State Liability in Tort

A Comparative Law Study

Author: Duncan Fairgrieve

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199258058

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 354

View: 6730

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This book examines the topical sphere of governmental liability in damages arguing that that there has been an important shift in the traditional English law approach as illustrated in a series of recent House of Lords decisions. A detailed analysis is made of the torts applying to publicbodies, including negligence, misfeasance in public office, nuisance and breach of statutory duty, as well as the influence of European human rights law and community law, with discussion of the availability of damages under the Human Rights Act 1998 and the impact of the controversial decision ofthe European Court of Human Rights in Osman v UK and the subsequent retreat in Z v UK. The discussion of state liability is also placed within the context of the evolving attitude of the courts to public law remedies, with a detailed reconsideration of the relationship between ultra vires andliability in damages. From a comparative law perspective, it is argued that contrary to orthodox doctrinal opinion there are many similarities in the English and French law of administrative liability, with parallels in the treatment of different types of loss, causation, finding of fault, andunderlying policy concerns. The author discusses the direction in which English law might now move, as well as analysing less orthodox sources of compensation such as the practice of the ombudsmen and statutory funds including the new French medical negligence compensation scheme.
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State Liability in Tort

A Comparative Law Study

Author: Duncan Fairgrieve

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780199258055

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 354

View: 958

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This book examines the topical sphere of governmental liability in damages arguing that that there has been an important shift in the traditional English law approach as illustrated in a series of recent House of Lords decisions. A detailed analysis is made of the torts applying to publicbodies, including negligence, misfeasance in public office, nuisance and breach of statutory duty, as well as the influence of European human rights law and community law, with discussion of the availability of damages under the Human Rights Act 1998 and the impact of the controversial decision ofthe European Court of Human Rights in Osman v UK and the subsequent retreat in Z v UK. The discussion of state liability is also placed within the context of the evolving attitude of the courts to public law remedies, with a detailed reconsideration of the relationship between ultra vires andliability in damages. From a comparative law perspective, it is argued that contrary to orthodox doctrinal opinion there are many similarities in the English and French law of administrative liability, with parallels in the treatment of different types of loss, causation, finding of fault, andunderlying policy concerns. The author discusses the direction in which English law might now move, as well as analysing less orthodox sources of compensation such as the practice of the ombudsmen and statutory funds including the new French medical negligence compensation scheme.
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State Liability in Investment Treaty Arbitration

Global Constitutional and Administrative Law in the BIT Generation

Author: Santiago Montt

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1847315488

Category: Law

Page: 460

View: 5589

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Today there are more than 2,500 bilateral investment treaties (BITs) around the world. Most of these investment protection treaties offer foreign investors a direct cause of action to claim damages against host-states before international arbitral tribunals. This procedure, together with the requirement of compensation in indirect expropriations and the fair and equitable treatment standard, have transformed the way we think about state liability in international law. We live in the BIT generation, a world where BITs define the scope and conditions according to which states are economically accountable for the consequences of regulatory change and administrative action. Investment arbitration in the BIT generation carries new functions which pose unprecedented normative challenges, such as the arbitral bodies established to resolve investor/state disputes defining the relationship between property rights and the public interest. They also review state action for arbitrariness, and define the proper tests under which that review should proceed. State Liability in Investment Treaty Arbitration is an interdisciplinary work, aimed at academics and practitioners, which focuses on five key dimensions of BIT arbitration. First, it analyses the past practice of state responsibility for injuries to aliens, placing the BIT generation in historical perspective. Second, it develops a descriptive law-and-economics model that explains the proliferation of BITs, and why they are all worded so similarly. Third, it addresses the legitimacy deficits of this new form of dispute settlement, weighing its potential advantages and democratic shortfalls. Fourth, it gives a comparative overview of the universal tension between property rights and the public interest, and the problems and challenges associated with liability grounded in illegal and arbitrary state action. Finally, it presents a detailed legal study of the current state of BIT jurisprudence regarding indirect expropriations and the fair and equitable treatment clause.
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English, French & German Comparative Law

Author: Raymond Youngs

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317811704

Category: Law

Page: 627

View: 9582

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This comparative analysis considers the differing approaches to important areas of law in England, France and Germany. In particular, constitutions, sources of law, rights against the state to prevent abuse of power, and rights of private individuals and organisations against each other in tort and contract are examined and compared, and the system of courts is also considered. Updated and revised, each sub-topic is introduced with the relevant material in the English system, allowing easy comparison and assimilation of the other systems. The text includes translations of relevant French and German codal material, and references to relevant cases from all of the jurisdictions. This new edition includes constitutional changes in France and the United Kingdom, in particular the new procedure for challenging existing legislation before the Conseil constitutionnel. It examines the consequences of the Lisbon Treaty, as well as other recent codal and legislative changes. Comprehensive and topical, the text explores a wide variety of new case law on issues such as: preventive detention; the use of evidence obtained by torture; the balance between suppression of terrorism and personal freedom; the internet; email monitoring; artificial reproductive techniques; use of global positioning systems (GPSs), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and closed-circuit television (CCTV); the wearing of religious clothing (such as the headscarf) and symbols (such as the cross); circumcision; methods of crowd control; the prevention of human trafficking; the preservation of privacy, especially for celebrities; and the legality of pre-nuptial agreements and success fees for lawyers. Designed for students on comparative law courses, this textbook will also prove valuable to students who are familiar with English law, but require a readily comprehensible introduction to French or German law.
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Vicarious Liability in Tort

A Comparative Perspective

Author: Paula Giliker

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139493078

Category: Law

Page: N.A

View: 5997

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Vicarious liability is controversial: a principle of strict liability in an area dominated by fault-based liability. By making an innocent party pay compensation for the torts of another, it can also appear unjust. Yet it is a principle found in all Western legal systems, be they civil law or common law. Despite uncertainty as to its justifications, it is accepted as necessary. In our modern global economy, we are unlikely to understand its meaning and rationale through study of one legal system alone. Using her considerable experience as a comparative tort lawyer, Paula Giliker examines the principle of vicarious liability (or, to a civil lawyer, liability for the acts of others) in England and Wales, Australia, Canada, France and Germany, and with reference to legal systems in countries such as the United States, New Zealand and Spain.
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Public Liability in EU Law

Brasserie, Bergaderm and Beyond

Author: Pekka Aalto

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1847318193

Category: Law

Page: 278

View: 513

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Over the last two decades public law liability for breach of European Union law has been subject to remarkable developments. This book examines the convergence between its two constituent systems: the damages liability of the EU and that of its Member States for failing to comply with EU rules. Member State liability, based as it is on the Francovich case (1991) and Brasserie du Pêcheur and Factortame (1996) judgments of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) is well established. But it is yet to be closely scrutinised by reference to the detailed rules on the liability of the European Union. The focus of the book is on the two key legal criteria that are common to both systems, namely the grant of rights to individuals by EU law and the notion of sufficiently serious breach of such rights. The analysis concentrates on developments in the case law of the ECJ and the General Court since the Bergaderm judgment (2000), which consolidated the convergence of the two liability systems that was first indicated in Brasserie du Pêcheur and Factortame. These two criteria are set side by side to evaluate the extent, in real terms, of the convergence of Member State and EU institutional damages liability, and to determine the extent to which one has influenced the other. This book shows that although full convergence between the two liability systems is not likely, each stream of case law should look to the other more actively as this important element of EU remedial law develops. Convergence in EU law public liability is supported by developments in adjacent areas, most notably European tort law and European administrative law. This study also illustrates how convergence in the EU liability systems to date has had spill-over effects into national public liability law.
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Public Procurement Law

Damages as an Effective Remedy

Author: Duncan Fairgrieve,François Lichère

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1847318673

Category: Law

Page: 248

View: 851

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Public procurement represents more than 15 per cent of European GDP and is one of the fastest growing sectors of the European economy. Public procurement law is also developing rapidly, not least in the area of remedies for breach of procurement rules. The aim of this book is to analyse the remedy of damages in public procurement law. The European Directive of 11 December 2007 amending Council Directives 89/665/EEC and 92/13/EEC has reaffirmed the importance of damages as a tool to enforce the proper award of public contracts, but has left the exact architecture of the damages remedy in the hands of the Member States. This book offers an overview of damages liability which is inclusive, coherent and practical, covering the relevant law and jurisprudence from a number of countries across Europe and further afield. The contributors are high-profile and authoritative commentators on public procurement law, including policy-makers, judges, academics and practitioners.
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Product Liability in Comparative Perspective

Author: Duncan Fairgrieve

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139448031

Category: Law

Page: N.A

View: 1588

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This book examines the law of product liability from a comparative perspective. With the European Directive on Product Liability enacted over 20 years ago, this publication analyses the state of product liability in a number of key jurisdictions including both Western European countries and New Member States. Account is also taken of developments further afield, including the United States and Japan. Distinguished contributors, including a high court judge, European Commission official, leading litigators and academics, provide individual country reports and a number of integrated comparative studies. The book is designed for practical use by legal practitioners, academics, students and others interested in the area of contract, tort, civil procedure and multi-party litigation. In particular, practitioners will find the country reports an essential reference point.
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Comparative Studies on Governmental Liability in East and Southeast Asia

Author: Yong Zhang

Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers

ISBN: 9789041110749

Category: Law

Page: 251

View: 9906

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This book is the second volume of a planned trilogy on legal protection of citizens' rights against the state in East and Southeast Asia. The first volume was published in 1997, under the title of "Comparative Studies on the Judicial Review System in East and" "Southeast Asia." The third book will deal with the subject of due process of law with respect to administrative decision-making in these areas. This second volume examines the historical development and present function of governmental liability in Japan, China, Korea, Taiwan, Malaysia and Indonesia. Both theoretical and practical problems of governmental liability are analyzed through comparative perspectives. As German and Dutch law have a strong influence in East and Southeast Asian countries, the governmental liability system in these two countries is also discussed. During the process of modernizing the economy and legal systems, especially with the globalization of the economy and the internationalization of Western law, it is inevitable for countries in East and Southeast Asia to introduce a governmental compensation system. However, because of a lack of experience of civil society and the tradition of the rule of law, of shortage of finance, and of different viewpoints on human rights, the introduced and planned governmental compensation systems in East and Southeast Asia could not be expected to function in the same way as those in Western countries. This book is based on the assumption that it is better to prevent damage from happening than compensating for it with money.
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