The Consistency of the Axiom of Choice and of the Generalized Continuum-hypothesis with the Axioms of Set Theory

Author: Kurt G?del,Kurt Goedel

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691079271

Category: Mathematics

Page: 66

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Kurt Gödel, mathematician and logician, was one of the most influential thinkers of the twentieth century. Gödel fled Nazi Germany, fearing for his Jewish wife and fed up with Nazi interference in the affairs of the mathematics institute at the University of Göttingen. In 1933 he settled at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, where he joined the group of world-famous mathematicians who made up its original faculty. His 1940 book, better known by its short title, The Consistency of the Continuum Hypothesis, is a classic of modern mathematics. The continuum hypothesis, introduced by mathematician George Cantor in 1877, states that there is no set of numbers between the integers and real numbers. It was later included as the first of mathematician David Hilbert's twenty-three unsolved math problems, famously delivered as a manifesto to the field of mathematics at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Paris in 1900. In The Consistency of the Continuum Hypothesis Gödel set forth his proof for this problem. In 1999, Time magazine ranked him higher than fellow scientists Edwin Hubble, Enrico Fermi, John Maynard Keynes, James Watson, Francis Crick, and Jonas Salk. He is most renowned for his proof in 1931 of the 'incompleteness theorem,' in which he demonstrated that there are problems that cannot be solved by any set of rules or procedures. His proof wrought fruitful havoc in mathematics, logic, and beyond.
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Set Theory and the Continuum Hypothesis

Author: Paul J. Cohen,Martin Davis

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486469212

Category: Mathematics

Page: 154

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This exploration of a notorious mathematical problem is the work of the man who discovered the solution. Written by an award-winning professor at Stanford University, it employs intuitive explanations as well as detailed mathematical proofs in a self-contained treatment. This unique text and reference is suitable for students and professionals. 1966 edition. Copyright renewed 1994.
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Kurt Gödel: Collected Works: Volume II

Publications 1938-1974

Author: Kurt Gödel

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195039726

Category: Mathematics

Page: 407

View: 5360

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This second volume of a comprehensive edition of Kurt Godel's works collects the remainder of his published work, covering the period 1938-1974. (Volume I included all of his publications from 1929-1936). Each article or closely related group of articles is preceded by an introductory note that elucidates it and places it in historical context.
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Set Theory and the Continuum Problem

Author: Raymond M. Smullyan,Melvin Fitting

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780486474847

Category: Mathematics

Page: 315

View: 7791

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A lucid, elegant, and complete survey of set theory, this three-part treatment explores axiomatic set theory, the consistency of the continuum hypothesis, and forcing and independence results. 1996 edition.
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Set Theory

Author: Thomas Jech

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3662224003

Category: Mathematics

Page: 634

View: 2928

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The main body of this book consists of 106 numbered theorems and a dozen of examples of models of set theory. A large number of additional results is given in the exercises, which are scattered throughout the text. Most exer cises are provided with an outline of proof in square brackets [ ], and the more difficult ones are indicated by an asterisk. I am greatly indebted to all those mathematicians, too numerous to men tion by name, who in their letters, preprints, handwritten notes, lectures, seminars, and many conversations over the past decade shared with me their insight into this exciting subject. XI CONTENTS Preface xi PART I SETS Chapter 1 AXIOMATIC SET THEORY I. Axioms of Set Theory I 2. Ordinal Numbers 12 3. Cardinal Numbers 22 4. Real Numbers 29 5. The Axiom of Choice 38 6. Cardinal Arithmetic 42 7. Filters and Ideals. Closed Unbounded Sets 52 8. Singular Cardinals 61 9. The Axiom of Regularity 70 Appendix: Bernays-Godel Axiomatic Set Theory 76 Chapter 2 TRANSITIVE MODELS OF SET THEORY 10. Models of Set Theory 78 II. Transitive Models of ZF 87 12. Constructible Sets 99 13. Consistency of the Axiom of Choice and the Generalized Continuum Hypothesis 108 14. The In Hierarchy of Classes, Relations, and Functions 114 15. Relative Constructibility and Ordinal Definability 126 PART II MORE SETS Chapter 3 FORCING AND GENERIC MODELS 16. Generic Models 137 17. Complete Boolean Algebras 144 18.
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Kurt Gödel and the Foundations of Mathematics

Horizons of Truth

Author: Matthias Baaz,Christos H. Papadimitriou,Hilary W. Putnam,Dana S. Scott,Charles L. Harper, Jr

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139498436

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

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This volume commemorates the life, work and foundational views of Kurt Gödel (1906–78), most famous for his hallmark works on the completeness of first-order logic, the incompleteness of number theory, and the consistency - with the other widely accepted axioms of set theory - of the axiom of choice and of the generalized continuum hypothesis. It explores current research, advances and ideas for future directions not only in the foundations of mathematics and logic, but also in the fields of computer science, artificial intelligence, physics, cosmology, philosophy, theology and the history of science. The discussion is supplemented by personal reflections from several scholars who knew Gödel personally, providing some interesting insights into his life. By putting his ideas and life's work into the context of current thinking and perceptions, this book will extend the impact of Gödel's fundamental work in mathematics, logic, philosophy and other disciplines for future generations of researchers.
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In the Light of Logic

Author: Solomon Feferman

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195359831

Category: Mathematics

Page: 352

View: 2736

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In this collection of essays written over a period of twenty years, Solomon Feferman explains advanced results in modern logic and employs them to cast light on significant problems in the foundations of mathematics. Most troubling among these is the revolutionary way in which Georg Cantor elaborated the nature of the infinite, and in doing so helped transform the face of twentieth-century mathematics. Feferman details the development of Cantorian concepts and the foundational difficulties they engendered. He argues that the freedom provided by Cantorian set theory was purchased at a heavy philosophical price, namely adherence to a form of mathematical platonism that is difficult to support. Beginning with a previously unpublished lecture for a general audience, Deciding the Undecidable, Feferman examines the famous list of twenty-three mathematical problems posed by David Hilbert, concentrating on three problems that have most to do with logic. Other chapters are devoted to the work and thought of Kurt G?del, whose stunning results in the 1930s on the incompleteness of formal systems and the consistency of Cantors continuum hypothesis have been of utmost importance to all subsequent work in logic. Though G?del has been identified as the leading defender of set-theoretical platonism, surprisingly even he at one point regarded it as unacceptable. In his concluding chapters, Feferman uses tools from the special part of logic called proof theory to explain how the vast part--if not all--of scientifically applicable mathematics can be justified on the basis of purely arithmetical principles. At least to that extent, the question raised in two of the essays of the volume, Is Cantor Necessary?, is answered with a resounding no. This volume of important and influential work by one of the leading figures in logic and the foundations of mathematics is essential reading for anyone interested in these subjects.
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The Evolution of Logic

Author: W. D. Hart

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139491202

Category: Philosophy

Page: N.A

View: 6534

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Examines the relations between logic and philosophy over the last 150 years. Logic underwent a major renaissance beginning in the nineteenth century. Cantor almost tamed the infinite, and Frege aimed to undercut Kant by reducing mathematics to logic. These achievements were threatened by the paradoxes, like Russell's. This ferment generated excellent philosophy (and mathematics) by excellent philosophers (and mathematicians) up to World War II. This book provides a selective, critical history of the collaboration between logic and philosophy during this period. After World War II, mathematical logic became a recognized subdiscipline in mathematics departments, and consequently but unfortunately philosophers have lost touch with its monuments. This book aims to make four of them (consistency and independence of the continuum hypothesis, Post's problem, and Morley's theorem) more accessible to philosophers, making available the tools necessary for modern scholars of philosophy to renew a productive dialogue between logic and philosophy.
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