Multigenic and Induced Systemic Resistance in Plants

Author: Tuzun Sadik,Bent Elizabeth

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387232664

Category: Science

Page: 522

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Plants have developed very sophisticated mechanisms to combat pathogens and pestsusingtheleastamountofreservedorgeneratedenergypossible. Theydothis by activating major defense mechanisms after recognition of the organisms that are considered to be detrimental to their survival; therefore they have been able to exist on Earth longer than any other higher organisms. It has been known for the past century that plants carry genetic information for inherited resistance against many pathogenic organisms including fungi, bacteria, and viruses, and that the relationship between pathogenic organisms and hosts plants are rather complex and in some cases time dependent. This genetic information has been the basis for breeding for resistance that has been employed by plant breeders to develop better-yielding disease resistant varieties, some of which are still being cultivated. Single gene resistance is one type of resistance which has been extensively studied by many research groups all around the world using biotechnological methodologies that have been the subject of many books and journal articles; therefore, it is beyond the scope of this book. This type of resistance is very effective, although it can be overcome by the pressure of pathogenic organisms since it depends on interaction of a single elicitor molecule from the pathogen with a single receptor site in the host.
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Understanding Youth

Perspectives, Identities & Practices

Author: Mary Jane Kehily

Publisher: Sage Publications Ltd

ISBN: 9781412930642

Category: Psychology

Page: 362

View: 6074

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Understanding Youth: Perspectives, Identities and Practices addresses the changing context and nature of youth, encouraging readers to understand different conceptualizations of youth, issues of identity and the key social practices that give shape to young people's lives in the contemporary period.
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Mel Brooks in the Cultural Industries

Author: Alex Symons

Publisher: Edinburgh University Press

ISBN: 0748664505

Category: Performing Arts

Page: 232

View: 1902

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Alex Symons takes a unique, artist-focused approach in order to systematically identify the range of Brooks's adaptation strategies across the Hollywood film, Broadway theatre and American television industries.
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Toxic Communities

Environmental Racism, Industrial Pollution, and Residential Mobility

Author: Dorceta Taylor

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 1479861626

Category: Social Science

Page: 352

View: 2331

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From St. Louis to New Orleans, from Baltimore to Oklahoma City, there are poor and minority neighborhoods so beset by pollution that just living in them can be hazardous to your health. Due to entrenched segregation, zoning ordinances that privilege wealthier communities, or because businesses have found the ‘paths of least resistance,’ there are many hazardous waste and toxic facilities in these communities, leading residents to experience health and wellness problems on top of the race and class discrimination most already experience. Taking stock of the recent environmental justice scholarship, Toxic Communities examines the connections among residential segregation, zoning, and exposure to environmental hazards. Renowned environmental sociologist Dorceta Taylor focuses on the locations of hazardous facilities in low-income and minority communities and shows how they have been dumped on, contaminated and exposed. Drawing on an array of historical and contemporary case studies from across the country, Taylor explores controversies over racially-motivated decisions in zoning laws, eminent domain, government regulation (or lack thereof), and urban renewal. She provides a comprehensive overview of the debate over whether or not there is a link between environmental transgressions and discrimination, drawing a clear picture of the state of the environmental justice field today and where it is going. In doing so, she introduces new concepts and theories for understanding environmental racism that will be essential for environmental justice scholars. A fascinating landmark study, Toxic Communities greatly contributes to the study of race, the environment, and space in the contemporary United States.
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The Evolution of the Juvenile Court

Race, Politics, and the Criminalizing of Juvenile Justice

Author: Barry C. Feld

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 147987129X

Category: Social Science

Page: 392

View: 7945

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A major statement on the juvenile justice system by one of America’s leading experts The juvenile court lies at the intersection of youth policy and crime policy. Its institutional practices reflect our changing ideas about children and crime control. The Evolution of the Juvenile Court provides a sweeping overview of the American juvenile justice system’s development and change over the past century. Noted law professor and criminologist Barry C. Feld places special emphasis on changes over the last 25 years—the ascendance of get tough crime policies and the more recent Supreme Court recognition that “children are different.” Feld’s comprehensive historical analyses trace juvenile courts’ evolution though four periods—the original Progressive Era, the Due Process Revolution in the 1960s, the Get Tough Era of the 1980s and 1990s, and today’s Kids Are Different era. In each period, changes in the economy, cities, families, race and ethnicity, and politics have shaped juvenile courts’ policies and practices. Changes in juvenile courts’ ends and means—substance and procedure—reflect shifting notions of children’s culpability and competence. The Evolution of the Juvenile Court examines how conservative politicians used coded racial appeals to advocate get tough policies that equated children with adults and more recent Supreme Court decisions that draw on developmental psychology and neuroscience research to bolster its conclusions about youths’ reduced criminal responsibility and diminished competence. Feld draws on lessons from the past to envision a new, developmentally appropriate justice system for children. Ultimately, providing justice for children requires structural changes to reduce social and economic inequality—concentrated poverty in segregated urban areas—that disproportionately expose children of color to juvenile courts’ punitive policies. Historical, prescriptive, and analytical, The Evolution of the Juvenile Court evaluates the author’s past recommendations to abolish juvenile courts in light of this new evidence, and concludes that separate, but reformed, juvenile courts are necessary to protect children who commit crimes and facilitate their successful transition to adulthood.
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Edinburgh Companion to the History of Democracy

Author: Benjamin Isakhan

Publisher: Edinburgh University Press

ISBN: 0748653686

Category: History

Page: 384

View: 7795

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Re-examines the long and complex history of democracy and broadens the traditional view of this history by complementing it with examples from unexplored or under-examined quarters.
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Learning and Learning Difficulties

A Handbook for Teachers

Author: Peter S. Westwood

Publisher: Aust Council for Ed Research

ISBN: 0864317697

Category: Education

Page: 180

View: 4729

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The book explores a number of different perspectives and theories on human learning and motivation. The author examines different types of learning across the curriculum and assesses the most effective types of teaching to facilitate different forms of learning. By examining the way readers process text and identifying the knowledge and skills needed to become a proficient reader, the author explains why learning problems can sometimes occur and what can be done to prevent or overcome these difficulties.
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Who's who in Hockey

Author: Stan Fischler,Shirley Fischler

Publisher: Andrews McMeel Publishing

ISBN: 9780740719042

Category: Sports & Recreation

Page: 459

View: 2496

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Alphabetically arranged entries offer profiles of more than seven hundred hockey players and coaches, including biographical information, career highlights, and game statistics.
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Violence: Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide

Author: Oxford University Press

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780199808625

Category: History

Page: 20

View: 9747

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This ebook is a selective guide designed to help scholars and students of the ancient world find reliable sources of information by directing them to the best available scholarly materials in whatever form or format they appear from books, chapters, and journal articles to online archives, electronic data sets, and blogs. Written by a leading international authority on the subject, the ebook provides bibliographic information supported by direct recommendations about which sources to consult and editorial commentary to make it clear how the cited sources are interrelated. This ebook is just one of many articles from Oxford Bibliographies Online: Atlantic History, a continuously updated and growing online resource designed to provide authoritative guidance through the scholarship and other materials relevant to the study of Atlantic History, the study of the transnational interconnections between Europe, North America, South America, and Africa, particularly in the early modern and colonial period. Oxford Bibliographies Online covers most subject disciplines within the social science and humanities, for more information visit www.oxfordbibliographies.com.
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