The Climate of Israel

Observation, Research and Application

Author: Yair Goldreich

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461506972

Category: Science

Page: 270

View: 9298

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This book describes and analyses various aspects of Israeli climate. This work also elucidates how both man and nature adjust to various climates. The first part (Chapters 1-9) deals with the meteorological and climatological network stations, the history of climate research in Israel, analysis of the local climate by season, and a discussion of the climate variables their spatial and temporal distribution. The second part (Chapters 10-14) of this work is devoted to a survey of applied climatology. This part presents information on weather forecasting, rainfall enhancement, air quality monitoring, and various climatological aspects of planning. There is no sharp division between theoretical and applied climatology topics. Moreover, though various sections seem exclusively theoretical, they also include important applications for various real life situations (such as rainfall intensities (Section 5. 3), frost, frost damage (Section 6. 2. 4), degree-days (Section 6. 2. 5) and heat stress (Section 6. 2. 6). Professionals and university students of geography and earth science, meteorology and climatology, even high school students majoring in geography will be able to use this book as a basic reference work. Researchers in atmospheric science can also use this work as an important source of reference. Students of agriculture will also gain theoretical and practical insights. Even architects and engineers will gain another perspective in their fields.
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Climate and Political Climate

Environmental Disasters in the Medieval Levant

Author: Sarah Kate Raphael,Kate Raphael

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9004216561

Category: History

Page: 211

View: 2969

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The twelfth and thirteenth centuries in the Levant saw a substantial rise in the number of droughts. This coincided with some of the most violent tectonic activity the region had witnessed. Nature, however, could conjure other powerful disasters: swarms of locusts, armies of mice, scorching winds and thick dust storms. The data for this research is drawn from contemporary Arabic and Latin sources. The main aim is to try and determine the long and short-term repercussions of environmental, disasters on the political, military and social affairs in the Levant during the Crusader, Ayyubid and Mamluk periods. Did environmental disasters spur o binder conflict? This research: examines the most destructive disasters and gradual climate chances within broader historical context. Book jacket.
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Circulation Weather types as a tool in atmospheric, climate and environmental research

Author: Alexandre M. Ramos,David Barriopedro,Emanuel Dutra

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 2889196410

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 1040

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Classifications of circulation weather systems have a long history in meteorology and climatology. Starting with manual classifications over specific regions of the globe, these tools (generally called “catalogs of synoptic types”) were restricted mainly to weather forecasting and historical climate variability studies. In the last decades, the advance of computing resources and the availability of datasets have fostered the development of fast and objective methods that process large amount of data. In recent years numerous methods of circulation type classification have been designed, showing their usefulness on a wide range of applications in scientific domains related to weather, climate, and environment. This Research Topic highlights methodological advances in circulation weather types and also their applications to different research areas. The articles included in this research topic show that circulation weather types can be used not only in Europe, where they have been always more frequent, but also applied to other regions of the world.
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The Natural History of the Bible

An Environmental Exploration of the Hebrew Scriptures

Author: Daniel J. Hillel

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231508336

Category: Religion

Page: 376

View: 9640

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Traversing river valleys, steppes, deserts, rain-fed forests, farmlands, and seacoasts, the early Israelites experienced all the contrasting ecological domains of the ancient Near East. As they grew from a nomadic clan to become a nation-state in Canaan, they interacted with indigenous societies of the region, absorbed selective elements of their cultures, and integrated them into a radically new culture of their own. Daniel Hillel reveals the interplay between the culture of the Israelites and the environments within which it evolved. More than just affecting their material existence, the region's ecology influenced their views of creation and the creator, their conception of humanity's role on Earth, their own distinctive identity and destiny, and their ethics. In The Natural History of the Bible, Hillel shows how the eclectic experiences of the Israelites shaped their perception of the overarching unity governing nature's varied manifestations. Where other societies idolized disparate and capricious forces of nature, the Israelites discerned essential harmony and higher moral purpose. Inspired by visionary prophets, they looked to a singular, omnipresent, omnipotent force of nature mandating justice and compassion in human affairs. Monotheism was promoted as state policy and centralized in the Temple of Jerusalem. After it was destroyed and the people were exiled, a collection of scrolls distilling the nation's memories and spiritual quest served as the focus of faith in its stead. A prominent environmental scientist who surveyed Israel's land and water resources and has worked on agricultural development projects throughout the region, Daniel Hillel is a uniquely qualified expert on the natural history of the lands of the Bible. Combining his scientific work with a passionate, life-long study of the Bible, Hillel offers new perspectives on biblical views of the environment and the origin of ethical monotheism as an outgrowth of the Israelites' internalized experiences.
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Climate Research

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Climatology

Page: N.A

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Interactions of climate with organisms, ecosystems, and human societies.
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Climates and Societies - A Climatological Perspective

A Contribution on Global Change and Related Problems Prepared by the Commission on Climatology of the International Geographical Union

Author: M. Yoshino,Manfred Domrös,Annick Douguédroit,J. Paszynski,L.C. Nkemdirim

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401710554

Category: Science

Page: 408

View: 9820

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The impact of climate on human activities and the effect of humans on cli mate are two of the most important areas of inquiry in climatology. These interactions conducted through physical, chemical and biological process es were described as early as Roman and Greek times. Marcus Vitruvius (75-25 B. C. ), a famous Roman engineer and architect, made the following observation about the climatic conditions necessary for founding a city: Land ideal for the health is slightly elevated and there should be neither fog nor frost. The direction of the slope and the distance to the swamps, lakes, and beaches must also be considered. The prevailing wind directions, observed by a wind tower at the center of the city, like Horologium at Athens, should be taken into consideration in city planning. The main and narrow streets should be placed in the middle angle of the two prevailing wind directions. Then the location of the Pantheons and squares should be decided. The influence of humans on climate was a major subject for discussion in the 19th century, inspired in part, by the rapid industrial growth and expanding deforestation of the time. D. L. Howard wrote brilliant pieces on the climate of London in the 1830s, while G . P. Marsh discussed the effects of forests on precipitation in the U. S . A. in the second half of the 19th century.
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