The Cuban Missile Crisis in American Memory

Myths versus Reality

Author: Sheldon M. Stern

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 0804784329

Category: History

Page: 208

View: 1816

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This book exposes the misconceptions, half-truths, and outright lies that have shaped the still dominant but largely mythical version of what happened in the White House during those harrowing two weeks of secret Cuban missile crisis deliberations. A half-century after the event it is surely time to demonstrate, once and for all, that RFK's Thirteen Days and the personal memoirs of other ExComm members cannot be taken seriously as historically accurate accounts of the ExComm meetings.
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The Cuban Missile Crisis

The Threshold of Nuclear War

Author: Alice L. George

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0415899710

Category: History

Page: 189

View: 1967

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For thirteen days in October of 1962, a truly perilous flirtation with nuclear war developed between the United States and USSR, as the superpowers argued over the installation of Soviet nuclear weapons in Cuba. Launched by rash judgment and concluded through circumspect leadership, the Cuban Missile Crisis acted as a catalyst for change during the Cold War. Resolved through back-channel negotiations, the moment is popularly remembered as the closest the world has ever come to full-scale nuclear war. Using government memoranda, personal letters, and newspaper articles The Cuban Missile Crisis, details the actual events of the political history, while explaining widespread public response. In six concise chapters, Alice George introduces the history of Cold War America and contextualizes its political, social, and cultural legacy. This will be a must-read for anyone looking for an in-depth summary of these important events. For additional resources please visit the companion website at http://www.routledge.com/cw/criticalmoments.
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The Double Game

The Demise of America's First Missile Defense System and the Rise of Strategic Arms Limitation

Author: James Cameron

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190459948

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 8104

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How did the United States move from a position of nuclear superiority over the Soviet Union at the beginning of the 1960s to one of nuclear parity under the doctrine of mutual assured destruction in 1972? Drawing on declassified records of conversations three presidents had with their most trusted advisors, James Cameron offers an original answer to this question. John F. Kennedy, Lyndon Johnson, and Richard Nixon struggled to reconcile their personal convictions about the nuclear arms race with the views of the public and Congress. In doing so they engaged in a double game, hiding their true beliefs behind a façade of strategic language while grappling in private with the complex realities of the nuclear age. Cameron shows how, despite reservations about the nuclear buildup, Kennedy and Johnson pushed ahead with an anti-ballistic missile (ABM) system for the United States, fearing the domestic political consequences of scrapping both the system and the popular doctrine of strategic superiority that underpinned it. By contrast, the abrupt decline in US public and congressional support in 1969 forced Nixon to give up America's first ABM and the US lead in offensive ballistic missiles through agreements with the Soviet Union, despite his conviction that the US needed a nuclear edge to maintain the security of the West. By placing this dynamic at the center of the story, The Double Game provides a new overarching interpretation of this pivotal period in the development of US nuclear policy and a window onto current debates over nuclear superiority, deterrence, and the future of American grand strategy.
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Kennedy and Reagan

Why Their Legacies Endure

Author: Scott Farris

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 1493001884

Category: History

Page: 400

View: 1257

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It's been fifty years since JFK’s assassination and nearly twenty since Ronald Reagan disappeared from public life. While they never ran head-to-head, they developed their legacies in competing ways and those legacies battle each other even today. The story of one illuminates the other, and explains our expectations for the presidency and whom we elect. Even though one is the model Democrat and the other the model Republican, their appeal is now bipartisan. Republicans quote Kennedy to justify tax cuts or aggressive national defense; Democrats use Reagan’s pragmatism to shame Republicans into supporting tax increases and compromise. Partly a "comparative biography" that explores John F. Kennedy’s and Ronald Reagan’s contemporaneous lives from birth until 1960, Scott Farris's follow-up to his widely praised Almost President shows how the experiences, attitudes, and skills developed by each man later impacted his presidency. Farris also tackles the key issues--civil rights, foreign affairs, etc.--that impacted each man’s time in office. How did previous life experiences form their views on these issues, and how do their dealings around each issue compare and contrast? Bookended by an examination of their standing in public opinion and how that has influenced subsequent politicians, plus an exploration of how the assassination of Kennedy and attempted assassination of Reagan colored our memories, this book also shows how aides, friends and families of each man have burnished their reputations long after their presidencies ended.
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The Cuban Missile Crisis and the Cold War

A Short History with Documents

Author: Michelle Getchell

Publisher: Hackett Publishing

ISBN: 1624667430

Category: History

Page: 208

View: 4410

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In October 1962, when the Soviet Union deployed nuclear missiles in Cuba, the most dangerous confrontation of the Cold War ensued, bringing the world close to the brink of nuclear war. Over two tense weeks, U.S. president John F. Kennedy and Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev managed to negotiate a peaceful resolution to what was nearly a global catastrophe. Drawing on the best recent scholarship and previously unexamined documents from the archives of the former Soviet Union, this introductory volume examines the motivations and calculations of the major participants in the conflict, sets the crisis in the context of the broader history of the global Cold War, and traces the effects of the crisis on subsequent international and regional geopolitical relations. Selections from twenty primary sources provide firsthand accounts of the frantic deliberations and realpolitik diplomacy between the U.S., the U.S.S.R., and Fidel Castro's Cuban regime; thirteen illustrations are also included. CONTENTS: Introduction: The Making of a global Crisis The Origins of the Cold War A New Front in the Cold War The Cold War in Latin America The Cuban Revolution and the Soviet Union U.S. and Regional Responses to the Cuban Revolution Operation Zapata: The Bay of Pigs Operation Anadyr: Soviet Missiles in Cuba Crisis Dénouement: The Missiles of November Evaluating the Leadership on All Sides of the Crisis Nuclear Fallout: Consequences of the Missile Crisis The Future of Cuban-Soviet Relations Latin American Responses to the Missile Crisis Conclusion: Lessons of the Cuban Missile Crisis Historiography of the Cuban Missile Crisis Documents Memorandum for McGeorge Bundy from Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., April 10, 1961 State Department White Paper, April 1961 From the Cable on the Conversation between Gromyko and Kennedy, October 18, 1962 Telegram from Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko to the CC CPSU, October 20, 1962 President John F. Kennedy’s speech to the Nation, October 22, 1962 Resolution Adopted by the Council of the Organization of American States Acting Provisionally as the Organ of Consultation, October 23, 1962 Message from Mexican President Adolfo López Mateos to Cuban President Osvaldo Dorticós, October 23, 1962 Letter from Khrushchev to John F. Kennedy, October 24, 1962 Telegram from Soviet Ambassador to the USA Dobrynin to the USSR MFA, October 24, 1962 Memorandum for President Kennedy from Douglas Dillon, October 26, 1962 Telegram from Fidel Castro to N.S. Khrushchev, October 26, 1962 Letter from Khrushchev to Fidel Castro, October 28, 1962 Cable from USSR Ambassador to Cuba Alekseev to Soviet Ministry of Foreign Affairs, October 28, 1962 Telegram from Soviet Deputy Foreign Minister Kuznetsov and Ambassador to the U.N. Zorin to USSR Foreign Ministry (1), October 30, 1962 Premier Khrushchev’s Letter to Prime Minister Castro, October 30, 1962 Prime Minister Castro’s Letter to Premier Khrushchev, October 31, 1962 Meeting of the Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba with Mikoyan in the Presidential Palace, November 4, 1962 Brazilian Foreign Ministry Memorandum, “Question of Cuba,” November 20, 1968 Letter from Khrushchev to Fidel Castro, January 31, 1963 “I Know Something About the Caribbean Crisis,” Notes from a Conversation with Fidel Castro, November 5, 1987 Select Bibliography
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An International History of the Cuban Missile Crisis

A 50-year retrospective

Author: David Gioe,Len Scott,Christopher Andrew

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317813146

Category: Political Science

Page: 328

View: 7317

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This edited volume addresses the main lessons and legacies of the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis from a global perspective. Despite the discoveries of recent research, there is still much more to be revealed about the handling of nuclear weapons before and during the Cuban Missile Crisis (CMC). Featuring contributions from a number of eminent international scholars of nuclear history, intelligence, espionage, political science and Cold War studies, An International History of the Cuban Missile Crisis reviews and reflects on one of the critical moments of the Cold War, focussing on three key areas. First, the volume highlights the importance of memory as an essential foundation of historical understanding and demonstrates how events that rely only on historical records can provide misleading accounts. This focus on memory extends the scope of the existing literature by exploring hitherto neglected aspects of the CMC, including an analysis of the operational aspects of Bomber Command activity, explored through recollections of the aircrews that challenge accounts based on official records. The editors then go on to explore aspects of intelligence whose achievements and failings have increasingly been recognised to be of central importance to the origins, dynamics and outcomes of the missile crisis. Studies of hitherto neglected organisations such as the US Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) and the British Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC) both extend our understanding of British and American intelligence machinery in this period and enrich our understanding of key episodes and assessments in the missile crisis. Finally, the book explores the risk of nuclear war and looks at how close we came to nuclear conflict. The risk of inadvertent use of nuclear weapons is evaluated and a new proposed framework for the analysis of nuclear risk put forward. This volume will be of much interest to students of intelligence studies, international history, foreign policy, security studies and IR in general.
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National Trauma and Collective Memory

Extraordinary Events in the American Experience

Author: Arthur G. Neal

Publisher: M.E. Sharpe

ISBN: 9780765632975

Category: History

Page: N.A

View: 4761

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A fascinating exploration of our evolving national psyche, this book chronicles major traumas in recent American history - from the Depression and Pearl Harbor, to the assassinations of the Kennedys and Martin Luther King, Jr., to Ruby Ridge, Waco, and Columbine - how we responded to them as a nation, and what our responses mean. Reflecting on American popular culture as well as the media, this edition includes a new chapter on 9/11 and other acts of terror within the United States, as well as coverage of the Columbia space shuttle disaster. New student-friendly features, including discussion questions and "Symbolic Events" boxes in each chapter, give the book added value as a classroom supplement.
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The Making of the "Rape of Nanking" : History and Memory in Japan, China, and the United States

History and Memory in Japan, China, and the United States

Author: Takashi Yoshida Assistant Professor of History Western Michigan University

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0195346211

Category: History

Page: 278

View: 2392

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On December 13, 1937, the Japanese army attacked and captured the Chinese capital city of Nanjing, planting the rising-sun flag atop the city's outer walls. What occurred in the ensuing weeks and months has been the source of a tempestuous debate ever since. It is well known that the Japanese military committed wholesale atrocities after the fall of the city, massacring large numbers of Chinese during the both the Battle of Nanjing and in its aftermath. Yet the exact details of the war crimes--how many people were killed during the battle? How many after? How many women were raped? Were prisoners executed? How unspeakable were the acts committed?--are the source of controversy among Japanese, Chinese, and American historians to this day. In The Making of the "Rape of Nanking" Takashi Yoshida examines how views of the Nanjing Massacre have evolved in history writing and public memory in Japan, China, and the United States. For these nations, the question of how to treat the legacy of Nanjing--whether to deplore it, sanitize it, rationalize it, or even ignore it--has aroused passions revolving around ethics, nationality, and historical identity. Drawing on a rich analysis of Chinese, Japanese, and American history textbooks and newspapers, Yoshida traces the evolving--and often conflicting--understandings of the Nanjing Massacre, revealing how changing social and political environments have influenced the debate. Yoshida suggests that, from the 1970s on, the dispute over Nanjing has become more lively, more globalized, and immeasurably more intense, due in part to Japanese revisionist history and a renewed emphasis on patriotic education in China. While today it is easy to assume that the Nanjing Massacre has always been viewed as an emblem of Japan's wartime aggression in China, the image of the "Rape of Nanking" is a much more recent icon in public consciousness. Takashi Yoshida analyzes the process by which the Nanjing Massacre has become an international symbol, and provides a fair and respectful treatment of the politically charged and controversial debate over its history.
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In the National Interest

A National Interest Reader

Author: Benjamin Frankel

Publisher: University Press of America

ISBN: 9780819175823

Category: Political Science

Page: 426

View: 6005

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This reader contains a sample of the best essays published in the foreign policy quarterly. The National Interest during its first four years. The period covered by this volume was a critical one for American foreign policy. It represented a recovery of confidence after the uncertainty and self-laceration of the 1960s and 1970s. But it was also a period when dramatic events in the communist world raised fundamental questions about the ending of the Cold War and about prevailing American foreign policy. The essays in this volume examine the basic and enduring questions of international politics and the national security of the United States. These and related issues are discussed in the reader by leading American policymakers, academics, and commentators. Co-published with The National Interest.
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