The Bonobo and the Atheist In Search of Humanism Among the Primates

The Bonobo and the Atheist  In Search of Humanism Among the Primates

In this lively and illuminating discussion of his landmark research, esteemed primatologist Frans de Waal argues that human morality is not imposed from above but instead comes from within.

Author: Frans de Waal

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 9780393089196

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 500

In this lively and illuminating discussion of his landmark research, esteemed primatologist Frans de Waal argues that human morality is not imposed from above but instead comes from within. Moral behavior does not begin and end with religion but is in fact a product of evolution. For many years, de Waal has observed chimpanzees soothe distressed neighbors and bonobos share their food. Now he delivers fascinating fresh evidence for the seeds of ethical behavior in primate societies that further cements the case for the biological origins of human fairness. Interweaving vivid tales from the animal kingdom with thoughtful philosophical analysis, de Waal seeks a bottom-up explanation of morality that emphasizes our connection with animals. In doing so, de Waal explores for the first time the implications of his work for our understanding of modern religion. Whatever the role of religious moral imperatives, he sees it as a “Johnny-come-lately” role that emerged only as an addition to our natural instincts for cooperation and empathy. But unlike the dogmatic neo-atheist of his book’s title, de Waal does not scorn religion per se. Instead, he draws on the long tradition of humanism exemplified by the painter Hieronymus Bosch and asks reflective readers to consider these issues from a positive perspective: What role, if any, does religion play for a well-functioning society today? And where can believers and nonbelievers alike find the inspiration to lead a good life? Rich with cultural references and anecdotes of primate behavior, The Bonobo and the Atheist engagingly builds a unique argument grounded in evolutionary biology and moral philosophy. Ever a pioneering thinker, de Waal delivers a heartening and inclusive new perspective on human nature and our struggle to find purpose in our lives.
Categories: Science

Darwins Peep Show

Darwins Peep Show

"Unsere eigene Reproduktionsmethode ist nur eine von zahllosen anderen in einem weiten Kontinuum der evolutionären Interaktion, in dem es alles gibt, vom anmutigen Tanzritual bis zum bösartigen Rüstungswettlauf." Menno Schilthuizen

Author: Menno Schilthuizen

Publisher: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag

ISBN: 9783423424745

Category: Science

Page: 344

View: 630

Sexualorgane unter der Lupe Der größte Unterschied zwischen Menschen und Tieren liegt unterhalb der Gürtellinie. Dieses Buch lädt ein zu einer Besichtigung der phänomenalen Vielfalt tierischer Reproduktionsmethoden. Das Sexualleben von Käfern, Vögeln, Muscheln und Schnecken kann erstaunliche Einblicke in die fantastische Fülle des Lebens auf unserem Planeten eröffnen. "Unsere eigene Reproduktionsmethode ist nur eine von zahllosen anderen in einem weiten Kontinuum der evolutionären Interaktion, in dem es alles gibt, vom anmutigen Tanzritual bis zum bösartigen Rüstungswettlauf." Menno Schilthuizen
Categories: Science

The Ape And The Sushi Master

The Ape And The Sushi Master

The book's title derives from an analogy de Waal draws between the way behavior is transmitted in ape society and the way sushi-making skills are passed down from sushi master to apprentice.

Author: Frans De Waal

Publisher: Hachette UK

ISBN: 9780786724536

Category: Science

Page: 464

View: 420

From the New York Times bestselling author of Mama's Last Hug and Are We Smart Enough to Know How Smart Animals Are?, a provocative argument that apes have created their own distinctive cultures In The Ape and the Sushi Master, eminent primatologist Frans de Waal corrects our arrogant assumption that humans are the only creatures to have made the leap from the natural to the cultural domain. The book's title derives from an analogy de Waal draws between the way behavior is transmitted in ape society and the way sushi-making skills are passed down from sushi master to apprentice. Like the apprentice, young apes watch their group mates at close range, absorbing the methods and lessons of each of their elders' actions. Responses long thought to be instinctive are actually learned behavior, de Waal argues, and constitute ape culture. A delightful mix of intriguing anecdote, rigorous clinical study, adventurous field work, and fascinating speculation, The Ape and the Sushi Master shows that apes are not human caricatures but members of our extended family with their own resourcefulness and dignity.
Categories: Science

The Natural World and God

The Natural World and God

Frans de Waal, The Bonobo and the Atheist. De Waal, The Bonobo and the Atheist, 4–5. De Waal, The Bonobo and the Atheist, 120–1.

Author: Denis Edwards

Publisher: ISD LLC

ISBN: 9781925643060

Category: Religion

Page: 481

View: 965

How are we to think about the natural world around us in relation to the God of Jesus? Astronomers, cosmologists, and evolutionary biologists have opened wonderfully new ways of seeing the community of life on Earth, and its place in the universe. At the same time we are facing an extreme crisis of life on our planet. Both of these realities demand that we rethink our theology of animals, plants, ecosystems, as well as galaxies and stars. In this book, Denis Edwards collects together a series of explorations into this kind of theology.
Categories: Religion

On Atheists and Bonobos

On Atheists and Bonobos

HB: My favourite phrase in your book, The Bonobo and The Atheist, is, “I often feel that philosophers should be encouraged to take a pet.

Author: Howard Burton

Publisher: Open Agenda Publishing

ISBN: 9781771700399

Category: Science

Page:

View: 918

This book is based on an in-depth filmed conversation between Howard Burton and primatologist Frans de Waal, Emory University, who is renowned for his work on the behaviour and social intelligence of primates. This thought-provoking conversation examines fascinating questions such as: Are we born with an innate sense of “the good”? Do we learn from others what is “wrong”? Does religion determine, or is it a result of, morality? This carefully-edited book includes an introduction, Aping Morality, and questions for discussion at the end of each chapter: I. Denying Our Inner Animal - Cartesian dogs, religious baggage and false dichotomies II. Morality and Evolution - Between chimpanzees and bonobos III. The Demise of Veneer Theory - Science discovers human cooperation and empathy IV. The Roots of Religion - A sociological approach V. Community Concern - Chimpanzee groups and Golden Rules VI. Beyond Theatrics - Reconciling science, religion and mortality VII. American Exceptionalism - Speculations on religiosity VIII. Testing Morality - Fairness, cooperation, risk-taking and more IX. Reasons for Optimism - Positive behaviour throughout the animal world X. Breaking Down Barriers - Towards species continuity About Ideas Roadshow Conversations Series This book is part of an expanding series of 100+ Ideas Roadshow conversations, each one presenting a wealth of candid insights from a leading expert in a relaxed and informal setting to give non-specialists a uniquely accessible window into frontline research and scholarship that wouldn't otherwise be encountered through standard lectures and textbooks. For other books in this series visit our website (https://ideas-on-film.com/ideasroadshow/).
Categories: Science

Big Gods

Big Gods

"People love origin stories, and this is ours--a fascinating and accessible account of how Big Gods helped us make the leap from hunter-gatherers to gigantic and religiously diverse societies. But this book is not just about the past.

Author: Ara Norenzayan

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691169743

Category: Psychology

Page: 264

View: 466

Examines how the belief in gods has lead to cooperation and sometimes conflict between groups. The author also looks at how some cooperative societies have developed without belief in gods.
Categories: Psychology

Atheist Overreach

Atheist Overreach

What Atheism Can't Deliver Christian Smith. classics John Rist: “the major issues in moral philosophy ... 4 Frans de Waal, 2013, The Bonobo and the Atheist.

Author: Christian Smith

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780190880941

Category: Religion

Page: 192

View: 460

In recent years atheism has become ever more visible, acceptable, and influential. Atheist apologists have become increasingly vociferous and confident in their claims: that a morality requiring benevolence towards all and universal human rights need not be grounded in religion; that modern science disproves the existence of God; and that there is nothing innately religious about human beings. In Atheist Overreach, Christian Smith takes a look at the evidence and arguments, and explains why we ought to be skeptical of these atheists' claims about morality, science, and human nature. He does not argue that atheism is necessarily wrong, but rather that its advocates are advancing crucial claims that are neither rationally defensible nor realistic. Their committed worldview feeds unhelpful arguments and contributes to the increasing polarization of today's political landscape. Everyone involved in the theism-atheism debates, in shared moral reflection, and in the public consumption of the findings of science should be committed to careful reasoning and rigorous criticism. This book provides readers with the information they need to participate more knowledgably in debates about atheism and what it means for our society.
Categories: Religion

Freedom The End of the Human Condition

Freedom  The End of the Human Condition

Chapter 5:6 Bonobos provide living evidence of the love-indoctrination process ... as do its relatively small canines' (The Bonobo and the Atheist, 2013, ...

Author: Jeremy Griffith

Publisher: WTM Publishing and Communications

ISBN: 9781741290257

Category: Science

Page: 798

View: 203

FREEDOM has its own very informative website: visit www.humancondition.com The fastest growing realization everywhere is that humanity can't go on the way it is going. Indeed, the great fear is we're entering endgame where we appear to have lost the race between self-destruction and self-discovery―the race to find the psychologically relieving understanding of our 'good and evil'-afflicted human condition. Well, astonishing as it is, this book by biologist Jeremy Griffith presents the 11th hour breakthrough biological explanation of the human condition necessary for the psychological rehabilitation and transformation of our species! The culmination of 40 years of studying and writing about our species' psychosis, FREEDOM delivers nothing less than the holy grail of insight we have needed to free ourselves from the human condition. It is, in short, as Professor Harry Prosen, a former president of the Canadian Psychiatric Association, asserts in his Introduction, 'The book that saves the world'. Griffith has been able to venture right to the bottom of the dark depths of what it is to be human and return with the fully accountable, true explanation of our seemingly imperfect lives. At long last we have the redeeming and thus transforming understanding of human behaviour! And with that explanation found all the other great outstanding scientific mysteries about our existence are now also able to be truthfully explained―of the meaning of our existence, of the origin of our unconditionally selfless moral instincts, and of why we humans became conscious when other animals haven't. Yes, the full story of life on Earth can finally be told―and all of these incredible breakthroughs and insights are presented here in this 'greatest of all books'.
Categories: Science

God and Cosmos

God and Cosmos

Let us begin with the primatologist Frans de Waal, author of numerous books including the recent The Bonobo and the Atheist: In Search of Humanism among the ...

Author: David Baggett

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199931217

Category: Ethics

Page: 344

View: 603

Naturalistic ethics is the reigning paradigm among contemporary ethicists; in God and Cosmos, David Baggett and Jerry L. Walls argue that this approach is seriously flawed. This book canvasses a broad array of secular and naturalistic ethical theories in an effort to test their adequacy in accounting for moral duties, intrinsic human value, moral knowledge, prospects for radical moral transformation, and the rationality of morality. In each case, the authors argue, although various secular accounts provide real insights and indeed share common ground with theistic ethics, the resources of classical theism and orthodox Christianity provide the better explanation of the moral realities under consideration. Among such realities is the fundamental insight behind the problem of evil, namely, that the world is not as it should be. Baggett and Walls argue that God and the world, taken together, exhibit superior explanatory scope and power for morality classically construed, without the need to water down the categories of morality, the import of human value, the prescriptive strength of moral obligations, or the deliverances of the logic, language, and phenomenology of moral experience. This book thus provides a cogent moral argument for God's existence, one that is abductive, teleological, and cumulative.
Categories: Ethics

Turning to the Heavens and the Earth

Turning to the Heavens and the Earth

Nevertheless, based on intensive observation of chimpanzees and bonobos, he argues that these other species ... 5 De Waal, The Bonobo and the Atheist, 46.

Author: Julia Brumbaugh

Publisher: Liturgical Press

ISBN: 9780814687604

Category: Religion

Page: 336

View: 738

The Earth needs our attention—the best of our intellectual, ethical, and spiritual wisdom and action. In this collection, written in honor of Elizabeth A. Johnson, scholars from the United States and around the world contribute their insights on how theology today can and must turn to the world in new ways in light of contemporary science and our ecological crisis. The essays in this collection advance theological visions for the human task of healing our destructive relationship with the earth and envision hope for our planet’s future. Contributors: Kevin Glauber Ahern Erin Lothes Biviano Lisa Sowle Cahill Colleen Mary Carpenter David Cloutier Kathy Coffey Carol J. Dempsey, OP Denis Edwards William French Ivone Gebara John F. Haught Mary Catherine Hilkert, OP Sallie McFague Eric Daryl Meyer Richard W. Miller Jürgen Moltmann Jeannette Rodriguez Michele Saracino
Categories: Religion

Empty Hands Open Arms

Empty Hands  Open Arms

The Race to Save Bonobos in the Congo and Make Conservation Go Viral Deni ... Furthermore, as Frans de Waal points out in The Bonobo and the Atheist: In ...

Author: Deni Ellis Béchard

Publisher: Milkweed Editions

ISBN: 9781571318497

Category: Nature

Page: 364

View: 234

“Absorbing . . . Béchard’s masterful, adventure-driven reporting delivers an inspiring account of an all-too-rare ecological success story.” —Booklist Bonobos have captured the public imagination, due not least to their famously active sex lives. Less well known is the fact that these great apes don’t kill their own kind, and that they share nearly 99% of our DNA. Their approach to building peaceful coalitions and sharing resources has much to teach us, particularly at a time when our violent ways have pushed them to the brink of extinction. Animated by a desire to understand bonobos and learn how to save them, Deni Ellis Béchard traveled into the Congo. Empty Hands, Open Arms is the account of this journey. Along the way, we see how partnerships between Congolese and Westerners, with few resources but a common purpose and respect for indigenous knowledge, have resulted in the protection of vast swaths of the rainforest. And we discover how small solutions—found through openness, humility, and the principle that poverty does not equal ignorance—are often most effective in tackling our biggest challenges. Combining elements of travelogue, journalism, and natural history, this incomparably rich book takes the reader not only deep into the Congo, but also into our past and future, revealing new ways to save the environment and ourselves. “Riveting [and] surprisingly uplifting.” —David Suzuki, author of The Sacred Balance “The embodiment of the type of reporting that we dream of reading, but all too rarely encounter—intelligent, engaged, and above all, astonishingly perceptive.” —Dinaw Mengestu, author of The Beautiful Things That Heaven Bears Also published as Of Bonobos and Men.
Categories: Nature

Music in Our Lives

Music in Our Lives

In his recent book, The Bonobo and the Atheist, de Waal explains that when a dancer leaps across the stage, we too are momentarily suspended in air.

Author: Jonathan L. Friedmann

Publisher: McFarland

ISBN: 9781476618968

Category: Music

Page: 204

View: 614

Music research has entered something of a Golden Age. Technological advances and scholarly inquiry have merged in interdisciplinary studies—drawing on psychology, neuroscience, evolutionary biology, anthropology and other fields—that illuminate the musical nature of our species. This volume develops, supports and challenges that body of research, examining key issues in the field, such as the difficulty of writing about music, the formation of musical preferences, the emotional impact of musical sounds, the comparison of music and language, the impulse for making music and the connection between music and spirituality.
Categories: Music

Interspecies Ethics

Interspecies Ethics

Frans de Waal, The Bonobo and the Atheist: In Search for Humanism Among the Primates (New York: Norton, 2013), 155. Ibid., 158 Ibid., 162.

Author: Cynthia Willett

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 9780231167772

Category: Nature

Page: 240

View: 576

Interspecies Ethics explores animalsÕ vast capacity for agency, justice, solidarity, humor, and communication across species. The social bonds diverse animals form provide a remarkable model for communitarian justice and cosmopolitan peace, challenging the human exceptionalism that drives modern moral theory. Situating biosocial ethics firmly within coevolutionary processes, this volume has profound implications for work in social and political thought, contemporary pragmatism, Africana thought, and continental philosophy. Interspecies Ethics develops a communitarian model for multispecies ethics, rebalancing the overemphasis on competition in the original Darwinian paradigm by drawing out and stressing the cooperationist aspects of evolutionary theory through mutual aid. The bookÕs ethical vision offers an alternative to utilitarian, deontological, and virtue ethics, building its argument through rich anecdotes and clear explanations of recent scientific discoveries regarding animals and their agency. Geared toward a general as well as a philosophical audience, the text illuminates a variety of theories and contrasting approaches, tracing the contours of a postmoral ethics.
Categories: Nature

One Kiss or Two

One Kiss or Two

19 F. de Waal, The Bonobo and the Atheist (New York, 2013), p. 14. 20 See 'Home Video: Breakfast with Baby Bear', The Kind Life [Alicia Silverstone's blog] ...

Author: Andy Scott

Publisher: Abrams

ISBN: 9781468316025

Category: Social Science

Page: 304

View: 851

Every encounter begins with a greeting, and different cultures have developed innumerable ways of showing pleasure at someone’s arrival. Humans have been greeting each other for thousands of years, so it should be the most straightforward thing in the world, but this seemingly simple act is fraught with complications, leading to awkward misunderstandings, intercultural fumblings, and social gaffes that can potentially fracture relationships forever.Why is that? Why are greetings so important? Is there a right and wrong way to say hello? In his illuminating book One Kiss or Two?, Andy Scott—a well-traveled former diplomat and no stranger to botched first contacts himself—takes a closer look at what greetings are all about. In examining how they have developed over human history, he uncovers a kaleidoscopic world of etiquette, body-language, evolution, neuroscience, anthropology, and history. Through in-depth research and his personal experience, and with the help of experts ranging from the world-famous primatologist Jane Goodall to top sociologist Erving Goffman, Scott takes readers on a captivating journey through a subject far richer than we might have expected. By the end of it, we are able to make more sense of what lies behind greetings—and what it means to be human in the modern, cross-cultural age.
Categories: Social Science

Rise Up with Wings Like Eagles

Rise Up   with Wings Like Eagles

5. de Waal, F. The Bonobo and the Atheist: in search of humanism among the primates. WW Norton & Company: New York. 2013. p. 36. 6. Ibid. p. 50ff. 7.

Author: Chris Sunderland

Publisher: John Hunt Publishing

ISBN: 9781785354656

Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Page: 232

View: 564

At a time of great importance in the history of life on the planet, human beings find themselves with enormous economic and technological power, but also with a terrible inner weakness. This book takes a careful look at our vulnerability and proposes some radical new pathways towards a life more in harmony with the natural world.
Categories: Body, Mind & Spirit

Cooperative Evolution

Cooperative Evolution

... The Bonobo and the Atheist. A bonobo, a victim of aggression who had just escaped from a lifethreatening situation, sits alone, distressed and panting, ...

Author: Christopher Bryant

Publisher: ANU Press

ISBN: 9781760464295

Category: Science

Page: 250

View: 638

Cooperative Evolution offers a fresh account of evolution consistent with Charles Darwin’s own account of a cooperative, inter-connected, buzzing and ever-changing world. Told in accessible language, treating evolutionary change as a cooperative enterprise brings some surprising shifts from the traditional emphasis on the dominance of competition. The book covers many evolutionary changes reconsidered as cooperation. These include the cooperative origins of life, evolution as a spiral rather than a ladder or tree, humans as a part of natural systems rather than the purpose, relationships between natural and social change, and the role of the individual in adaptive radiation onto new ground. The story concludes with a projection of human evolution from the past into the future. ‘Environmental studies courses have needed a book like Cooperative Evolution for a long time. It is a boon for those teaching the complexity of the evolutionary story.’ — Dr John A. Harris, BSc(Hons) MSc PhD, School of Environmental Science, University of Canberra ‘As a regenerative, holistic-thinking farmer I daily witness the results of cooperative evolution as the seasons unfold. A pleasure to read, Cooperative Evolution gives entry to recent thinking on evolutionary processes.’ — David Marsh, MSA, ‘Allendale’, Boorowa, New South Wales, 2018 National Individual Landcarer Award recipient ‘This book is an engaging new look at ideas about evolution as we know it today. In the hands of two eminent biologists, it presents an approachable yet challenging argument. I heartily recommend it.’ — Emeritus Professor Sue Stocklmayer AO, BSc MSc PhD, Centre for the Public Awareness of Science, The Australian National University
Categories: Science

Nurturing Our Humanity

Nurturing Our Humanity

Frans de Waal, The Bonobo and the Atheist: In search of Humanism among the Primates (New York: Norton, 2013), 80. Frans de Waal and Frans Lanting, ...

Author: Riane Eisler

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780190935733

Category: Psychology

Page: 320

View: 440

Nurturing Our Humanity offers a new perspective on our personal and social options in today's world, showing how we can build societies that support our great human capacities for consciousness, caring, and creativity. It brings together findings--largely overlooked--from the natural and social sciences debunking the popular idea that we are hard-wired for selfishness, war, rape, and greed. Its groundbreaking new approach reveals connections between disturbing trends like climate change denial and regressions to strongman rule. Moving past right vs. left, religious vs. secular, Eastern vs. Western, and other familiar categories that do not include our formative parent-child and gender relations, it looks at where societies fall on the partnership-domination scale. On one end is the domination system that ranks man over man, man over woman, race over race, and man over nature. On the other end is the more peaceful, egalitarian, gender-balanced, and sustainable partnership system. Nurturing Our Humanity explores how behaviors, values, and socio-economic institutions develop differently in these two environments, documents how this impacts nothing less than how our brains develop, examines cultures from this new perspective (including societies that for millennia oriented toward partnership), and proposes actions supporting the contemporary movement in this more life-sustaining and enhancing direction. It shows how through today's ever more fearful, frenzied, and greed-driven technologies of destruction and exploitation, the domination system may lead us to an evolutionary dead end. A more equitable and sustainable way of life is biologically possible and culturally attainable: we can change our course.
Categories: Psychology

Animal Behavior

Animal Behavior

Frans de Waal's book, The Bonobo and the Atheist: In Search of Humanism Among the Primate, W. W. Norton, 2013, is also a great starting spot for a ...

Author: Michael D. Breed

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780128016831

Category: Science

Page: 552

View: 720

Animal Behavior, Second Edition, covers the broad sweep of animal behavior from its neurological underpinnings to the importance of behavior in conservation. The authors, Michael Breed and Janice Moore, bring almost 60 years of combined experience as university professors to this textbook, much of that teaching animal behavior. An entire chapter is devoted to the vibrant new field of behavior and conservation, including topics such as social behavior and the relationship between parasites, pathogens, and behavior. Thoughtful coverage has also been given to foraging behavior, mating and parenting behavior, anti-predator behavior, and learning. This text addresses the physiological foundations of behavior in a way that is both accessible and inviting, with each chapter beginning with learning objectives and ending with thought-provoking questions. Additionally, special terms and definitions are highlighted throughout. Animal Behavior provides a rich resource for students (and professors) from a wide range of life science disciplines. Provides a rich resource for students and professors from a wide range of life science disciplines Updated and revised chapters, with at least 50% new case studies and the addition of contemporary in-text examples Expanded and updated coverage of animal welfare topics Includes behavior and homeostatic mechanisms, behavior and conservation, and behavioral aspects of disease Available lab manual with fully developed and tested laboratory exercises Companion website includes newly developed slide sets/templates (PowerPoints) coordinated with the book
Categories: Science

Conscience

Conscience

201–19; also, more recently, Fransde Waal,The Bonobo and theAtheist: In Search of Humanism ... 5 De Waal, The Bonobo and the Atheist, locs 2246 and 2649.

Author: Martin van Creveld

Publisher: Reaktion Books

ISBN: 9781780234618

Category: History

Page: 240

View: 272

Many consider conscience to be one of the most important—if not the fundamental—quality that makes us human, distinguishing us from animals, on one hand, and machines on the other. But what is conscience, exactly? Is it a product of our biological roots, as Darwin thought, or is it a purely social invention? If the latter, how did it come into the world? In this biography of that most elusive human element, Martin van Creveld explores conscience throughout history, ranging across numerous subjects, from human rights to health to the environment. Along the way he considers the evolution of conscience in its myriad, occasionally strange, and ever-surprising permutations. He examines the Old Testament, which—erroneously, it turns out—is normally seen as the fountainhead from which the Western idea of conscience has sprung. Next, he takes us to meet Antigone, the first person on record to explicitly speak of conscience. We then visit with the philosophers Zeno, Cicero and Seneca; with Christian thinkers such as Paul, Augustine, Aquinas, and, above all, Martin Luther; as well as modern intellectual giants such as Machiavelli, Rousseau, Kant, Hegel, Nietzsche, and Freud. Individual chapters are devoted to Japan, China, and even the Nazis, as well as the most recent discoveries in robotics and neuroscience and how they have contributed to the ways we think about our own morality. Ultimately, van Creveld shows that conscience remains as elusive as ever, a continuously mysterious voice that guides how we think about right and wrong.
Categories: History