For the first time, Lee Alan Dugatkin brings to life the people, the issues, and the passions that have surrounded the altruism debate. Readers will be swept along by this fast-paced tale of history, biography, and scientific discovery.
Author: Lee Alan Dugatkin
Publisher: Princeton University Press
In a world supposedly governed by ruthless survival of the fittest, why do we see acts of goodness in both animals and humans? This problem plagued Charles Darwin in the 1850s as he developed his theory of evolution through natural selection. Indeed, Darwin worried that the goodness he observed in nature could be the Achilles heel of his theory. Ever since then, scientists and other thinkers have engaged in a fierce debate about the origins of goodness that has dragged politics, philosophy, and religion into what remains a major question for evolutionary biology. The Altruism Equation traces the history of this debate from Darwin to the present through an extraordinary cast of characters-from the Russian prince Petr Kropotkin, who wanted to base society on altruism, to the brilliant biologist George Price, who fell into poverty and succumbed to suicide as he obsessed over the problem. In a final surprising turn, William Hamilton, the scientist who came up with the equation that reduced altruism to the cold language of natural selection, desperately hoped that his theory did not apply to humans. Hamilton's Rule, which states that relatives are worth helping in direct proportion to their blood relatedness, is as fundamental to evolutionary biology as Newton's laws of motion are to physics. But even today, decades after its formulation, Hamilton's Rule is still hotly debated among those who cannot accept that goodness can be explained by a simple mathematical formula. For the first time, Lee Alan Dugatkin brings to life the people, the issues, and the passions that have surrounded the altruism debate. Readers will be swept along by this fast-paced tale of history, biography, and scientific discovery.
This exposition exists in Dugatkin, The Altruism Equation, 81–82. 55. Sewall
Wright, “Tempo and Mode in Evolution: A Critical Review,” Ecology 26 (1945),
415–19. 56. On group selection see Elliott Sober and David Sloan Wilson, Unto
Author: Oren Harman
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Describes the intellectual journey of eccentric American genius George Price, who tried to answer the evolutionary riddle of why people are nice, and eventually gave away all his belongings and took his own life in a squatter's flat.
The ellipsis at the end indicates that in specific instances a complete equation
will require a further multiplicative step each time the activity is passed along to
another person or task along the chain from altruistic donor to final beneficiary.
Author: Hilary Greaves
This is the first collective study of the thinking behind the effective altruism movement. This movement comprises a growing global community of people who organise significant parts of their lives around the two key concepts represented in its name. Altruism is the idea that if we use asignificant portion of the resources in our possession - whether money, time, or talents - with a view to helping others then we can improve the world considerably. When we do put such resources to altruistic use, it is crucial to focus on how much good this or that intervention is reasonablyexpected to do per unit of resource expended (as a gauge of effectiveness). We can try to rank various possible actions against each other to establish which will do the most good with the resources expended. Thus we could aim to rank various possible kinds of action to alleviate poverty against oneanother, or against actions aimed at very different types of outcome, focused perhaps on animal welfare or future generations.The scale and organisation of the effective altruism movement encourage careful dialogue on questions that have perhaps long been there, throwing them into new and sharper relief, and giving rise to previously unnoticed questions. In this volume a team of internationally recognised philosophers,economists, and political theorists present refined and in-depth explorations of issues that arise once one takes seriously the twin ideas of altruistic commitment and effectiveness.
Hamilton's formula for altruism was initially inspired by the observation that
worker honeybees (who are sterile females) will selflessly die in defense of the
hive. The theory on which the formula rests is an updated version of Darwin's
theory of ...
Author: Richard D. Hartley
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
Category: Criminal justice, Administration of
"While written primarily for criminal justice and criminology students, the book offers a general foundation of knowledge that transcends particular topics or subject areas, allowing students to apply research methods and concepts to a multitude of scenarios"--
The Greatest Thing in the World and Other Addresses . London : Hodder &
Stoughton ( ist edn 1894 ) . Dugatkin , Lee Alan ( 2006 ) . The Altruism Equation :
Seven Scientists Search for the Origins of Goodness . Princeton : Princeton
Author: Thomas Dixon
Publisher: Oxford University Press
This volume explores how Victorian philosophers, scientists, clergymen, and novelists debated the meaning of the new term 'altruism'. Including a reappraisal of Charles Darwin's ideas and insights into the rise of popular socialism, this study is highly relevant to contemporary debates about altruism, evolution, religion, and ethics.
While policing and punishment can explain apparent acts of altruism , however ,
one still needs an explanation for how policing ... Oxford : Oxford University Press
for the British Academy Dugatkin LA ( 2006 ) The Altruism Equation : Seven ...
Author: Sven Erik Jørgensen
The Encyclopedia of Ecology contains contributions from international experts on a diverse array of topics related to ecology. It provides current and comprehensive information on many themes, including behavioral ecology, ecological processes, ecological modeling, ecological engineering, ecological indicators, ecological informatics, ecosystems, ecotoxicology, evolutionary ecology, general ecology, global ecology, human ecology, and systems ecology. The online version includes extensive internal cross-referencing and dynamic linking to journal articles and abstract databases.
Participants also answered a survey regarding their altruism , but scientists
emphasized that measuring altruistic behavior with interviews might be skewed
by subjects providing exaggerated ... The Altruism Equation : Seven Scientists
Author: Nancy A. Piotrowski
Publisher: Salem PressInc
This comprehensive five-volume set covers notable theories, people, social issues, life stages, the physiology and anatomy of the nervous system, and various mental illnesses or conditions --from publisher description.
Within Becker's model of the altruistic household , a change in wife's wages will
have no impact on the division of utility , as long as the conditions for effective altruism ( Equation 2d ) are still met . The family budget constraint ( Equation 2b )
These complications do not enter into the outbred rule ( equation 18 ) or the
inbred rule for additive genes ( equation 21 ) , so long as selection is weak as is
assumed in the derivation of equations 18 , 20 , or 21 . Consequently , if the altruistic ...
Draws on the languages of biology and mathematics to outline the mathematical principles according to which life evolves in an intriguing study that makes a clear and compelling case for understanding every living system in terms of ...
Author: Martin A. Nowak
Publisher: Harvard University Press
Draws on the languages of biology and mathematics to outline the mathematical principles according to which life evolves in an intriguing study that makes a clear and compelling case for understanding every living system in terms of evolutionary dynamics.
Normal Behavior and Psychopathology Brant Wenegrat. Parent - Child
Relationships Parental Altruism Equation ( 2 . 1 ) describes a social strategy :
provide aid to genetic kin whenever rB , the coefficient of relationship ( r ) times
the benefit ( B ) ...
Author: Brant Wenegrat
Publisher: Free Press
An easy-to-read introduction to sociobiological concepts, showing how these concepts can be applied to issues in clinical psychiatry. Wenegrat (psychiatry and behavioral science, Stanford U. School of Medicine) pushes biological reductionism to its extreme--social psychology as elaborate genetic coding. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR
6 ) where a is the altruism parameter . By substituting equations 4 . 2 to 4 . 5 into equation 4 . 6 , and using the first order condition in order to solve for the optimal
choice of investment in the child ' s human capital , It - 1 , we get : - Lap luas 1 - a
The altruistic model This section considers a model in which parents are altruistic
in that they obtain direct utility from having children . ... Notice that a new term ,
U3 , appears in equation ( 17 ) , reflecting parents ' altruism towards children .
Altruism entails a tion or to discuss how the program might serve Netting Award
Honorable Mention : personal cost where ... Denver Museum environment and
gender in sub - Saharan Africa . an equation for inclusive fitness that considers of
applied - to - male generalization attempt discussed above , the equations
developed to predict Altruism and Safety in the male group performed poorly
when applied to the female group . This suggests sex - specific differences in the
Hamilton ' s rule states that natural selection favours altruism when rx b > c .
Hamilton ' s equation amounts to this : if a gene for altruism is to evolve , then the
cost of altruism must be balanced by compensating benefits . In his model , the ...
in the net revenue identity ( equation ( 2 ) ) yields the equation for 00 . Assuming
convexity for II and concavity for 00 ( which holds for Cog > 0 ) , an interior
solution to the maximization will occur at a tangency point such as A. Returning to
Author: Richard G. Frank
Category: Medical economics
This paper extends previous research on Individuals' supply of charitable donations to the behavior of nonprofit firms. Specifically, we study provision of charity care by private, nonprofit hospitals. We demonstrate that In the absence of large positive income effects on charity care supply, convex preferences for the nonprofit hospital imply crowding out by other private or government hospitals. Extending our model to include patient heterogeneity and impure altruism (rivalry) provides a possible explanation for the previously reported empirical result that both crowding out and income effects on indigent care supply are often weak or insignificant. Empirical analysis of data for hospitals in Maryland provides strong evidence of rivalry on the supply of outpatient plus inpatient charity care, but not when the analysis is confined to inpatient care.