civil-military relations. Chapters in this section examine the cyber domain, grey zone operations, asymmetric warfare and emerging technology. The book thus brings the study of civil-military relations into the contemporary era, in which new geopolitical realities and the changing character of armed conflict combine with domestic political tensions to test, if not potentially redefine, those relations.
Categories: Political Science

Russian Hybrid Warfare

Russian  Hybrid Warfare

Lock-Pullan, Richard, US Intervention Policy and Army Innovation: From Vietnam to Iraq, London: Routledge, 2006, p. 13; Dima Adamsky, The Culture of Military Innovation: The Impact of Cultural Factors on the Revolution in Military ...

Author: Ofer Fridman

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780190934958

Category: Political Science

Page:

View: 638

During the last decade, 'Hybrid Warfare' has become a novel yet controversial term in academic, political and professional military lexicons, intended to suggest some sort of mix between different military and non-military means and methods of confrontation. Enthusiastic discussion of the notion has been undermined by conceptual vagueness and political manipulation, particularly since the onset of the Ukrainian Crisis in early 2014, as ideas about Hybrid Warfare engulf Russia and the West, especially in the media. Western defense and political specialists analyzing Russian responses to the crisis have been quick to confirm that Hybrid Warfare is the Kremlin's main strategy in the twenty-first century. But many respected Russian strategists and political observers contend that it is the West that has been waging Hybrid War, Gibridnaya Voyna, since the end of the Cold War. In this highly topical book, Ofer Fridman offers a clear delineation of the conceptual debates about Hybrid Warfare. What leads Russian experts to say that the West is conducting a Gibridnaya Voyna against Russia, and what do they mean by it? Why do Western observers claim that the Kremlin engages in Hybrid Warfare? And, beyond terminology, is this something genuinely new?
Categories: Political Science

China s Emergence as a Defense Technological Power

China s Emergence as a Defense Technological Power

Relatively little appears to be known about the nature of the relationship between the public and private sectors in China's national innovation system and the extent to which it has served to spur, or will spur, military innovation.

Author: Tai Ming Cheung

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317967224

Category: History

Page: 224

View: 484

China is flexing its growing military and strategic clout in the pursuit of broadening national security interests. At the same time, the country’s economic and technology policies have also become more nationalistic, state-centered, and ambitious. China’s defense economy has set its sights on catching up with the West by the beginning of the 2020s and is making steady progress in building up its innovation capabilities, although this is presently in the form of incremental and sustaining types of activities. More high-end, disruptive forms of innovation that would lead to major breakthroughs are likely to be beyond China’s reach in the near-to medium term. This volume provides a wide-ranging and detailed assessment of the present state of the Chinese defense economy at a time of rapid change and accelerating advancement in its innovation capabilities and performance. This collection of articles has three main goals: (1) to locate China’s defense innovation dynamics within broader historical, technological and methodological frameworks of analysis; (2) to assess the performance of the Chinese defense economy’s six principal subsectors; and (3) to compare China’s approach to defense industrialization with major counterparts in the Asia-Pacific region. This book was originally published as a special issue of the Journal of Strategic Studies.
Categories: History

Managing Defense Transformation

Managing Defense Transformation

This book explicates the conditions under which military organizations have both succeeded and failed at institutionalizing new ideas and forms of warfare.

Author: Asst Prof Adam N Stulberg

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 9781409498193

Category: Political Science

Page: 220

View: 135

Why are some military organizations more adept than others at reinventing themselves? Why do some efforts succeed rapidly while others only gather momentum over time or become sidetracked or even subverted? This book explicates the conditions under which military organizations have both succeeded and failed at institutionalizing new ideas and forms of warfare. Through comparative analysis of some classic cases - US naval aviation during the interwar period; German and British armour development during the same period; and the US Army's experience with counter-insurgency during the Vietnam War - the authors offer a novel explanation for change rooted in managerial strategies for aligning service incentives and norms. With contemporary policy makers scrambling to digest the lessons of recent wars in Kosovo, Afghanistan and Iraq, as well as to meet the unfolding challenges of the new revolution in military affairs (RMA), understanding the sources and impediments to transformation has become critical.
Categories: Political Science