People in industry will also benefit from this book compiling the latest in therapeutic strategies for targeting spinal interneurons, what considerations there are for the development and use of treatments, and how such treatments can not ...
Author: Lyandysha Zholudeva
Publisher: Academic Press
Spinal Interneurons: Plasticity after Spinal Cord Injury provides neuroscientists, clinicians and trainees a reference book exclusively concentrating on spinal interneurons and the techniques and experiments employed to identify and study these cells as part of normal, diseased and injured neural circuits. In addition, the book highlights the therapeutic potential of these cells by presenting relevant pre-clinical and clinical work that has been performed. The book's focus on the latest in therapeutic strategies for targeting spinal interneurons, considerations for the development and use of treatments, and how such treatments work make this a comprehensive source of information. Provides a comprehensive overview of the techniques used to identify, characterize and classify spinal interneurons and their role in neural circuits Presents an in-depth discussion of the therapeutic potential of spinal interneurons for SCI injury and/or disease Represents the first book to discuss spinal interneurons and translational research
Even though spinal cord research has expanded enormously during the past decades, we still lack a precise understanding of how spinal interneuron networks perfectly integrate sensory feedback with motor control, and how these neuron ...
Author: Ting Ting Liu
Even though spinal cord research has expanded enormously during the past decades, we still lack a precise understanding of how spinal interneuron networks perfectly integrate sensory feedback with motor control, and how these neuron circuits give rise to specific functions. The present study thus has three basic aims: (1) to investigate propriospinal interneurons connecting rostral and caudal lumbar spinal cord in the rat; (2) to investigate input properties of identified spinal interneurons interposed in different pathways; (3) to investigate cholinergic terminals in the ventral horn of adult rat and cat. There was no evidence to support the presence of vesicular glutamate transporters in motoneuron axon terminals of either species. In addition, there was no obvious relationship between motoneuron terminals and R2 subunit of the AMPA receptor (GluR2). However, a population of cholinergic terminals in lamina VII, which did not originate from motoneurons, was found to be immunoreactive for VGLUT2 and formed appositions with GluR2 subunits. These terminals were smaller than motoneuron terminals and, unlike them, formed no relationship with Renshaw cells. The evidence suggests that glutamate does not act as a cotransmitter with acetylcholine at central synapses of motoneurons in the adult cat and rat. However, glutamate is present in a population of cholinergic terminals which probably originate from interneurons where its action is via an AMPA receptor. In conclusion, the present studies add to the understanding of the organization of neuronal networks involved in sensorimotor integration. Propriospinal interneurons located within the lumbar segments have extensive intra-segmental projections to motor nuclei. First order interneurons interposed in reflex pathways and descending pathways receive a significantly different pattern of inputs. A similar proportion of monosynaptic excitatory input from primary afferents has been found in both excitatory and inhibitory interneurons and these two types of cells are subject to presynaptic inhibitory control of this input.
The extensive convergence of segmental and descending systems onto spinal interneurons suggests that spinal ... The notion that descending systems simply modulate the gain of spinal interneuronal pathways has been tempered by the ...
Author: Paul Cordo
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
This volume addresses issues about how the central nervous system controls movement.
A tract leading from the spinal cord to the cerebellum, for example, is named the “spinocerebellar tract” (tmctus spinocerebellaris). interneurons Enable Cooperation between Different Cell Groups in the Cord The axons of the third type ...
Author: Per Brodal
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Providing clear, well-illustrated descriptions of brain structures in light of their functions, this cohesive and well-established textbook fosters understanding of the intimate relationship between the structure and function of the nervous system. Its focus on the integration of basic sciences with their clinical applications makes the book particularly well-suited for medical students needing knowledge of neuroscience as a basis for clinical thinking. For the third edition, two new chapters have been added on the vestibular system and control of eye movements, and all other chapters have been thoroughly revised.
Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1967 Frank, K., Fuortes, M.G.F.: Unitary activity of spinal interneurons of cats. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 131, 424–435 (1956) Geinisman, Yu. Ya.: Nucleic acid content of spinal motoneurones and their ...
Author: Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Research Laboratory of ElectronicsPublish On: 1965
The dorsal spinal interneurons have a particularly suitable anatomy for studying activity in the cell body and in the dendrites. We shall compare the distribution of impulses within the cell during spontaneous activity, ...
Author: Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Research Laboratory of Electronics
Interneurons of the lumbar spinal cord inherently maintain and modulate stepping.
Author: Chantal Marie McMahon
Category: Biomedical engineering
Interneurons of the lumbar spinal cord inherently maintain and modulate stepping. In order to advance therapeutic interventions for spinal cord injury, it is necessary to clearly understand both the localized locomotor spinal circuitry as well as the activation patterns within the spinal cord. In this study, the structural organization of interneurons regulating antagonistic motor pools and the neural activation patterns driving behavior were investigated. In-vivo extracellularly recorded neurons of the intermediate zone and ventral horn of the lumbar spinal cord were concurrently measured with hindlimb EMGs in the adult, air-stepping, spinal cat. Our results demonstrate that spinal interneurons participate in one of two ensembles which are highly correlated to opposing muscle bursts during stepping. Furthermore, the interneurons' firing phases were independent of their rostrocaudal locations. These findings suggest that spinal interneurons act within networks tuned to opposing phases of stepping which are heterogeneously mixed throughout the lumbar enlargement. Spectral power of extracellularly recorded continuous multiunit signals was found to be greater in mid-lumbar segments L3-L5 during stepping, supportive of previous lesioning studies isolating lumbar rhythmic generating centers to these segments in the cat. There was also greater multiunit power during the flexion phase of stepping than the extension phase of stepping in all lumbar segments. Finally, the multiunit power showed no phase lag at coherent frequencies throughout the lumbar enlargement indicative of a longitudinal standing wave of neural activation. Together, these results support that the spinal multiunit activity behaves as a synchronously active distributed network of caudally decreasing rhythmogenic potential, with greater power during the flexion phase of stepping. Furthermore, the results are unique in that it verifies and extends previous findings from the isolated, neonatal spinal cord to the in-vivo, mature and behaving system.
larities to those cases of spinal myoclonus which have already been described, i.e. the rhythm and the ... suggest that this hyperexcitability could be due to an anoxic lesion of the interneurons in the gray matter of the spinal cord.
Author: Maria Gutierrez-MecinasPublish On: 2022-01-25
The present study aimed to examine whether a brief high-frequency stimulation of Ia afferents produces afterdischarges in spinal interneurons as was previously found for the spinal motoneurons (Hounsgaard et al., 1988; ...
However, most of the synapses on motor neurons originate from various spinal interneurons, some with cell bodies residing in the same spinal segment as their target motor neurons and others, called propriospinal interneurons, ...
Author: Larry Squire
With over 300 training programs in neuroscience currently in existence, demand is great for a comprehensive textbook that both introduces graduate students to the full range of neuroscience, from molecular biology to clinical science, but also assists instructors in offering an in-depth course in neuroscience to advanced undergraduates. The second edition of Fundamental Neuroscience accomplishes all this and more. The thoroughly revised text features over 25% new material including completely new chapters, illustrations, and a CD-ROM containing all the figures from the text. More concise and manageable than the previous edition, this book has been retooled to better serve its audience in the neuroscience and medical communities. Key Features * Logically organized into 7 sections, with uniform editing of the content for a "one-voice" feel throughout all 54 chapters * Includes numerous text boxes with concise, detailed descriptions of specific experiments, disorders, methodological approaches, and concepts * Well-illustrated with over 850 full color figures, also included on the accompanying CD-ROM